Formannskapsdistrikt

Formannskapsdistrikt (Urban East Norwegian: [²fɔrmɑnskɑːpdɪˌstrɪkt]) is the name for Norwegian local self-government districts that were legally enacted on 1 January 1838. This system of municipalities was created in a bill approved by the Parliament of Norway and signed into law by King Carl Johan on 14 January 1837.[1] The formannskaps law, which fulfilled an express requirement of the Constitution of Norway, required that every parish (Norwegian: prestegjeld) form a formannsskapsdistrikt (municipality) on 1 January 1838. In this way, the parishes of the state Church of Norway became worldly, administrative districts as well. (Although some parishes were divided into two or three municipalities.) In total, 396 formannsskapsdistrikts were created under this law, and different types of formannskapsdistrikts were created, also:

Number of
districts
Type of district
25 City/town
3 City/town with a surrounding rural district
12 Lading places (ladested)
1 Rural district consisting of two (very small) seaports
3 Rural districts with dependent small seaports
1 Port and naval base
1 Rural district with dependent mining town
350 Rural districts
See below for a list of all districts, broken down by county.

History

The introduction of self government in rural districts was a major political change. The Norwegian farm culture (bondekultur) that emerged came to serve as a symbol of nationalistic resistance to the forced union with Sweden. The legislation of 1837 gave both the towns and the rural areas the same institutions: a minor change for the town, but a major advance for the rural communities. The significance of this legislation is hailed by a nationalistic historian, Ernst Sars:[2]

"So great an advance in relation to the political development of the people that on that account it can almost be placed alongside the Constitution. By it the free constitution was given a broad basis to rest upon and be nourished from, and became related to the daily life and activity of the people in such a way that its principles could penetrate everywhere and be most effectively acquired… There was at that time scarcely any European state where local self-government was so well organized and so widely ramified as it became in Norway through the legislation of 1837."[3]

In 1853, the land registration law superseded the formannsskapsdistrikt by introduction of a new designation, the municipality (Norwegian: herred). Two forms of municipality were created: "rural municipality" and "city" (or "market town"). Each district was to elect a body of selectmen of no less than 12 and no more than 48 members. This body selected a quarter of their members as a committee, which together with the local magistrate, established taxes to be levied and improvements to be performed in the district. The local chairman also represented the municipality at the county level.[1][4]

Almost one century later in 1936, a local self-government district law was enacted which created 682 rural municipalities (landkommuner) and 65 city municipalities (bykommuner) in Norway. Among the city municipalities, 43 had the status of town (kjøpstad) and 22 were recognized harbors for export/import (ladested). Norway included a subordinate category to the market town, the "small seaport" (lossested or ladested), which was a port or harbor with a monopoly to import and export goods and materials in both the port and for a surrounding outlying district. Typically, these were locations for exporting timber and importing grain and goods. Local farm goods and timber sales were all required to pass through merchants at either a lading place or a market town prior to export. This incentive ensured that local trading went through local merchants, a technique which was so effective in limiting smuggling that customs revenues increased from less than 30% of the total tax revenues in 1600 to more than 50% of the total taxes by 1700.[5]

During the last half of the 20th century, the distinction between the different types of municipalities was decreased, and in 1992, legislation eliminated all distinctions. Now, all municipalities (Norwegian: kommuner) are simply municipalities.[5]

List of districts

This is a list of the districts that were initially created on 1 January 1838. The original spellings have been used (many spellings have changed since that time. For a present list of current municipalities, see the List of municipalities of Norway.

