Forti

Forti Corse, commonly known as Forti, was an Italian motor racing team chiefly known for its brief and unsuccessful involvement in Formula One in the mid-1990s. It was established in the late 1970s and competed in lower formulae for two decades. The team's successes during this period included four Drivers' Championships in Italian Formula Three during the 1980s, and race wins in the International Formula 3000 championship, in which it competed from 1987 to 1994. From 1992, team co-founder Guido Forti developed a relationship with the wealthy Brazilian businessman Abílio dos Santos Diniz that gave Diniz's racing driver son, Pedro, a permanent seat in the team and the outfit a sufficiently high budget to consider entering Formula One.

Forti graduated to Formula One as a constructor and entrant in 1995, but its first car—the Forti FG01—proved to be uncompetitive, and the team failed to score a point. Despite this setback, Forti was committed to a three-year deal with Diniz, which was broken when Pedro moved to the Ligier team prior to the 1996 season, taking most of the team's sponsorship money with him. Nevertheless, Forti continued to compete in the sport, and produced the much-improved FG03 chassis, before succumbing to financial problems mid-season after an ultimately fruitless deal with a mysterious entity known as Shannon Racing. The team competed in a total of 27 Grands Prix, scoring no points, and is recognised as one of the last truly privateer teams to race in an era when many large car manufacturers were increasing their involvement in the sport.

Forti
Forti logo
Full nameParmalat Forti Ford (1995)
Forti Grand Prix (1996)
BaseAlessandria, Italy
Founder(s)Guido Forti
Paolo Guerci
Noted staffGiacomo Caliri
Daniele Coronna
Riccardo de Marco
Cesare Fiorio
Hans Fouche
Carlo Gancia
Chris Radage
Sergio Rinland
George Ryton
Giorgio Stirano
Noted driversItaly Luca Badoer
Brazil Pedro Diniz
Italy Andrea Montermini
Brazil Roberto Moreno
Formula One World Championship career
First entry1995 Brazilian Grand Prix
Races entered27
(44 starts from 54 entries)
Constructors'
Championships
0
Drivers'
Championships
0
Race victories0
(Best: 7th, 1995 Australian Grand Prix)
Podiums0
Points0
Pole positions0
(Best: 19th, 1996 Brazilian Grand Prix)
Fastest laps0
(Best: 10th, 1996 Monaco Grand Prix)
Final entry1996 British Grand Prix

Establishment and early years

Forti was founded by Italian businessmen Guido Forti, a former driver, and Paolo Guerci, an engineer, in the late 1970s and was based in Alessandria in northern Italy.[1][2][3] It was registered as a Società a Responsabilità Limitata, or Limited liability company.[2] It was initially run in lower motor racing categories such as Formula Ford and Formula Three, both at Italian and European levels. The team was well equipped and soon became a regular winner. Forti drivers Franco Forini, Enrico Bertaggia, Emanuele Naspetti and Gianni Morbidelli (who would all go on to drive in Formula One) won Italian Formula Three titles in 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1989 respectively. In addition, Bertaggia won the prestigious Macau F3 Grand Prix and the Monaco Grand Prix F3 support race in 1988,[2] and Morbidelli won the FIA European Formula Three Cup in 1989.[4] Teo Fabi and Oscar Larrauri also raced for the team in its early years, the former winning the Italian FFord 2000 championship in 1977, and the latter racing as far afield as South America, in the Argentine Formula Three Championship. Forti continued racing in Formula Three until the end of 1992, when it quit the formula in order to concentrate solely on International Formula 3000.[2]

Formula 3000

Noda Formula3000
Hideki Noda driving for the Forti International Formula 3000 team during the 1994 season.

For 1987, Forti moved up to International Formula 3000 with less immediate success than experienced in Formula Three.[2] The main reason for this was the chassis the team chose to compete with. Instead of using customer Lolas, Marches or Ralts, all of which were produced by established companies who had many years' experience of designing and building such cars, Forti stuck with their Italian Formula Three chassis supplier Gian Paolo Dallara, who had just designed his company's first F3000 machine. Forti was the first team to use this machine, which was dubbed the Dallara 3087 (a chassis which later would make a single appearance in Formula One for the BMS Scuderia Italia team, as that team's car was not ready for the first race of the 1988 season). This combination of an inexperienced team and an untested car did not score any points in its first F3000 year, nor did the team attend every race on the schedule.[2] Forti used 1988 to gain valuable experience in F3000, and this helped the team to perform better in following seasons, as did a change to more competitive Lola and then Reynard chassis.[2]

After a full season in 1988 and the team's first championship points, courtesy of Claudio Langes in 1989, it became apparent that Forti was improving as a competitive force. In 1990, Gianni Morbidelli scored Forti's first victory in an F3000 race,[2] and although no Forti driver won a championship title in this category, the team established itself as a frequent front-runner, scoring nine wins and five pole positions in International F3000. From 1993 onwards, Forti concentrated solely on F3000, and ran drivers such as Naspetti, Fabrizio Giovanardi, Andrea Montermini and Hideki Noda.[2] 1991 was Forti's most successful season in F3000, with Naspetti finishing third in the Drivers' Championship, ten points behind champion Christian Fittipaldi. Although the team's form dipped over subsequent years, by 1994 Forti was the most experienced team in the championship, employing Noda and Pedro Diniz as drivers.[2]

