Fortnight

A fortnight is a unit of time equal to 14 days (2 weeks). The word derives from the Old English: fēowertyne niht, meaning "fourteen nights".[1][2]

Some wages and salaries are paid on a fortnightly basis;[3] however, in North America it is far more common to use the term biweekly. Neither of these terms should be confused with semimonthly, which divides a year into exactly 24 periods (12 months × 2), instead of the 26 (≈52 weeks ÷ 2) of fortnightly/biweekly.[4]

Astronomy

In astronomy, a lunar fortnight is half a lunar synodic month, equivalent to the mean period between a full moon and a new moon (and vice versa). This is equal to 14.77 days.[5][6]

Sports

A fortnight is a term that is used prominently in sporting circles – as many major sports events have a two-week or approximately half-month time frame. In tennis, Wimbledon and the other Grand Slam tournaments are played over two weeks and are often referred to as lasting a fortnight. The Summer and Winter Olympics are also slightly longer than two weeks in length and may be referenced in this manner as well. Likewise various other events in the sporting world could fall under this characterization.

In other languages

In many languages, there is no single word for a two-week period, and the equivalent terms "two weeks", "14 days", or "15 days" (counting inclusively) have to be used.

  • Celtic languages: in Welsh, the term pythefnos, meaning "15 nights", is used. This is in keeping with the Welsh term for a week, which is wythnos ("eight nights").[7] In Irish, the term is coicís.
  • Similarly in Greek the term δεκαπενθήμερο (dekapenthímero), meaning "15 days", is used.
  • The Hindu calendar uses the Sanskrit word "paksha", meaning one half of a lunar month, which is between 14 and 15 solar days.
  • In Romance languages there are the terms quincena (or quince días) in Galician and Spanish, quinzena or quinze dies in Catalan and Portuguese, quindicina in Italian, quinze jours or quinzaine in French, and chenzinǎ in Romanian, all meaning "a grouping of 15"; there are also the terms bisettimanale in Italian, bisemanal in Spanish, bissemanal in Portuguese, bisetmanal in Catalan, bihebdomadaire in French, and bisǎptǎmânal in Romanian, that literally mean "biweekly".
  • Semitic languages have a special "doubling suffix". When added at the end of the word for "week" it changes the meaning to "two weeks". In Hebrew, the single-word שבועיים (shvu′ayim) means exactly "two weeks". Also in Arabic, by adding the common dual suffix to the word for "week", أسبوع, the form أسبوعين (usbu′ayn), meaning "two weeks", is formed.
  • Slavic languages: in Czech the terms čtrnáctidenní and dvoutýdenní have the same meaning as "fortnight".[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fortnight". The Concise Oxford Dictionary (5th ed.). 1964. p. 480.
  2. ^ Senight, sennight or se'night (seven-night), an old word for the week, was still in use in the early 19th century, to judge from Jane Austen's letters.
  3. ^ "Australian Government – How much Disability Support Pension do I get?". Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
  4. ^ Steven Bragg (22 June 2010). "What is the difference between a semimonthly and biweekly payroll?". AccountingTools. Retrieved 23 November 2015. Semimonthly is paid 24 times per year, and the biweekly is paid 26 times per year.
  5. ^ Littmann, Mark; Fred Espenak; Ken Willcox (2008). Totality: Eclipses of the Sun. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-953209-5.
  6. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Synodic Month definition".
  7. ^ BBC (16 October 2014). "BBC Wales - Catchphrase". BBC Wales. Retrieved 18 November 2016. Wythnos is a week.
  8. ^ "Do You Know How to Say Fortnight in Different Languages?". www.indifferentlanguages.com.
2017 Cannes Film Festival

The 70th Cannes Film Festival took place from 17 to 28 May 2017, in Cannes, France. Spanish film director and screenwriter Pedro Almodóvar was the President of the Jury for the festival and Italian actress Monica Bellucci hosted the opening and closing ceremonies. Ismael's Ghosts, directed by French director Arnaud Desplechin, was the opening film for the festival.The festival celebrated its 70th anniversary. In late March 2017, the official poster of the festival was revealed featuring Italian actress Claudia Cardinale. The actress responded, "'I am honoured and proud to be flying the flag for the 70th Festival de Cannes, and delighted with this choice of photo. It's the image I myself have of the Festival, of an event that illuminates everything around … Happy anniversary!"The Palme d'Or was awarded to the Swedish film The Square directed by Ruben Östlund, which also served as the closing night film of the festival.