Amt (County) City or town Lading place Rural district Total
Smaalehnenes Amt Frederiksstad,
Frederikshald,
Moss
Aremark, Askim, Berg, Borge, Eidsberg, Glemminge, Haabøl, Hvaler, Id, Mosse Landdistrict, Onsø, Rakkestad, Rygge, Rødenæs, Raade, Skiptvet, Skjeberg, Spydeberg, Trygstad, Tune, Vaaler 24
Agershuus Amt Drøbak,
Soon og Hølen[Note 1]
Aker, Asker, Urskog, Bærum, Eidsvold, Enebak, Fet, Frogn, Gjerdrum, Hurdalen, Høland, Kraakstad, Nannestad, Næs, Næsodden, Nitedal, Skedsmo, Sørum, Ullensaker, Vestby with Hvidsteen,[Note 2] Aas 23
Christiania Amt[Note 3] Christiania 1
Hedemarkens Amt Elverum, Grue, Hof, Kvikne, Løiten, Næs, Nordre Odalen, Rendalen, Ringsaker, Romedal, Stange, Store Elvedalen, Søndre Odalen, Tolgen, Trysil, Tønsæt, Vang, Vinger, Aamot 19
Christians Amt Lillehammer Birid, Fron, Faaberg, Gausdal, Gran, Jævnaker, Land, Lesje, Lom, Nordre Aurdal, Ringebu, Slidre, Søndre Aurdal, Vang, Vardal, Vestre Toten, Vaage, Østre Toten, Øier 20
Budskeruds Amt Drammen,
Kongsberg
Eker, Flesberg, Gol, Hole, Hurum, Lier, Modum, Næs, Norderhov, Rollag, Røken, Sandsvær, Sigdal, Aal 16
Jarlsberg og Laurvigs Amt Holmestrand,
Laurvig,
Tønsberg
Sandefjord, Aasgaardstrand Anneboe, Borre, Botne, Brunlagnæs, Hedrum, Hof, Laurdal, Nøtterøe, Ramnæs, Sandeherred, Sande, Sæm, Skouger, Frederiksværn,[Note 4] Stokke, Strømmen, Strømsgodset, Tjølling, Tjømø, Vaale 25
Bratsbergs Amt Kragerøe,
Porsgrund,
Skien
Brevig,
Langesund
Bamble with Stathelle,[Note 2] , Drangedal, Eidanger, Gjerpen, Hitterdal, Hjerdal, Holden, Hvidesøe, Laurdal, Mo, Moland, Nissedal, Sannikedal, Seufde, Sillejord, Slemdal, Solum, Tind, Vinje 25
Nedenæs og Raabygdelaugets Amt Arendal,
Grømstad,
Østerriisøer
Lillesand,
Tvedestrand
Birkenæs, Bygland, Dybvaag, Eide, Evje og Veigusdal, Gjerrestad, Heirefos, Holt, Hordnæs og Iveland, Landvig, Søndeløv, Valle, Vegaardsheien, Vestre Moland, Østre Moland, Øiestad, Omlid, Aaseral 23
Lister og Mandals Amt Christianssand Farsund,
Flekkefjord,
Mandal
Bjelland og Grindem, Finsland, Fjotland, Gyland, Mandals Landdistrict, Herod, Holme, Hegebostad, Lyngdal, Nedre Qvinnesdal, Næs og Hitterø, Oddernæs, Søgne, Tved, Undal, Vandsøe, Østre Bakke, Øvrebøe, Øslebø og Løvdal 23
Stavanger Amt Stavanger Egersund Avaldsnæs, Birkrem, Egersund landdistrikt, Finnø, Gjæsdal, Helleland, Heskestad, Hetland, Hjelmeland, Høiland, Haa, Haaland, Jælse, Klep, Lunde, Nærstrand, Rennesø, Skjold, Skudesnæs, Soggendal with Sogndalstrand,[Note 2] Strand, Suledal, Time, Torvestad, Vestre Bakke, Vikedal 28
Søndre Bergenhuus Amt Askøen, Bergens Landdistrict, Eid, Etne, Fanøe, Findaas, Fjeld, Fjeldberg, Graven, Hammer, Hosanger, Hougs, Kingservig, Lindaas, Manger, Ous, Qvindherred, Røldal, Skaanevig, Storøen, Strandebarm, Sund, Tysnæs, Vigøer, Voss, Aarstad 26
Bergen Amt Bergen 1
Nordre Bergenhuus Amt Askevold, Davigen, Eid, Evindvig, Førde, Gloppen, Hafsloe, Indre Holmedal Indvigen, Justedal, Jølster, Kind, Ladvig, Leganger, Leirdal, Lyster, Selløe, Sogndal, Urland, Vefring, Viig, Yttre Holmedal 22
Romsdals Amt Christianssund,
Molde
Aalesund Agerøe, Bolsøe, Borgund, Boe, Edøen, Fredøe, Grytten, Halse, Haram, Herrøe, Jørringfjord, Næsset, Nordalen, Oure, Qvernæs, Stangvig, Strand, Sunddalen, Sundelven, Surendal, Thingvold, Ulfsteen, Vandelven, Vestnæs, Vedøe, Volden, Øre, Ørskoug 31
Søndre Throndhjems Amt Throndhjem Bjørnøer, Bynæsset, Børsen, Hevne, Hitteren, Holtaalen, Klæboe, Leenstranden, Meldal, Melhuus, Opdal, Ørkedal, Røraas,[Note 5] Sælboe, Stadsbygden, Strinden, Støren, Ørland, Aafjorden 20
Nordre Throndhjems Amt Levanger Bedstaden, Fosnæs, Frosten, Grogn, Inderøen, Kolvereid, Lexvigen, Nummedalseidet, Nærøen, Overhalden, Skogn, Snaasen, Sparboen, Størdal, Stod, Vemundvig, Værdalen, Ytterøen, Aasen 21
Nordlands Amt Bodøe Alstahoug, Bodøe Landdistrict, Borge, Brønøe, Buxnæs, Bøe, Dverberg, Flakstad, Folden, Gilleskaal, Hassel, Hammerøe, Lurøe, Lødingen, Næsne, Ofoden, Ranen, Rødøe, Saltdalen, Skjærstad, Stegen, Vefsen, Vægøe, Værøe, Vaagen, Øxnæs 28
Tromsøe Amt[Note 6] Tromsøe Berg, Ibbestad, Karlsøe, Qvæfjord, Lenvig, Lyngen, Sand, Skjervøe, Tranøe, Tromsøe Landdistrict, Trondenæs 12
Finmarkens Amt Hammerfest,[Note 7]
Vadsøe,[Note 7]
Vardøe[Note 7]
Alten, Lebesbye, Loppen, Maasø, Kistrand 8
Grand totals 25 + 3[Note 7] 12 + 1[Note 1] 350 + 3[Note 2] + 1[Note 4] + 1[Note 5] 396
Footnotes
  1. ^ a b Consisting of two minor lading places.
  2. ^ a b c d Rural districts with dependent lading places.
  3. ^ Part of Agershuus Amt until 1842
  4. ^ a b Port and naval base.
  5. ^ a b Rural district with dependent mining town
  6. ^ Part of Finmarkens Amt until 1866.
  7. ^ a b c d Cities/towns with rural districts
  1. ^ a b Consisting of two minor lading places.
  2. ^ a b c d Rural districts with dependent lading places.
  3. ^ Part of Agershuus Amt until 1842
  4. ^ a b Port and naval base.
  5. ^ a b Rural district with dependent mining town
  6. ^ Part of Finmarkens Amt until 1866.
  7. ^ a b c d Cities/towns with rural districts