Formula One

Preparation

As his team became more successful, Guido Forti started to think about a move upwards, into Formula One. However, there had been several discouragingly recent examples of teams, such as Coloni and Onyx, which had graduated from F3000 into Formula One and failed more or less immediately due to a lack of finance. Conversely, Eddie Jordan had shown that the move could be made successfully, with an impressive performance in 1991 with his Jordan team, which had finished fifth in the Constructors' Championship with a total of seven points-scoring finishes. Forti considered a solid financial base to be the most important factor for success. In 1991 he therefore started working on his Formula One project. At the end of 1992, he signed a deal with wealthy Brazilian driver Pedro Diniz, whose personal fortune and sponsorship connections proved invaluable in increasing the team's budget.[2] Diniz's father, Abílio dos Santos, was the owner of the large Brazilian distribution company Companhia Brasileira de Distribuição and the supermarket chain Pão de Açúcar. By offering companies preferential product-placement in the Brazilian market, the Diniz family was able to obtain personal sponsorship deals with brands such as Arisco, Duracell, Gillette, Kaiser, Marlboro, Parmalat and Sadia, in addition to backing from Unibanco, to fund Pedro's career.[5][6] By 1993, through Abílio dos Santos, Forti met Carlo Gancia, an Italo-Brazilian businessman.[2] Gancia became a co-owner of the team, buying Guerci's shares, and started working on the team's Formula One project. He finally managed to ensure a respectable budget for Formula One by late 1994, which was "effectively underwritten by the Diniz family".[2] He also hired several experienced personnel, including designer Sergio Rinland and former Ferrari team manager Cesare Fiorio.[2] Furthermore, retired driver René Arnoux was employed as a consultant and driver coach for Diniz.[7] Guerci remained with Forti as one of its race engineers.[8]

This securing of financial assistance and recruitment of staff meant that Forti's ability to participate in Formula One for 1995 was assured. Financed by the companies brought in by Abílio Diniz,[9] the team was guaranteed financial stability in the short term, with a claimed first year budget of around $17 million.[10] In addition, this was only the first year of a planned three-year contract with Diniz and his backers.[1]

Forti FG01 car

The hardest task for the team was designing and building its own car for the first time, instead of buying one from a general supplier such as Dallara or Lola, as was required by the Formula One Technical Regulations. Guido Forti's first attempt at an F1 chassis, the Forti FG01, resulted in an outdated, overweight and very slow machine, and has been described as nothing more than "a revised F3000 car"[11] and, more harshly, "a fearful pile of junk".[12]

Roberto Moreno Forti 1995 Britain (crop)
Roberto Moreno driving the FG01 at the 1995 British Grand Prix. He retired on lap 48 when the car's hydraulic pressure dropped.

The FG01 had many influences. Design consultant Rinland had previously worked on the Brabham BT60 chassis in 1991 and Fondmetal GR02 chassis in 1992, the latter under the auspices of his own company, Astauto, before moving to the United States to work on a Champ Car project. In late 1994, Forti bought the remaining assets of the now defunct Fondmetal team, including the remaining GR02 chassis, and requested Rinland's assistance in developing the bespoke Forti chassis based on a planned Fondmetal chassis for the 1993 season. Rinland thus provided a great deal of input on the FG01 chassis,[13] assisting experienced Italian engineers Giorgio Stirano[1] and Giacomo Caliri in designing and building the car.[3][10] The car's aerodynamics were completed by former Brabham, Fondmetal and Astauto employee Hans Fouche using wind tunnels in South Africa, and composite work was done by the Belco Avia company.[2][10] However, it was rumoured that the FG01 was little more than a re-working of the GR02.[10]

Thus the FG01 did not promise much in terms of performance. It was angular and bulky, with poor aerodynamic performance negatively affecting grip and handling; it had a plump nose, initially no airbox, and was overweight and under-powered, using a small Ford-Cosworth ED V8 customer engine largely financed by Ford do Brasil, which developed an estimated 100 bhp less than the most powerful engine in the field, the Renault V10 supplied to the Benetton and Williams teams.[14] It was also the only car to have a manual gearbox in the 1995 F1 season. The car was liveried in a distinctive yellow-and-blue colour scheme accompanied by fluorescent green wheel-rims, illustrating the team's Brazilian influence in its first year. The precise hue of each colour was chosen as a tribute to Ayrton Senna, who had been killed at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix; the cars were liveried in identical shades to those used on the Brazilian's helmet design.[7]

1995 season

Forti's number one driver for the 1995 season was rookie Pedro Diniz who had raced for Forti in F3000, but without much success. However, he was guaranteed a seat as his family and sponsors were paying a significant amount of the team's budget.[1] The second driver was later confirmed as his more experienced compatriot Roberto Moreno, who had last competed in F1 back in 1992 when he had a disastrous year driving for the infamous Andrea Moda team. However, his seat was initially only guaranteed on a race-by-race basis,[15] as Portuguese driver Pedro Lamy, in addition to the team's former F3000 drivers Emanuele Naspetti and Andrea Montermini, were also considered.[3][16] It was speculated that whoever joined the team would be contractually bound to be number two to Diniz and that his father had insisted on an all-Brazilian driver line-up.[6][11][17] A Forti spokesman indeed confirmed that Moreno's nationality, in addition to his experience, was the main reason for his selection.[18] The team later attempted to enter its former F3000 driver Hideki Noda for the 1995 Pacific Grand Prix, but he was refused an FIA Super Licence.[19]

Unlike some of the existing teams, Forti was able to test its chassis extensively prior to the start of the season.[1] However, Diniz proved to be around seven seconds per lap off the pace of the leading runners in group testing at the Estoril circuit in March, indicating that the team was likely to be mired at the back of the field.[13] Diniz finished 10th in the season-opening Brazilian GP, but was seven laps down on winner Michael Schumacher. In Argentina, this situation became worse, as, although both drivers finished, they were both nine laps down on winner Damon Hill at the end of the race (with Diniz ahead) and neither were classified, as they had failed to complete 90% of the race distance. The drivers' similar fastest laps during the race were over ten seconds slower than Schumacher's fastest race lap, and almost five seconds slower than the next slowest runner's fastest lap (Domenico Schiattarella in the Simtek).[20] Imola was similarly poor, as both drivers finished seven laps down (with Diniz again ahead) and again failed to reach the 90% threshold for classification. Forti was already the butt of paddock jokes,[1] and were far slower than the other (and financially poorer) backmarkers: Pacific, Simtek, and Minardi. However, the budget enabled improvements to be made to the car. During the season, its weight was reduced by a significant 60 kilograms (approximately 10% of the F1 minimum weight limit of 595 kg (1,312 lb)[1]), and a semi-automatic gearbox, an airbox and redesigns of the front wing, sidepods and monocoque were introduced. The personnel count also doubled during the course of the season. This resulted in a gradual improvement in pace throughout the year, and there were no more non-classified finishes.[1]

