Forty-spotted pardalote

The forty-spotted pardalote (Pardalotus quadragintus) is one of Australia's rarest birds and by far the rarest pardalote, being confined to the south-east corner of Tasmania.

Forty-spotted pardalote
Forty-spotted Pardalote
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Pardalotidae
Genus: Pardalotus
P. quadragintus
Binomial name
Pardalotus quadragintus
Gould, 1838
Pardalotus quadragintus - Peter Murrell Reserve
Peter Murrell Reserve


A small, energetic passerine about 9 to 10 cm (3.5 to 4 in) long, the forty-spot is similar to the much commoner spotted pardalote (Pardalotus punctatus), but has a dull greenish-brown back and head, compared to the more colourful plumage of the former, with which it shares its range, and there is no brow line. The rump is olive, the under-tail dull yellow. The chest is white with light yellow tints. The wings are black with white tips, appearing as many (closer to 60 than 40) discrete dots when the wings are folded. There is no seasonal variation in plumage; juveniles are slightly less colourful than the adults.


Now found reliably only in a few isolated colonies on south-eastern Tasmania, most notably on Maria Island and Bruny Island. It is occasionally reported from the suburbs of Hobart. Sedentary or locally nomadic over its restricted range, it is declining in numbers and listed as endangered. It is most successful on Maria Island, which is managed as a refuge. Sites identified by BirdLife International as being important for forty-spotted pardalote conservation are Bruny Island, Central Flinders Island, Maria Island and South-east Tasmania.[2]


Relatively dry eucalypt forests with high concentration of the white gum, where it forages almost exclusively.


Forty-spots form pairs and are territorial during the breeding season, but may form small flocks during the winter. They are insect hunters and forage methodically for small insects in the canopy. They nest in tree hollows and occasionally in ground burrows.


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pardalotus quadragintus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ "Forty-spotted Pardalote". Important Bird Areas. BirdLife International. 2012. Archived from the original on 2007-07-10. Retrieved 2012-11-01.

External links

Bruny Island

Bruny Island (or Lunawanna Allonah in tasmanian) is a 362-square-kilometre (89,000-acre) island located off the south-eastern coast of Tasmania, Australia. The island is separated from the Tasmanian mainland by the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, and its east coast lies within the Tasman Sea. Storm Bay is located to the island's northeast. Both the island and the channel are named after French explorer Bruni d'Entrecasteaux. Its traditional Aboriginal name is lunawanna-allonah, which survives as the name of two island settlements, Alonnah and Lunawanna.

Ecology of Tasmania

The biodiversity of Tasmania is of exceptional biological and paleoecological interest. A state of Australia, it is a large South Pacific archipelago of one large main island and a range of smaller islands. The terrain includes a variety of reefs, atolls, many small islands, and a variety of topographical and edaphic regions on the largest island, all of which promote the development of unusually concentrated biodiversity. During long periods geographically and genetically isolated, it is known for its unique flora and fauna. The region's climate is oceanic.

Flinders Island

Flinders Island, the largest island in the Furneaux Group, is a 1,367-square-kilometre (528 sq mi) island located in the Bass Strait, northeast of the island of Tasmania. Flinders Island is part of the state of Tasmania, Australia, and is situated 54 kilometres (34 mi) from Cape Portland and it is located on 40° south, a zone known as the Roaring Forties.

List of birds of Tasmania

A total of 262 species of bird have been recorded living in the wild on the island of Tasmania, nearby islands and islands in Bass Strait, 182 of which are regularly recorded, while another 79 are vagrants and one is extinct. Birds of Macquarie Island are not included in this list. Twelve species are unique (endemic) to the island of Tasmania, and most of these are common and widespread. However, the forty-spotted pardalote is rare and restricted, while the island's two breeding endemic species, the world's only migratory parrots, are both threatened. Several species of penguin are late summer visitors to Tasmanian shores. Tasmania's endemic birds have led to it being classified as an Endemic Bird Area (EBA), one of 218 such areas worldwide. Priority regions for habitat-based conservation of birds around the world, they are defined by containing two or more restricted-range (endemic) species.Although Tasmania has been isolated from the Australian mainland for about 10,000 years, islands in the Bass Strait between the two landmasses have allowed many species to traverse. With around 5,400 km (3,400 mi) of coastline and 350 offshore islands, Tasmania provides a diverse haven for birds despite its relatively small size. Birds are abundant in Tasmanian wetlands and waterways, and ten of these habitats are internationally important and protected under the Ramsar Convention. Many migratory birds make use of the bays, mudflats and beaches for feeding, including the threatened hooded plover and little tern, both of which breed along the coast. The near-coastal button grass grasslands of the southwest, harbour the breeding grounds of the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot. Many of the rarer species dwell in Tasmania's eucalyptus (sclerophyll) forests or rainforests, which cover much of the island.The common and scientific names and taxonomic arrangement follow the conventions laid out in the 2008 publication Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur, or have occurred since European settlement in the case of extinct species, regularly in Tasmania as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following codes denote certain categories of species:

(I) – Introduced: Birds that have been introduced to Tasmania by humans

(Ex) – Extinct

(V) – Uncommon vagrants to Tasmania

(E) – Endemic to Tasmania

List of endangered birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 469 endangered avian species. 4.0% of all evaluated avian species are listed as endangered.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

For a species to be considered endangered by the IUCN it must meet certain quantitative criteria which are designed to classify taxa facing "a very high risk of exintction". An even higher risk is faced by critically endangered species, which meet the quantitative criteria for endangered species. Critically endangered birds are listed separately. There are 634 avian species which are endangered or critically endangered.