References

  1. ^ a b Gjerset, Knut (1915). History of the Norwegian People, Volumes II. The MacMillan Company.
  2. ^ Derry, T. K. (1973). A History of Modern Norway; 1814–1972. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-822503-2.
  3. ^ Brugge, A. (ed.) (1904). Norges Historie for det norske folk. Verdens Gang.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Derry, T. K. (1960). A Short History of Norway. George Allen & Unwin.
  5. ^ a b Store norske leksikon. "Herred" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2013-03-02.
Asker

Asker is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the Greater Oslo Region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Asker. The municipality was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

Brevik, Norway

Brevik (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈbreːviːk] (listen)) is a town in Telemark, Norway, with an estimated population of 2,700. Brevik was established as a municipality 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt), but was merged with Porsgrunn on 1 January 1964. Brevik is regarded as one of the best preserved towns from the sailing ship era. The town is located on the far end of Eidanger peninsula (Eidangerhalvøya), and was a former export centre for ice and timber. The last shipment of wood to the United Kingdom was around 1960.

Brevik is Cort Adeler's birth town.

Drangedal

Drangedal is a municipality in Telemark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Grenland. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Prestestranda. The municipality of Drangedal was established on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The district of Tørdal encompassed the northwestern part of the municipality.

The administrative centre in Drangedal, Prestestranda, and is situated by Lake Toke. The municipal government is located there along with primary and secondary schools, shopping facilities, and a bank. Drangedal railway station is also located in Prestestranda and is served by the Oslo to Kristiansand Sørlandsbannen railway line. The newspaper Drangedalsposten is published in Drangedal.

Alpine and cross-country skiing is possible in the area of Drangedal, at Telemark's largest ski resort at Gautefall.

Enebakk

Enebakk is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the Follo traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Kirkebygda.

The parish of Enebak was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The part of Enebakk lying east of lake Øyeren was transferred to Fet municipality in 1962.

Grue, Norway

Grue is a municipality in Hedmark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Solør. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Kirkenær (population: 1200).