In between the Brazilian and Argentine Grands Prix, Rinland returned to Europe full-time to take the official post of the team's Technical Director.[15] His long-term task was to establish an English-based design office for the team, but his initial job was to improve the competitiveness of the FG01 through a series of technical upgrades. However, Rinland subsequently left the team after a few weeks, after falling out with the team's management over the car's lack of competitiveness.[1][10]

Pedro Diniz Forti 1995 Britain (crop)
Pedro Diniz driving the FG01 at the 1995 British GP. He retired on lap 13 with a broken gearbox.

Indeed, Forti's finishing record was good for rookies at 50% (excluding the non-classifications),[21] helping Diniz to establish a reputation as a steady, dependable driver.[1] Forti were then elevated when Simtek folded after the Monaco GP, and Pacific's lack of finance and development enabled Forti to start matching them from the half-way point of the season.[1] At the German GP, both Fortis outqualified both the Pacifics for the first time, and this happened on two further occasions during 1995. Forti's improvement was also aided by Pacific taking on two slower pay drivers, Giovanni Lavaggi and Jean-Denis Délétraz, to ensure that the team finished the season. At the final race of the season, in Adelaide, Forti seemed to have established a firm base for the 1996 season, emphasised by Moreno qualifying within 107% of pole position for the first time - a crucial result, as this percentage of the pole time would be used to determine non-qualifiers in 1996 - and Diniz scoring the team's best result in F1, with a reliable run to seventh place, ahead of Gachot in the Pacific. This was only one position behind the points-scoring placings.[22] Nevertheless, despite not scoring any points, Forti finished a de facto 11th in the Constructors' Championship, ahead of Pacific and Simtek by virtue of better finishes outside of the points.[1]

Post-championship, Forti took part in the 1995 Bologna Motor Show, where three FG01s—driven by Montermini, Lavaggi and Vittorio Zoboli—raced against, and lost to three Minardis in the Formula One Indoor Trophy.[23][24]

Despite the progress made by Forti during the course of the season, 1995 was still regarded as a failure. The team had spent more money than its immediate rivals in designing, building and developing a fundamentally inefficient car.[10] Diniz and his sponsors were described as "throwing their money away",[12] and the Brazilian's reputation as a serious F1 driver was damaged, as it took him several years to prove that he was not just in the sport because of his funding.[25] In addition, Moreno's participation with Forti was lamented by many observers, who felt that the experienced driver did not deserve the ignominy of such an uncompetitive car.[12] The only positives were the reasonable reliability record and the fact that the Diniz family were contracted to fund the team for the next two years.[1]

1996 season

Forti Qualifying Percentage
A graph showing the Forti team's qualifying performances as a percentage of the pole position time throughout its involvement in Formula One. The 107% rule introduced for 1996 was a contributary factor to the team's failure mid-season.

With a solid base to build on and a healthy budget, 1996 looked promising for Forti.[1] The team negotiated for the most powerful and expensive Cosworth V8 engines in late 1995 to replace the outdated and underpowered ED models,[26] and its financial security was demonstrated by rumours during the 1995 season that the more competitive but less well-funded Minardi team was considering a merger with Forti as a means of maintaining its own presence in the sport.[27] However, these aspirations were dealt a devastating blow when Pedro Diniz signed for the more competitive Ligier team, taking Martin Brundle's vacated seat as the latter moved to Jordan. Forti's sponsors brought in by the Diniz family, including Parmalat and Marlboro, all left; the budget was significantly dented. For a time it seemed that the team would not compete in 1996 at all,[28] and its survival was constantly questioned.[9] The new car was delayed, and the team was forced to use the uprated FG01B car for the start of the season with the only slightly more competitive Ford Zetec-R V8 engine (instead of the "JS" unit it had been negotiating for),[29] and to rely on temporary sponsors. Nevertheless, Forti remained in the sport for the 1996 season. Moreno was not retained; the team signed Minardi and Pacific refugees Luca Badoer[30] and Montermini to take the two empty seats (although Hideki Noda was also considered[31]), both drivers bringing a small amount of personal backing. Frenchman Franck Lagorce was also signed as a test driver.[2] Pacific had folded during the off-season, and it was clear that Forti would be some way behind the rest of the field in the slow FG01B.[29] Badoer and Montermini failed to make the new 107% cut in qualifying for the Australian Grand Prix and thus did not start the race, but both then managed to qualify for the Grands Prix held in Brazil and Argentina, scoring a 10th- and an 11th-place finish between them in the races. Badoer, however, attracted attention in Argentina for a different reason. As Diniz attempted to lap him, the two collided and Badoer's car flipped over; the Italian escaping injury. Both cars then failed to qualify at the Nürburgring.[29]

1996 San Marino Andrea Montermini
Andrea Montermini driving the FG01B in its final race, the 1996 San Marino Grand Prix.

Forti produced a new chassis, the FG03, for the next race of the season in Imola. It had been designed by the same personnel as the previous year, with further work carried out by George Ryton after the latter moved to the team from Ferrari and took up the post of Technical Director mid-season.[32][33] Both drivers judged it a significant improvement over the old car, with increased aerodynamic downforce and directional sensitivity,[29] but there was only one FG03 available, and Montermini failed to qualify in the old car. Badoer, however, qualified last, but comfortably within the 107% cut-off, and only 0.7s behind Ricardo Rosset in the Footwork. Badoer finished 10th and last, but had suffered reliability problems in the new car and was two laps behind Pedro Lamy's Minardi. Both drivers qualified in Monaco, but Montermini crashed in the wet warm-up session and did not start the race, whilst Badoer struggled in the slippery conditions and took out Jacques Villeneuve as he was being lapped by the Williams. He was fined $5000 and received a two-race suspended ban.[34]

Deal with Shannon Racing

Forti badoer montreal 1996
A new livery signalled a major sponsorship deal with Shannon, but did nothing to save the team from its collapse mid-season. This is Luca Badoer driving the FG03 at the 1996 Canadian Grand Prix.
Forti FG03-96
An illustration of the FG03's "Shannon" livery.

