Forty Martyrs of England and Wales

The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales are a group of Catholic, lay and religious, men and women, executed between 1535 and 1679 for treason and related offences under various laws enacted by Parliament during the English Reformation. The individuals listed range from Carthusian monks who in 1535 declined to accept Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy, to seminary priests who were caught up in the alleged ‘Popish Plot’ against Charles II in 1679. Many were sentenced to death at show trials, or with no trial at all.

Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
Died1535–1679, England and Wales
Venerated inCatholic Church
(England and Wales)
Canonized25 October 1970, Vatican City, by Pope Paul VI
Feast4 May (England) 25 October (Wales)
Notable martyrsEdmund Campion, S.J.

Background

The first wave of executions came with the reign of King Henry VIII and involved persons who did not support the 1534 Act of Supremacy and dissolution of the monasteries.[1] Carthusian John Houghton, and Bridgettine Richard Reynolds died at this time.

In 1570 Pope Pius V, in support of various rebellions in England and Ireland, excommunicated Queen Elizabeth, absolving her Catholic subjects of their allegiance to her. The crown responded with more rigorous enforcement of various penal laws already enacted and passed new ones. 13 Eliz. c.1 made it high treason to affirm that the queen ought not to enjoy the Crown, or to declare her to be a heretic. "An act against Jesuits, seminary priests, and such other like disobedient persons", (27 Eliz.1, c. 2), the statute under which most of the English martyrs suffered, made it high treason for any Jesuit or any seminary priest to be in England at all, and a felony for any one to harbor or aid them.[2] All but six of the forty had been hanged, drawn and quartered, many of them at Tyburn.[3]

The martyrs

Canonization process

Following beatifications between 1886 and 1929, there were already numerous martyrs from England and Wales recognised with the rank of Blessed. The bishops of the province identified a list of 40 further names; reasons given for the choice of those particular names include a spread of social status, religious rank, geographical spread and the pre-existence of popular devotion. The list of names was submitted to Rome in December 1960. In the case of a martyr, a miracle is not required. For a martyr, the Pope has only to make a declaration of martyrdom, which is a certification that the Venerable gave his life voluntarily as a witness of the Faith or in an act of heroic charity for others.

The Archbishop of Westminster, then Cardinal William Godfrey, sent a description of 24 seemingly miraculous cases to the Sacred Congregation. Out of 20 candidate cases for recognition as answered prayers, the alleged cure of a young mother from a malignant tumor was selected as the clearest case. In light of the fact that Thomas More and John Fisher, belonging to the same group of Martyrs, had been canonized with a dispensation from miracles, Pope Paul VI, after discussions with the Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints, considered that it was possible to proceed with the Canonization on the basis of one miracle.[4]

Pope Paul VI granted permission for the whole group of 40 names to be recognised as saints on the strength of this one miracle. The canonization ceremony took place in Rome on 25 October 1970.[5]

Liturgical feast day

In England, these martyrs were formerly commemorated within the Catholic Church by a feast day on 25 October, which is also the feast of Saints Crispin and Crispinian, but they are now celebrated together with all the 284 canonized or beatified martyrs of the English Reformation on 4 May.[6]

In Wales, the Catholic Church keeps 25 October as the feast of the Six Welsh Martyrs and their companions. The Welsh Martyrs are the priests Philip Evans and John Lloyd, John Jones, David Lewis, John Roberts, and the teacher Richard Gwyn.[7] The companions are the 34 English Martyrs listed above. Wales continues to keep 4 May as a separate feast for the beatified martyrs of England and Wales.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Duffy, Patrick. "The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales", Catholic Ireland, 25 October 2012
  2. ^ Burton, Edwin, Edward D'Alton, and Jarvis Kelley. "Penal Laws." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 3 February 2019 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ Atherstone, A. (2011). The Canonisation of the Forty English Martyrs: An Ecumenical Dilemma. Recusant History, 30(4), 573-587. doi:10.1017/S0034193200013194
  4. ^ Molinari S.J.,, Paolo. "Canonization of Forty English and Welsh Martyrs", L'Osservatore Romano, 29 October 1970
  5. ^ Malcolm Pullan (2008). The Lives and Times of Forty Martyrs of England and Wales 1535–1680. Athena Press. pp. xvii–xxii. ISBN 978-1-84748-258-7. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  6. ^ National Calendar for England, Liturgy Office for England and Wales, accessed 31 July 2011
  7. ^ National Calendar for Wales, Liturgy Office for England and Wales, accessed 31 July 2011
  8. ^ Ordo for Wales Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Diocese of Menevia, accessed 11 August 2011

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Penal Laws". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

External links

David Lewis (Jesuit priest)

David Lewis (1616 – 27 August 1679) was a Jesuit Catholic priest and martyr who was also known as Charles Baker. Lewis was canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales and is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church.