The municipality of Grue was established on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The area of Brandval was separated from the municipality of Grue in 1867 to become a municipality of its own.

Hjartdal

Hjartdal is a municipality in Telemark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Øst-Telemark. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Sauland.

The municipality of Hierdal was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It consists of three parish'es: Hjartdal, Sauland, and Tuddal.

Up to the 1500s Hjartdal parish stretched from Rauland in the west and Kongsberg to the east. Counting from west to east, the villages Åmotsdal, Svartdal, Hjartdal, Tuddal, Sauland, Gransherad, Bolkesjø, Jondalen and Lisleherad was at one point included in the same parish. Gransherad was spun off last, around 1860. At the same time the administrative centre was moved from Hjartdal village to Sauland. Today, the Hjartdal parish and municipality consist of the three villages Hjartdal, Sauland and Tuddal.

Land, Norway

Land is a traditional district in Oppland, Norway consisting of the municipalities Nordre Land and Søndre Land.

In the early Viking Age, before Harald Fairhair, Land was a petty kingdom. Land is centered on the northern part of Randsfjorden. The parish of Land was a formannskapsdistrikt from 1837, and split into Nordre and Søndre Land in 1847. By the time of partition Land had a population of 9,199.

Lier, Norway

Lier is a municipality in Buskerud county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Lierbyen. The municipality of Lier was established on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The area Åssiden was transferred from Lier to the neighboring municipality of Drammen on 1 July 1951.

Norway's longest indoor shopping center, Liertoppen, is located in Lierskogen. The newspaper Lierposten is published in Lier.

Modum

Modum is a municipality in Buskerud county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Vikersund. The municipality of Modum was established on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

The area has a long tradition of skiing with several famous skiers. Modum is home to one of the largest ski jumping hills in the world, Vikersundbakken which is situated in Vikersund. The hill record, established in 2011 is a jump of 246.5 metres (809 ft).

Nannestad

For people with the surname, see Nannestad (surname).

Nannestad is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Romerike. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Teigebyen. Nannestad was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

Nesodden

Nesodden is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Follo. The administrative centre of the municipality is Nesoddtangen. The parish of Næsodden was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The new municipality of Oppegård was separated from Nesodden on 1 July 1915.

Nittedal

Nittedal is a municipality and city in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Romerike. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Rotnes.

The parish of Nitedal was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

Nord-Odal

Nord-Odal is a municipality in Hedmark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Odal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Sand. The parish of Nordre Odalen was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

Seljord

Seljord is a municipality in Telemark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Vest-Telemark. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Seljord. The parish of Siljord was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

Seljord is famous for its sea serpent, Selma, who allegedly lives in Lake Seljord (Seljordsvatnet).

The yearly Dyrsku'n market, held since 1866, attracts 60–80,000 visitors each year. The large fair started as a show of farm animals. Today it includes a huge market with vendors selling a variety of goods including base layer clothing, Bergans outdoors equipment, crafts, and food. Amusement rides are also featured.

Seljord Folkehøgskule is located in Seljord. The school offers a variety of courses including outdoor adventure, theater, music, and art.

Seljord Folk High School

Stor-Elvdal

Stor-Elvdal is a municipality in Hedmark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Østerdalen. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Koppang.

The parish of Store Elvedalen was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The neighboring municipality of Sollia was merged with Stor-Elvdal on 1 January 1965.

Sør-Odal

Sør-Odal is a municipality in Hedmark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Odalen. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Skarnes.

The parish of Søndre Odalen was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

The municipality is a rural community situated along the river Glåma and around the southern side of the lake Storsjøen. It is bordered by the municipalities of Eidskog in the south, by Kongsvinger in the east, and by Nord-Odal and Grue in the north. The terrain is dominated by rolling hills, lakes, and pine forests.

Sørum

Sørum is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Romerike. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Sørumsand. Sørum was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The municipality of Blaker was merged with Sørum on 1 January 1962.

Tinn

Tinn is a municipality in Telemark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Øst-Telemark. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Rjukan.

The parish of Tin(d) was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The area of Hovin was separated from the municipality of Tinn in 1860, but it was merged back into the municipality of Tinn on 1 January 1964.

Krossobanen is the oldest aerial tramway in Northern Europe. It was built in 1928 as a gift from Norsk Hydro. There is a museum and Hardangervidda National Park center at the lake Møsvatn close to Tinn.

Åmot

Åmot is a municipality in Hedmark county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Østerdalen. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Rena. The parish of Aamot was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt).

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