After the Monaco GP, there were rumours that Forti would not survive the season without some form of takeover. In the period before the next race, the Spanish GP, Belco Avia boss Arron Colombo announced that a deal had been reached between Guido Forti and an entity known as Shannon Racing for the latter to buy a 51% share of the team.[2] The deal was concluded later in the month, on June 30.[35] Shannon Racing and its parent company FinFirst were Irish-registered sections of a Milanese financial group, and had already established teams in various Formula Three championships and in International Formula 3000 in 1996. The group was keen to move into Formula One, and Forti provided an opportunity for this to happen. It was believed that Colombo had organised the deal, which was scheduled to continue throughout 1996 with an option for 1997, because Belco Avia was owed money by Forti. As part of the management change, Cesare Fiorio left the team to join Ligier and was replaced by Daniele Coronna, whilst designer George Ryton joined from Ferrari.[33]

For the Spanish GP, the cars therefore appeared in a new green-and-white livery, apparently confirming Shannon Racing's acquisition of 51% of Forti.[29] This financial boost appeared to ensure the team's survival.[35] With the off-track confusion, both drivers again failed to qualify. Nevertheless, at the Canadian and French Grands Prix, both Fortis made it to the grid, Badoer even outqualifying Rosset in Montréal. However, Forti had lost its good 1995 reliability record, as these starts only resulted in four retirements. By this time, Forti's financial problems, caused by a conflict of team ownership between Guido Forti and Shannon Racing, were becoming increasingly urgent in nature. Both cars retired with "engine problems" at the French GP, although it was widely rumoured that this was due to the team running out of engine mileage as it went into debt with engine suppliers Cosworth.[36]

Bankruptcy and withdrawal

Guido Forti alleged that Shannon Racing had not paid him any money within the stipulated six-day deadline after the deal was concluded and refuted the claim that it now owned 51% of his team.[35] As the team ran out of money, it was doubtful whether it would turn up at the British GP.[36] In the end, Forti took part, only for the cars to complete a mere handful of laps each in practice and thus failing to set a time quick enough to qualify. This was because it was becoming increasingly in debt to Cosworth and was running out of engine mileage for its cars, only having enough to make a token effort at participation.[29][37] The team made it to the next race - the German GP - but both cars remained unassembled in the pit garages throughout the weekend after the engine supply was finally cut off.[29]

Guido Forti, after discussing the matter with commercial rights-owner Bernie Ecclestone, had decided to withdraw the team from the German GP as negotiations over the team's ownership between himself and Shannon continued, despite the threat of the FIA (F1's governing body) imposing a fine on the outfit for missing the race. Following the failure of these negotiations, he then announced that Shannon's deal had fallen through and that he was back in charge of the team. He hoped to finalise some more sponsorship deals which would allow Forti to compete in the Hungarian GP. Shannon responded by claiming it still owned 51% of the team, and that it intended to solve Forti's financial problems itself, in addition to replacing Guido Forti as Team Principal. He duly took the company to court over the matter, an arduous process in the Italian legal system.[35]

With the team in limbo whilst the ownership dispute was judged, Forti's situation was bleak. The team faced the prospect of further heavy FIA-imposed fines for missing races if the situation did not improve,[29] or even exclusion from the championship for bringing the sport into disrepute, as had happened to the Andrea Moda team in 1992.[35] Forti withdrew his team from the sport; it did not make an appearance at the Hungarian GP, the Belgian GP,[38] nor at any further point in the championship. Badoer and Montermini were left without drives, and the promising FG03 chassis would no longer race. By the time Shannon Racing won the court case in September, Forti had ceased to exist.[39] Shannon Racing's teams in the lower motorsport categories also closed down. Coincidentally, Guido Forti had signed the 1997 Concorde Agreement shortly before his team's demise, which could have given his team a chance of surviving if it had made it into that year due to the extra television revenue that was duly granted to each of the teams under the terms of the agreement.[29]

Legacy

Forti's withdrawal marked not only the end of its participation in Formula One, but also terminated a team which had enjoyed success in International Formula 3000 and other minor categories. It is generally agreed that Forti may have succeeded if it had its 1995 budget and the FG03 car at the same time, and that Diniz's departure meant that it stood little chance of survival,[11] but the team has become another example of a small, backmarking team unable to finance its aspirations;[29] one of the final "privateer" teams to enter the sport in an era of increasing influence and participation from the large car manufacturers.[11] Forti is often cited along with Pacific and Simtek as prime examples of this tendency.[11] It was also argued that the increasing amount of money involved in financing an F1 team which was forcing many of the smaller teams to withdraw in the early to mid-1990s was a long-term threat to the future of the sport.[40] Alternatively, some saw Forti and similar tail-enders as undeserving of a place in F1, and it has been suggested that the imposition of the 107% rule by the FIA in 1996 was a move to force them to raise their game or leave the sport altogether.[41]

However, the Forti F1 cars have since been used for other purposes. Examples of the FG03 are currently being used as part of F1-themed track days in the United Kingdom at motor racing circuits such as Rockingham.[42][43][44]