2018 Cannes Film Festival

The 71st annual Cannes Film Festival was held from 8 to 19 May 2018. Australian actress Cate Blanchett acted as President of the Jury. The Japanese film Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or.Asghar Farhadi's psychological thriller Everybody Knows, starring Javier Bardem, Penélope Cruz and Ricardo Darín, opened the festival and competed in the Main Competition section. It was the second Spanish-language film to open Cannes, following Pedro Almodóvar's Bad Education, which screened on the opening night of the 2004 festival.

The official festival poster features Jean-Paul Belmondo and Anna Karina from Jean-Luc Godard's 1965 film Pierrot le Fou. It is the second time the festival poster was inspired by Godard's film after his 1963 film Contempt at the 2016 festival. According to festival's official statement, the poster is inspired by and paid tribute to the work of French photographer Georges Pierre.

2019 Cannes Film Festival

The 72nd annual Cannes Film Festival took place from 14 to 25 May 2019. Mexican filmmaker Alejandro González Iñárritu served as jury president. The Palme d'Or went to the South Korean film Parasite, directed by Bong Joon-ho; Bong became the first Korean director to win the award.American film director Jim Jarmusch's ensemble zombie comedy film The Dead Don't Die served as the opening film of the festival. The festival honoured French filmmaker Agnès Varda, who died in March 2019, featuring her on the official poster of the festival. The photograph used was taken during the filming of her debut film La Pointe Courte (1955), which later screened at the Cannes Film Festival.

Bernadette Soubirous

Saint Bernadette Soubirous (Occitan: Bernadeta Sobirós; 7 January 1844 – 16 April 1879), also known as Saint Bernadette of Lourdes, was the firstborn daughter of a miller from Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan), in the department of Hautes-Pyrénées in France, and is best known for experiencing Marian apparitions of a "young lady" who asked for a chapel to be built at the nearby cave-grotto at Massabielle. These apparitions are said to have occurred between 11 February and 16 July 1858, and the lady who appeared to her identified herself as the Immaculate Conception.

Despite initial skepticism from some Church authorities, Soubirous's claims were eventually declared "worthy of belief" after a canonical investigation, and the Marian apparition became known as Our Lady of Lourdes. Since her death, Soubirous's body has apparently remained internally incorrupt, but it is not without blemish; during her third exhumation in 1925, the firm of Pierre Imans made light wax coverings for her face and her hands due to the discoloration that her skin had undergone after her body was cleansed. These masks were placed on her face and hands before she was moved to her crystal reliquary in June 1925.

The Marian shrine at Lourdes (Midi-Pyrénées, from 2016 part of Occitanie) went on to become a major pilgrimage site, attracting over five million pilgrims of all denominations each year.

On 8 December 1933 Pope Pius XI declared Soubirous a saint of the Catholic Church. Her feast-day, initially specified as 18 February—the day her Lady promised to make her happy, not in this life, but in the next— is now observed in most places on the date of her death, 16 April.

Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (; French: Festival de Cannes), until 2002 called the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually (usually in May) at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès. It is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.

On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate. The board of directors also appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival.The 2019 Cannes Film Festival took place from 14 and 25 May 2019 and Mexican filmmaker Alejandro González Iñárritu was the jury president. Parasite, directed by South Korean director Bong Joon-ho, won the Palme d'Or.