Edmund Arrowsmith

Saint Edmund Arrowsmith, SJ, (1585 – 28 August 1628) is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales of the Roman Catholic Church. The main source of information on St Edmund is a contemporary account written by an eyewitness and published a short time after his death. This document, conforming to the ancient style of the "Acts of martyrs" includes the story of the execution of another 17th-century Recusant martyr, Richard Herst.

Henry Morse

Saint Henry Morse (1595 – 1 February 1645) was one of the Catholic Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

Henry Walpole

Henry Walpole (1558 – 7 April 1595) was an English Jesuit martyr, executed at York for refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy.

John Almond (martyr)

Saint John Almond (c. 1577 – 5 December 1612) was an English Catholic priest. He was ordained in 1598 and martyred in 1612. Canonized in 1970, John Almond is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

John Boste

Saint John Boste (c. 1544 – 24 July 1594) is a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, and one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

John Jones (martyr)

John Jones (d. 12 July 1598), also known as John Buckley, John Griffith, Godfrey Maurice, or Griffith Jones was a Franciscan friar, Roman Catholic priest, and martyr. He was born at Clynnog Fawr, Caernarfonshire (Gwynedd), Wales, and was executed 12 July 1598 at Southwark, England. He is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

John Plessington

John Plessington (c. 1637 – 19 July 1679), also known as John Plesington, William Scarisbrick and William Pleasington, was an English Catholic priest who was executed by the English Crown for violating the ban on the presence of Catholic priests in the kingdom. He is now honored as one of the Roman Catholic Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

John Rigby (martyr)

Saint John Rigby (ca. 1570 – 21 June 1600) was an English Roman Catholic layman who was executed during the reign of Elizabeth I. He is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. (He is called "Thomas" Rigby in The Autobiography of a Hunted Priest, a story about the Jesuit priest John Gerard.)

John Southworth (martyr)

Saint John Southworth (c. 1592, Lancashire, England - 28 June 1654, Tyburn, London) was an English Catholic martyr. He is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

List of saints of the Society of Jesus

The list of saints of the Society of Jesus here is alphabetical. It includes Jesuit saints from Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. Since the founder of the Jesuits, St Ignatius of Loyola, was canonised in 1622, there have been 52 other Jesuits canonised.

Margaret Ward

Saint Margaret Ward (c. 1550-30 August 1588), the "pearl of Tyburn", was an English Catholic martyr who was executed during the reign of Elizabeth I for assisting a priest to escape from prison. She was canonized in 1970, as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

Philip Evans and John Lloyd

Saints Philip Evans and John Lloyd were Welsh Roman Catholic priests. They are among the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

Richard Gwyn (martyr)

Saint Richard Gwyn (ca. 1537 – 15 October 1584), also known by his anglicised name, Richard White, was a Welsh school teacher. He was martyred by being hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason in 1584. He was canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970 as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. His feast day is celebrated on 17 October.

Richard Reynolds

Saint Richard Reynolds, O.Ss.S (c.1492—4 May 1535) was an English Brigittine monk executed in London for refusing the Oath of Supremacy to King Henry VIII of England. He was canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970, among the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

Robert Lawrence (martyr)

St. Robert Lawrence (died 4 May 1535) was one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. He was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn for declining to sign the Oath of Supremacy. His feast day is 4 May.

St. Philip Howard Church, Kingston

The St. Philip Howard Church Is the name given to a religious building affiliated with the Catholic Church which is located on Queen Elizabeth Avenue and John Adams Road in the town of Kingston on Norfolk Island an external territory of Australia in the Pacific Ocean.

The temple established in 1959 follows the Roman or Latin rite and depends on the mission of the Cathedral of St. Mary's seat of the Archdiocese of Sydney (Archidioecesis Sydneyensis) which was elevated to its present status in 1842. It was rededicated to St. Philip Howard later Of the visit of Cardinal James Freeman. St. Philip Howard was an English nobleman recognized as a saint of the Catholic Church. He was canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970, as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

The parish has been visited by the Archbishop of Sydney since 2003 despite the fact that it is off the coast of Australia.

Thomas Garnet

Saint Thomas Garnet (c.1575 – 23 June 1608) was a Jesuit priest who was executed in London. He is the protomartyr (i.e., the first martyr associated with a place) of Saint Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College. He was executed at Tyburn and is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

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