Racing record

Championships and notable race wins

Year Championship/Race Chassis Engine Driver Reference(s)
1977 Italian Formula Ford 2000 Drivers' Championship ? Ford Italy Teo Fabi [2]
1979 Argentine Formula Three Drivers' Championship Martini Toyota Argentina Oscar Larrauri [2][45]
1985 Italian Formula Three Drivers' Championship Dallara Alfa Romeo Switzerland Franco Forini [46]
1987 Italian Formula Three Drivers' Championship Dallara Alfa Romeo Italy Enrico Bertaggia [46]
1988 Italian Formula Three Drivers' Championship Dallara Alfa Romeo Italy Emanuele Naspetti [46]
Macau Grand Prix Dallara Alfa Romeo Italy Enrico Bertaggia [47]
Grand Prix de Monaco F3 Dallara Alfa Romeo Italy Enrico Bertaggia [48]
1989 Italian Formula Three Drivers' Championship Dallara Alfa Romeo Italy Gianni Morbidelli [46]
European Formula Three Cup Dallara Alfa Romeo Italy Gianni Morbidelli [4]

Complete International Formula 3000 results

(key) (results in bold indicate pole position; results in italics indicate fastest lap)

Year Chassis Engine Tyres Driver(s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Points TC
1987[49] Dallara 3087 Cosworth V8 A SIL VAL SPA PAU DON PER BRH BIR IML BUG JAR 0 NC
Italy Nicola Larini Ret 16 Ret Ret
Italy Nicola Tesini DNQ
1988[50] Dallara 3087
Lola T88/50
Cosworth V8 A JER VAL PAU SIL MNZ PER BRH BIR BUG ZOL DIJ 0 NC
Italy Enrico Bertaggia DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ 7 16 DNS DNQ DNQ 11 Ret
Argentina Fernando Croceri DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ
Italy Enrico Debenedetti DNQ DNQ
Italy Nino Fama DNQ
1989[51] Lola T89/50 Cosworth V8 A SIL VAL PAU JER PER BRH BIR SPA BUG DIJ 7 9th
Italy Claudio Langes 12 Ret Ret 7 2 6 9 15 9 7
1990[52] Lola T90/50 Cosworth V8 A DON SIL PAU JER MNZ PER HOC BRH BIR BUG NOG 20 7th
Italy Gianni Morbidelli 8 Ret 3 Ret 4 1 Ret Ret Ret 7 3
1991[53] Lola T91/50
Reynard 91D
Cosworth V8 A VAL PAU JER MUG PER HOC BRH SPA BUG NOG 43 3rd
Italy Emanuele Naspetti 10 9 DNQ DNS 1 1 1 1 Ret 6
Italy Fabrizio Giovanardi 12 5 DNQ 8 Ret 13 8 6 DNS 4
1992[54] Reynard 92D Cosworth V8 A SIL PAU CAT PER HOC NUR SPA ALB NOG MAG 44 2nd
Italy Emanuele Naspetti 6 1 16 2 4 Ret
Italy Andrea Montermini 1 1 4 Ret
Italy Alessandro Zampedri Ret Ret 11 5 7 Ret 7 8 5 Ret
1993[55] Reynard 93D Cosworth V8 A DON SIL PAU PER HOC NUR SPA MAG NOG 20 5th
Monaco Olivier Beretta 1 10 4 Ret 4 5 13 9 4
Brazil Pedro Diniz Ret Ret DNQ 7 Ret 16 14 11 14
1994[56] Reynard 94D Cosworth V8 A SIL PAU CAT PER HOC SPA EST MAG 9 7th
Brazil Pedro Diniz Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret 9 4 Ret
Japan Hideki Noda 5 Ret Ret 3 Ret 7 16 11

Complete Formula One results

(key) (results in bold indicate pole position; results in italics indicate fastest lap)

Year Chassis Engine Tyres Drivers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Points WCC
1995 FG01 Ford EDD 3.0 V8 G BRA ARG SMR ESP MON CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR EUR PAC JPN AUS 0 NC
Brazil Pedro Diniz 10 NC NC Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 9 16 13 17 Ret 7
Brazil Roberto Moreno Ret NC NC Ret Ret Ret 16 Ret Ret Ret 14 Ret 17 Ret 16 Ret Ret
1996 FG01B
FG03
Ford ECA Zetec-R 3.0 V8 G AUS BRA ARG EUR SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR JPN 0 NC
Italy Luca Badoer DNQ 11 Ret DNQ 10 Ret DNQ Ret Ret DNQ DNP
Italy Andrea Montermini DNQ Ret 10 DNQ DNQ DNS DNQ Ret Ret DNQ DNP