Directors' Fortnight

The Directors' Fortnight (French: Quinzaine des Réalisateurs) is an independent section held in parallel to the Cannes Film Festival. It was started in 1969 by the French Directors Guild after the events of May 1968 resulted in cancellation of the Cannes festival as an act of solidarity with striking workers.The Directors' Fortnight showcases a programme of shorts and feature films and documentaries worldwide.

Doctor Who Adventures

Doctor Who Adventures is a magazine based on the British science fiction television programme Doctor Who. It was published by Immediate Media Company and aimed at 6 to 13-year-olds, a younger demographic to the Doctor Who Magazine readership - but with the April 2015 issue, and a reboot issue Number 1 the magazine passed to being published by Panini Comics. Initially published every fortnight, from 2008 it was published weekly. Then in May 2013 it went back to being published every fortnight and subscriptions were discontinued due to profit loss. From 2014 it went to being published monthly, changing to bi-monthly in late 2016. On 19 June 2017, Panini Comics confirmed that publication of the magazine was to be paused after publication of its 24th edition, however, a special one-off edition was released in January 2019.

Double Fine

Double Fine Productions, Inc. is an American video game developer based in San Francisco, founded in July 2000 by Tim Schafer after his departure from LucasArts.

Though the company's first two games Psychonauts and Brütal Legend were critically praised, both underperformed publishers' expectations. The future of the company was assured when Schafer turned to several in-house prototypes built during a two-week period known as "Amnesia Fortnight" to expand as smaller titles, all of which were licensed through publishers and met with commercial success. Schafer has since repeated these Amnesia Fortnights, using fan-voting mechanics, to help select and build smaller titles. Double Fine is also credited with driving interest in crowdfunding in video games, having been able to raise more than US$3 million for the development of Broken Age, at the time one of the largest projects funded by Kickstarter. The company has continued to build on their independent developer status and has promoted efforts to help other, smaller independent developers through its clout, including becoming a video game publisher for these titles. Double Fine has also been able to acquire rights to remaster some of the earlier LucasArts adventure games, including Grim Fandango, Day of the Tentacle, and Full Throttle.

The Double Fine website is also host to seven webcomics, which are created by members of Double Fine's art team and are collectively referred to as the Double Fine Comics.

FFF system

The furlong–firkin–fortnight (FFF) system is a humorous system of units based on unusual or impractical measurements. The length unit of the system is the furlong, the mass unit is the mass of a firkin of water, and the time unit is the fortnight. Like the SI or metre–kilogram–second systems, there are derived units for velocity, volume, mass and weight, etc.

While the FFF system is not used in practice, it has been used as an example in discussions of the relative merits of different systems of units. Some of the FFF units, notably the microfortnight, have been used jokingly in computer science. Besides having the meaning "any obscure unit", the derived unit furlongs per fortnight has also served frequently in classroom examples of unit conversion and dimensional analysis.

Fairtrade Fortnight

Fairtrade Fortnight is an annual promotional campaign which happens once every year, organized and funded by the Fairtrade Foundation to increase awareness of Fairtrade products. It makes use of volunteers who support the goals of Fairtrade but who may also be committed to the more general concepts of fair trade, ethical trading or concerned by development issues. The concept was pioneered by the Fairtrade Foundation in the United Kingdom, initially held in 1997 in Scotland and directed by Barnaby Miln.

The inaugural national launch was on 12 February 1997 at Augustine United Church on Edinburgh's George IV Bridge by Lady Marion Fraser, chairman of the charity Christian Aid. She broke a bar of Fairtrade chocolate to launch the event. It turned out to be a highly successful campaign to get every supermarket throughout Scotland to stock Fairtrade products. Barnaby Miln sent supporters of Christian Aid Scotland, SCIAF, Traidcraft, Oxfam and the World Development Movement a list of 85 supermarkets in Scotland's cities and larger towns, and encouraged during the Fortnight to go and ask for Fairtrade products.

Fairtrade Fortnight spread to the rest of the United Kingdom the following year; today, Fairtrade Fortnights are celebrated in several countries, most notably Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Awareness raising and promotion of Fairtrade certified products to the public are the main objectives of the Fortnight.