Additionally 61 avian species (0.59% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient information for a full assessment of conservation status. As these species typically have small distributions and/or populations, they are intrinsically likely to be threatened, according to the IUCN. While the category of data deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction risk has been made for the taxa, the IUCN notes that it may be appropriate to give them "the same degree of attention as threatened taxa, at least until their status can be assessed."This is a complete list of endangered avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

List of endemic birds of Australia

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the world's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds.

Meehan Range

The Meehan Range is a prominent geographical feature of steep hills running parallel to the River Derwent on Hobart's eastern shore. It is located in the City of Clarence, Tasmania. It is a protected area, and is often enjoyed for recreational activities including an expanding network of mountain bike trails.


Pardalotes or peep-wrens are a family, Pardalotidae, of very small, brightly coloured birds native to Australia, with short tails, strong legs, and stubby blunt beaks. This family is composed of four species in one genus, Pardalotus, and several subspecies. The name derives from a Greek word meaning "spotted". The family once contained several other species now split into the family Acanthizidae.

Pardalotes spend most of their time high in the outer foliage of trees, feeding on insects, spiders, and above all lerps (a type of sap-sucking insect). Their role in controlling lerp infestations in the eucalyptus forests of Australia may be significant. They generally live in pairs or small family groups but sometimes come together into flocks after breeding.

Pardalotes are seasonal breeders in temperate areas of Australia but may breed year round in warmer areas. They are monogamous breeders, and both partners share nest construction, incubation and chick-rearing duties. All four species nest in deep horizontal tunnels drilled into banks of earth. Externally about the size of a mouse-hole, they can be very deep, at a metre or more. Some species also nest in tree hollows.

Peter Murrell Conservation Area

The Peter Murrell Conservation Area is located in Huntingfield, Tasmania, approximately 15 km (9.3 mi) south of the state's capital city, Hobart. The conservation area has an area of 135 ha (330 acres) and is one of three reserves within the Peter Murrell Reserves. Also within these reserves are the Peter Murrell State Reserve (133 ha (330 acres)) and a Public Reserve (9 ha (22 acres)). These reserves and the Conservation Area lie at the base of the Tinderbox Peninsula, between the suburbs of Kingston, Howden and Blackman's Bay. The Peter Murrell Conservation Area surrounds the northern, western and southern sides of the Peter Murrell State Reserve.

Red-browed pardalote

The red-browed pardalote (Pardalotus rubricatus) is a small brightly coloured insectivorous passerine, endemic to Australia (Schodde & Mason 1999). A gleaning specialist, they forage primarily in eucalypt trees (Woinarski 1984).

The Latin word rubricatus means red-ochred which is descriptive of their orange-red eyebrow (Higgins & Peter 2002). Other common names include red-browed diamondbird, bellbird, cape red-browed, pale red-browed, fawn-eyed, fawn-eyebrowed and pallid or red-lored pardalote (Higgins & Peter 2002).

Sibley-Monroe checklist 12

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

South-east Tasmania Important Bird Area

The South-east Tasmania Important Bird Area encompasses much of the land retaining forest and woodland habitats, suitable for breeding swift parrots and forty-spotted pardalotes, from Orford to Recherche Bay in south-eastern Tasmania, Australia.

South Bruny National Park

The South Bruny National Park is a national park located on Bruny Island, Tasmania, Australia, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of Hobart. The park contains the Cape Bruny Lighthouse. The highest point of the park is Mount Bruny at 504 metres (1,654 ft).

Spotted pardalote

The spotted pardalote (Pardalotus punctatus) is one of the smallest of all Australian birds at 8 to 10 centimetres (3.1 to 3.9 in) in length, and one of the most colourful; it is sometimes known as the diamondbird. Although moderately common in all of the reasonably fertile parts of Australia (the east coast, the south-east, and the south-west corner) it is seldom seen closely enough to enable identification.Three subspecies are recognised. The wet tropics spotted pardalote (subspecies militaris) is found in northeastern Queensland, while the distinctive subspecies, the yellow-rumped pardalote (subspecies xanthopyge), is found in drier inland regions of southern Australia, particularly in semi-arid Mallee woodlands.

Tasman National Park

The Tasman National Park is a national park in eastern Tasmania, Australia, approximately 56 kilometres (35 mi) east of Hobart. The 107.5-square-kilometre (41.5 sq mi) park is situated on part of both the Forestier and Tasman peninsulas and encompasses all of Tasman Island.

Tasman Peninsula

The Tasman Peninsula is a peninsula located in south-east Tasmania, Australia, approximately 75 km (47 mi) by the Arthur Highway, south-east of Hobart.

The Tasman Peninsula lies south and west of Forestier Peninsula, to which it connects via an isthmus called Eaglehawk Neck. This in turn is joined to the rest of Tasmania by an isthmus called East Bay Neck, near the town of Dunalley, approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) by road from Hobart. The peninsula is surrounded by water; to the north by Norfolk Bay, to the northwest by Frederick Henry Bay, to the west and south by Storm Bay, and to the east by the Tasman Sea.

Threatened fauna of Australia

Threatened fauna of Australia are those species and subspecies of birds, fish, frogs, insects, mammals, molluscs, crustaceans and reptiles to be found in Australia that are in danger of becoming extinct. This list is the list proclaimed under the Australian federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The classifications are based on those used by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), however IUCN and Australian rankings do differ.

Wellington Range

The Wellington Range is a mountain range located in the southeast region of Tasmania, Australia. The range is mainly composed of dolerite and features evidence of past glaciation.

Prominent features in the range include the dual-named Kunanyi / Mount Wellington at 1,269 metres (4,163 ft) above sea level, Collins Cap, Collins Bonnet via Myrtle Forest, Trestle Mountain, Mount Marian, Mount Charles and Mount Patrick via Middle Hill. The Wellington Range is part of the Wellington Park Reserve.


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