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Constanduros, Bob (1995). "Formula 1 Review: Forti". In Henry, Alan (ed.). AUTOCOURSE 1995-96. Hazleton Publishing Ltd. p. 71. ISBN 1-874557-36-5.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Constructors: Forti Corse S.R.L." grandprix.com. Inside F1. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  3. ^ a b c "Forti - getting ready for action". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1995-02-06. Retrieved 2007-04-03.
  4. ^ a b Higham, p. 248.
  5. ^ "The Diniz Family buys into Prost". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 2000-11-30. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
  6. ^ a b Domenjoz (ed.), pp. 26-27.
  7. ^ a b Dodgins, Tony (2009-03-30). "Brazilian GP: News In Brief". Autosport. 138 (13): 39.
  8. ^ Saward, Joe (1996-02-01). "Seasonal Preview 1996". grandprix.com. Inside F1. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
  9. ^ a b Tremayne, p. 95.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Rinland leaves Forti?". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1995-05-08. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  11. ^ a b c d e Ménard, Vol. 2, p. 626.
  12. ^ a b c Saward, Joe (1996-01-01). "No news is big news!". grandprix.com. Inside F1. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
  13. ^ a b Jones, Bruce (ed.) (1995-03-23). "Grand Prix '95 Preview: Formula 1 Team Guide". Autosport. 138 (12): 45.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Domenjoz (ed.), pp. 36-37.
  15. ^ a b "Rinland joins Forti". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1995-03-27. Retrieved 2006-01-13.
  16. ^ "Pedro Lamy for Forti?". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1995-04-10. Retrieved 2007-01-14.
  17. ^ Tremayne, p. 67.
  18. ^ Benson, Andrew (ed.) (1995-03-23). "Formula 1 News: News In Brief". Autosport. 138 (12): 7.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Dodgins, Tony (1995-10-26). "Pacific GP: F1 team by team". Autosport. 141 (4): 41, 43.
  20. ^ Henry, Alan (1995). "1995 Grands Prix: Argentine Grand Prix". In Henry, Alan (ed.). AUTOCOURSE 1995-96. Hazleton Publishing Ltd. p. 103. ISBN 1-874557-36-5.
  21. ^ "Forti - 1995 Statistics". autocoursegpa.com. Autocourse Grand Prix Archive. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-08-24.
  22. ^ See List of Formula One World Championship points scoring systems for more information.
  23. ^ "Forti-Corse - full profile". f1rejects.com. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2006-10-29.
  24. ^ "Bologna Sprint". silhouet.com. The GEL Motorsport Information Page. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
  25. ^ Jones, p. 91.
  26. ^ "Forti bids for new Ford V8". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1995-10-02. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  27. ^ Henry, Alan (1995). "1995 Grands Prix: Belgian Grand Prix". In Henry, Alan (ed.). AUTOCOURSE 1995-96. Hazleton Publishing Ltd. p. 177. ISBN 1-874557-36-5.
  28. ^ "...Forti to follow". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1995-12-04. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Henry, Alan (1996). "Formula 1 Review: Forti". In Henry, Alan (ed.). AUTOCOURSE 1996-97. Hazleton Publishing Ltd. p. 92. ISBN 1-874557-91-8.
  30. ^ "Forti signs Badoer". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-02-26. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  31. ^ "Noda close to Forti". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-01-15. Retrieved 2006-11-24.
  32. ^ "Ryton to Forti". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-04-01. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  33. ^ a b "Shannon arrives early!". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-06-03. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
  34. ^ Henry, Alan (1996). "1996 Grands Prix: Monaco Grand Prix". In Henry, Alan (ed.). AUTOCOURSE 1996-97. Hazleton Publishing Ltd. p. 147. ISBN 1-874557-91-8.
  35. ^ a b c d e "The end of the road for Forti?". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-07-16. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
  36. ^ a b "Forti - times are hard". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-07-08. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  37. ^ "Shambles at Forti". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-07-15. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  38. ^ "Forti disappears". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-08-26. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  39. ^ "Forti chaos". grandprix.com. Inside F1. 1996-09-02. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
  40. ^ Waller, Toby. "The 107% Dilemma". atlasf1.autosport.com. Atlas F1. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
  41. ^ Henry, Alan (1995). "Storm Clouds Gather? The State of Formula One". In Henry, Alan (ed.). AUTOCOURSE 1995-96. Hazleton Publishing Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 1-874557-36-5.
  42. ^ "United Kingdom F1 Racing School". racingschools.com. Aintree Racing School. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
  43. ^ "The Ultimate Driving Day". rockingham.co.uk. Rockingham UK. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  44. ^ "Formula 1 Driving Experience". racing-school.co.uk. The Racing School. Archived from the original on 2007-01-20. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  45. ^ "Formula 3 1979: Championship Tables". formula2.net. F2 Register. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
  46. ^ a b c d Higham, p. 407.
  47. ^ Higham, p. 422.
  48. ^ Higham, p. 426.
  49. ^ Hamilton (ed.), pp. 263-264.
  50. ^ Henry (ed.) (1988), pp. 264-265.
  51. ^ Henry (ed.) (1989), pp. 280-281.
  52. ^ Henry (ed.) (1990), pp. 280-281.
  53. ^ Henry (ed.) (1991), pp. 280-281.
  54. ^ Henry (ed.) (1992), pp. 280-281.
  55. ^ Henry (ed.) (1993), pp. 280-281.
  56. ^ Henry (ed.) (1994), p. 280.

Books

  • Domenjoz, Luc (ed.) (1995). Formula 1 Yearbook 1995. Silbermann, Eric (translator). Chronosports Editeur. ISBN 2-940125-06-6.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Hamilton, Maurice (ed.) (1987). AUTOCOURSE 1987-88. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 0-905138-47-3.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1988). AUTOCOURSE 1988-89. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 0-905138-57-0.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1989). AUTOCOURSE 1989-90. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 0-905138-62-7.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1990). AUTOCOURSE 1990-91. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 0-905138-74-0.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1991). AUTOCOURSE 1991-92. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 0-905138-87-2.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1992). AUTOCOURSE 1992-93. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 0-905138-96-1.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1993). AUTOCOURSE 1993-94. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 1-874557-15-2.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1994). AUTOCOURSE 1994-95. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 1-874557-95-0.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1995). AUTOCOURSE 1995-96. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 1-874557-36-5.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Henry, Alan (ed.) (1996). AUTOCOURSE 1996-97. Hazleton Publishing. ISBN 1-874557-91-8.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Higham, Peter (1995). The Guinness Guide to International Motor Racing. Guinness Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-85112-642-1.
  • Jones, Bruce (1997). The Official ITV Formula One 1997 Grand Prix Guide. Carlton Books Limited. ISBN 1-85868-319-X.
  • Ménard, Pierre (2006). The Great Encyclopedia of Formula 1 (3rd Edition). Chronosports S.A. ISBN 2-84707-123-7.
  • Tremayne, David (1996). Formula One - a Complete Race by Race Guide. Parragon. ISBN 0-7525-1762-7.

External links

107% rule

The 107% rule is a sporting regulation affecting Formula One racing qualifying sessions. During the first phase of qualifying, any driver who fails to set a lap within 107 percent of the fastest time in the first qualifying session will not be allowed to start the race without permission from the race stewards. For example, if the fastest Q1 lap time was 60 seconds, each driver must complete at least one lap within 64.2 seconds to guarantee a start.