Usually events held during the fortnight include:

Fetes

Fairs

Fairtrade food and drink tastings,

Fashion shows

Community, school, college and university eventsThese events are often supported by local authorities and governments, Fairtrade Steering Groups, dozens of charities and ATOs, all seeking to ensure that the local populace purchase fair and ethically traded goods. Local schools and colleges where Fairtrade is a frequently discussed topic can also play significant roles during Fairtrade Fortnight.

Events are highlighted and recorded on various nations' Fairtrade licensing bodies' websites (e.g. the Fairtrade Foundation in the UK or Fairtrade Canada). Most media outlets are keen to support a fast-growing trend in which previously disadvantaged third world producers have a fairer market to sell their wares and develop their economic capabilities.

In 2019 Fairtrade Fortnight is celebrated from 25 February to 10 March.

Fortnite

Fortnite is an online video game developed by Epic Games and released in 2017. It is available in three distinct game mode versions that otherwise share the same general gameplay and game engine: Fortnite: Save the World, a cooperative shooter-survival game for up to four players to fight off zombie-like creatures and defend objects with fortifications they can build, Fortnite Battle Royale, a free-to-play battle royale game where up to 100 players fight to be the last person standing, and Fortnite Creative, where players are given complete freedom to create worlds and battle arenas. The first two game modes were released in 2017 as early access titles and Creative was released on December 6, 2018. Save the World is available only for Windows, macOS, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One, while Battle Royale has been released for those platforms and additionally for Nintendo Switch, iOS and Android devices. Playing either Fortnite game requires an Epic Games account on Windows, macOS, iOS, Android, and Nintendo Switch. Playing on PS4 or Xbox does not need an Epic Games account, as players are identified by their PSN or Xbox Live username instead.

While the first two games have been successful for Epic Games, Fortnite Battle Royale became a resounding success, drawing in more than 125 million players in less than a year and earning hundreds of millions of dollars per month, and since has become a cultural phenomenon.

Jamestown Foundation

The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors. Today its stated mission is to inform and educate policy makers about events and trends, which it regards as being of current strategic importance to the United States. Jamestown publishes numerous publications that focus on China, Russia, Eurasia, and global terrorism.

Mohani

Mohani (Devanagari: मोहनि) is one of the most important festivals among the Newars which involves a packed itinerary of religious services, pilgrimages, family gatherings and outdoor celebrations lasting several days. Special dinners known as Nakhtya (नख्त्या), to which all the relatives are invited, continue for weeks later. Mohani is the equivalent of Nepal's biggest festival Dasain, and there are similarities and differences between the two.

The festival has been variously described as a celebration of Hindu Goddess Durga slaying the demon Mahisasur, Goddess Chamunda destroying the demon Chunda and Indian emperor Ashoka renouncing arms in disgust after a particularly bloody battle and becoming a Buddhist. Mohani is celebrated according to the lunar calendar, so the dates are changeable. The main celebrations last for four days from the 8th to the 11th days of the bright half of Kaulā (कौला), the twelfth month in the lunar Nepal Era calendar.

Paksha

Paksha (or pakṣa: Sanskrit: पक्ष) refers to a fortnight or a lunar phase in a month of the Hindu lunar calendar.Literally meaning "side", a paksha is the period either side of the Full Moon Day (Purnima). A lunar month in the Hindu calendar has two fortnights, and begins with the New moon, (Amavasya). The lunar days are called tithis and each month has 30 tithis, which may vary from 20 – 27 hours. A paksha has 15 tithis, which are calculated by a 12 degree motion of the Moon. The first fortnight between New Moon Day and Full Moon Day is called “Gaura Paksha” or Shukla Paksha, the period of the brightening moon (waxing moon), and the second fortnight of the month is called “Krishna Paksha”, or Vadhya Paksha, the period of the fading moon (waning moon). Nimach Panchang begin new lunar month from first day of Krishna Paksha while Gujarat Panchang begin new lunar month from first day of Shukla Paksha.