The 107% rule was introduced for the 1996 season and remained in force until 2002. It was reintroduced for the 2011 season with minor modifications due to the knock-out qualifying format.

1996 Argentine Grand Prix

The 1996 Argentine Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 7 April 1996 at Autódromo Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, Buenos Aires. Despite suffering a bout of food poisoning, Damon Hill made it three wins out of three, with Jacques Villeneuve helping Williams complete their second one-two of the season. Jos Verstappen scored his only point of the season, Andrea Montermini his only finish of the season.

Pedro Diniz was involved in two major incidents during the race. First he collided with Luca Badoer, whose Forti was flipped and landed upside down in the gravel, forcing the marshals to bring out the safety car. Trackside marshals were heavily criticized for their delay in aiding Badoer's escape from the car; ultimately the Italian was forced to crawl out from underneath the Forti (the explanation for which was later given by the marshals that an uncharacteristic delay in the safety car picking up the race leader had caused confusion on the trackside). Diniz managed to continue and made a pit stop as the safety car was preparing to pull in - only to retire when he came back onto the circuit and his Ligier burst into flames, because a safety-valve in the fuel tank had jammed open, with the safety car staying out for three extra laps as a result.

1996 Formula One World Championship

The 1996 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 50th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The championship commenced on 10 March 1996 and ended on 13 October after sixteen races. Two World Championship titles were awarded, one for Drivers and one for Constructors.

Damon Hill won the Drivers' Championship two years after being beaten by a point by Michael Schumacher, making him the first son of a World Champion (his father Graham having won the title in 1962 and 1968) to have won the title himself. Hill, who had finished runner-up for the past two seasons, was seriously threatened only by his teammate, newcomer Jacques Villeneuve, the 1995 IndyCar and Indianapolis 500 champion. Williams-Renault easily won the Constructors' title, as there was no other competitor strong enough to post a consistent challenge throughout the championship. This was also the beginning of the end of Williams's 1990s dominance, as it was announced that Hill and designer Adrian Newey would depart at the conclusion of the season, with engine manufacturer Renault also leaving after 1997.Two-time defending world champion Michael Schumacher had moved to Ferrari and despite numerous reliability problems, they had gradually developed into a front-running team by the end of the season. Defending Constructors' Champion Benetton began their decline towards the middle of the grid, having lost key personnel due to Schumacher's departure, and failed to win a race. Olivier Panis took the only victory of his career at the Monaco Grand Prix.

1996 French Grand Prix

The 1996 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 30 June 1996 at Circuit de Nevers, Magny-Cours, France. It was the ninth race of the 1996 Formula One season. Michael Schumacher qualified in pole position but his engine blew on the warm-up lap and he did not start the race. The 72-lap race was won by Damon Hill for the Williams team, from a second position start. Jacques Villeneuve finished second in the other Williams, with Jean Alesi third for the Benetton team.This was the last Grand Prix where a Forti car started the race as they would fail to qualify for the remaining Grand Prix they would enter, however both cars were forced to retire.

Andrea Montermini

Andrea Montermini (born 30 May 1964) is an Italian racing driver.

Burali-Forti paradox

In set theory, a field of mathematics, the Burali-Forti paradox demonstrates that constructing "the set of all ordinal numbers" leads to a contradiction and therefore shows an antinomy in a system that allows its construction. It is named after Cesare Burali-Forti, who in 1897 published a paper proving a theorem which, unknown to him, contradicted a previously proved result by Cantor. Bertrand Russell subsequently noticed the contradiction, and when he published it in his 1903 book Principles of Mathematics, he stated that it had been suggested to him by Burali-Forti's paper, with the result that it came to be known by Burali-Forti's name.

Cesare Burali-Forti

Cesare Burali-Forti (13 August 1861 – 21 January 1931) was an Italian mathematician, after whom the Burali-Forti paradox is named.

Fondmetal

Fondmetal S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of alloy wheels, founded in 1972 by Gabriele Rumi.

A Formula One constructor of the same name, also owned by Rumi, competed in the 1991 and 1992 seasons, scoring no championship points. The company also sponsored, and supplied wheels to, numerous other constructors from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s.

In 2014 the Fondmetal brand expanded to the United States and became known as Fondmetal USA. All wheels continue to be made in Italy and are TUV approved.

Forti FG01

The Forti FG01, also designated Forti FG01-95, was a Formula One car for the 1995 season and was the first car made by Forti. The number 21 seat was taken by rookie Pedro Diniz and the number 22 seat was taken by veteran Roberto Moreno. The team never employed a test driver. The engine was a Ford EDD 3.0 V8. The team's main sponsor was Parmalat. The FG01 is also the last F1 car to sport a traditional manual gearbox, and was the only one on the grid.

The car was designed by Giacomo Caliri and Giorgio Stirano, with input from Sergio Rinland, and was built at the team's base in Alessandria, Italy.

Forti FG03

The Forti FG03 was the car with which the Forti team competed in part of the 1996 Formula One season. It was designed by Chris Radage and Riccardo de Marco. It was driven by Luca Badoer and Andrea Montermini, both of whom were in their first year with the team.

The car was designed as a replacement for the slow, cumbersome "B" version of the FG01 that the team had used to limited effect in 1995 and at the beginning of 1996. Introduced at Imola, it was a major step forward in terms of downforce and sensitivity; however, it only finished once, at its debut race, and both drivers failed to make the 107% time for the Spanish and British Grands Prix. Ultimately, the FG03 was too little, too late, and Forti folded at the German GP.

The team came last in the Constructors' Championship, with no points.

A FG03 is currently used for F1 experiences in Northamptonshire.

Giorgio Stirano

Giorgio Stirano (born 23 February 1950 in Turin) is an Italian racing car engineer, who worked for Forti and Osella in Formula One.

Giuseppe Forti

Giuseppe Forti (December 21, 1939 – July 2, 2007) was an Italian astronomer and a discoverer of asteroids.

Forti was a trained solar physicist, and worked at Harvard's Radio Meteor Project and later at the Arcetri Observatory, in Florence, Italy. He was a member of the third IAU Division: Planetary Systems Sciences. The Minor Planet Center credits him with the discovery of 49 numbered minor planets during 1977–2001.He died at the age of 67 on July 2, 2007. The main-belt asteroid 6876 Beppeforti, discovered by his colleges Andrea Boattini and Maura Tombelli at the Asiago Astrophysical Observatory in 1994, was named in his honor. Naming citation was published on 3 May 1996 (M.P.C. 27129).

Guido Forti

Guido Forti (10 July 1940 – 11 January 2013) was the founder and team manager of the now-defunct Formula One team Forti.

Forti co-founded his "Forti Corse" racing team with businessman Paolo Guerci in the late 1970s, initially running in Italian and European Formula Three. The team made the step up to Formula 3000 in 1987, but only participated in half of the races. For his debut season in the formulae, Forti had Nicola Larini and Nicola Tesini driving his cars, supplied by fellow newcomers Dallara. The team's first of nine wins in Formula 3000 came in 1990, with Gianni Morbidelli driving. Forti opted at the start of the 1994 season that it would be the last for his team in the category, as he had engineered a move into Formula One organised by Carlo Gancia with the financial support of wealthy Brazilian driver Pedro Diniz. Forti continued with the team throughout its short stint in F1 from 1995 to 1996. However, in the middle of the 1996 Formula One season, the team were struggling to secure funding due to Diniz's departure to the Ligier team at the start of the year. As a result, a financial deal was struck with the Shannon Group, which announced that it now owned 51% of the team. However, as Forti's financial situation worsened further despite the deal, Guido took Shannon to court to try to get back the 51% of the team he had lost. After an initial loss to Shannon in a court case, Forti managed to regain control of his team, but at this stage the outfit had already missed several Grands Prix and did not return to the sport.Forti was last involved in motor racing in 2003, when he was employed by a Euro Formula 3000 team. He died in January 2013, at the age of 72, in his home city of Alessandria.

Inch2

Inch2 (stylized as I N C H 2 and pronounced as Inch to) is a luxury shoe brand founded in 2014 by Olga and Edward Peterson, based in Riga, Latvia. Inch2 specializes in handcrafted masculine-style women's and men's footwear.

Italian Formula Three Championship

The Italian Formula Three Championship was the Formula Three racing competition in Italy.

Luca Badoer

Luca Badoer (born 25 January 1971) is an Italian former racing driver. Badoer has raced for the Scuderia Italia, Minardi, Forti Corse and most recently, Ferrari teams. In addition to his racing duties, Badoer was one of the active test and reserve drivers for Ferrari from 1998 to 2010 and in 2009 stood in for Ferrari's regular race driver Felipe Massa at the European Grand Prix and the Belgian Grand Prix after the Brazilian was injured during qualifying for the Hungarian Grand Prix and his original replacement, Michael Schumacher, pulled out due to injury.

As of May 2019, Badoer holds the record for the most Grand Prix starts – 50 – and the most race laps completed – 2364 – without scoring a point, although all of his races before his 2009 comeback came during a period when only the top six finishers scored points. Under the 2010 scoring system, he would have scored 26 points over his career. He nearly achieved a points finish in the 1999 European Grand Prix when a strong drive saw him reach fourth place, but the gearbox on his Minardi failed with 13 laps remaining.

Pedro Diniz

Pedro Paulo Falleiros dos Santos Diniz (born 22 May 1970) is a Brazilian businessman and former racing driver.

Diniz began karting at the age of eighteen and achieved minor success, before progressing to car racing in the Brazilian Formula Ford Championship and the British Formula 3 Championship. He first drove in Formula One with Forti for the 1995 season. The following year he switched to Ligier and moved to Arrows for 1997. In 1998, he finished 14th in the Drivers' Championship, and subsequently moved to Sauber for 1999. He left Sauber after the 2000 season and bought a share in the Prost team, which folded a year later.

Since leaving motorsport, Diniz founded the Formula Renault 2.0 Brazil Championship which he ran from 2002 and 2006, later becoming a partner in Pão de Açúcar and operates an organic produce and dairy farm alongside his wife Tatiana Diniz. He is a Board Member of Food Tank, a non-profit organization that spotlights environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways of alleviating hunger, obesity, and poverty and works to create networks of people, organizations, and content to push for food system change.

Diniz was considered a pay driver during his career due to his family backing, but he scored ten points during his Formula One career while most pay drivers did not score any.

Shannon Racing

Shannon Racing, or the Shannon Racing Team, was a short-lived motorsport team that was briefly involved with the Forti Formula One team during the 1996 season. It was owned by a parent company known as FinFirst. Both entities were registered in the Republic of Ireland, but funded by Italian backers.

Simone Forti

Simone Forti (born 1935), is an American Italian Postmodern artist, dancer, choreographer, and writer. Since the 1950's, Forti has exhibited, performed, and taught workshops all over the world, including performances at the Louvre in Paris, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, and the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles. Her innovations in Postmodern dance, including her seminal 1961 body of work, Dance Constructions, along with her contribution to the early Fluxus movement, have influenced many notable artists, including dancer/artist Yvonne Rainer and the Judson Dance Theater in New York. Forti first apprenticed with Anna Halprin in the 1950s and has since worked alongside artists and composers Nam June Paik, Steve Paxton, La Monte Young, Trisha Brown, Charlemagne Palestine, Peter Van Riper, Dan Graham, Yoshi Wada, and Robert Morris, among many others. Forti's published books include Handbook in Motion (1974, The Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design), Angel (1978, self-published), and Oh Tongue (2003, Beyond Baroque Foundation, ed. Fred Dewey). She is currently represented by The Box L.A. in Los Angeles, CA, and has works in the permanent collections of the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York, the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, the Generali Foundation in Vienna, the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, and the Moderna Museet in Stockholm.

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