Pitru Paksha

Pitru Paksha (Sanskrit: पितृ पक्ष), also spelt as Pitri paksha, Pitr Paksha (literally "fortnight of the ancestors") is a 16–lunar day period in Hindu calendar when Hindus pay homage to their ancestor (Pitrs), especially through food offerings. The period is also known as Pitru Pakshya, Pitri Pokkho, Sola Shraddha/ Sorha Shraddha in Nepali ("sixteen shraddhas"), Kanagat, Jitiya, Mahalaya Paksha and Apara paksha.Pitru Paksha is considered by Hindus to be inauspicious, given the death rite performed during the ceremony, known as Shraddha or Tarpan. In southern and western India, it falls in the 2nd paksha (fortnight) Hindu lunar month of Bhadrapada (September) and follows the fortnight immediately after the Ganesh festival. It begins on the Pratipada (first day of the fortnight) ending with the no moon day known as Sarvapitri amavasya, Pitru Amavasya, Peddala Amavasya, Mahalaya amavasya or simply Mahalaya. Most years, the autumnal equinox falls within this period, i.e. the Sun transitions from the northern to the southern hemisphere during this period. In North India and Nepal, and cultures following the purnimanta calendar or the solar calendar, this period may correspond to the waning fortnight of the luni-solar month Ashvin, instead of Bhadrapada. It is similar to Ghost Festival observed by Chinese people. In Chinese culture, the fifteenth day of the seventh month in the lunar calendar is called Ghost Day and the seventh month in general is regarded as the Ghost Month (鬼月), in which ghosts and spirits, including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm.

Purnima

Poornima (also called Poornima, Pournima, Bangla: পূর্ণিমা, Sanskrit: पूर्णिमा (IAST: pūrṇimā)) is the Bangladeshi, Sanskrit and Nepali word for full moon, while in Indonesian it is known as Purnama. The day of Purnima is the day (Tithi) in each month when the full moon occurs, and marks the division in each month between the two lunar fortnights (Paksha).

A full moon occurs when the Sun and the Moon appear separated by 180°. This lunar day is the considered auspicious for new beginnings. The Shukla ("Bright") Paksha is the fortnight before, and the Krishna ("Dark") Paksha is the fortnight after Purnima.

This lunar phase lasts only for a while, when the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are aligned exactly in a straight line, called a syzygy of the Sun–Earth–Moon system. Full moon is considered the third of the four primary phases of the Moon; the other three phases are new moon, first quarter moon, and third quarter moon. The full moon shows 100% illumination, causes high tides, and can concur with lunar eclipses.

Torneo di Viareggio

The Torneo di Viareggio (English: Viareggio Tournament), officially named the Viareggio Cup World Football Tournament Coppa Carnevale, is a youth association football tournament held annually in the commune of Viareggio, Italy and its surrounding areas. Established in 1949, the Torneo di Viareggio is considered one of the most important youth football tournaments in the world.It coincides with the Carnival of Viareggio, starting on the third Monday of Carneval. The tournament runs for a fortnight, and finishes on the last Monday of Carnival. For this reason, it is also known as Coppa Carnevale (English: Carnival Cup).

Twice a Fortnight

Twice a Fortnight is a 1967 British sketch comedy television series with Terry Jones, Michael Palin, Graeme Garden, Bill Oddie, Jonathan Lynn and Tony Buffery.

Graeme Garden suggested to the director, Tony Palmer, that Michael Palin and Terry Jones be included in the cast and writers of the show.

Wakes week

The wakes week is a holiday period in parts of England and Scotland. Originally a religious celebration or feast, the tradition of the wakes week developed into a secular holiday, particularly in North West England during the Industrial Revolution. In Scotland each city has a "trades fortnight": two weeks in the summer when tradesmen take their holidays.

Although a strong tradition during the 19th and 20th centuries, the observance of the holiday has almost disappeared in recent times due to the decline of the manufacturing industries in the United Kingdom and the standardisation of school holidays across England.

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