Forestry Commission

The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in England. It was formerly also responsible for Forestry in Wales and Scotland, however on 1 April 2013 Forestry Commission Wales merged with other agencies to become Natural Resources Wales,[2] whilst two new bodies (Forestry and Land Scotland and Scottish Forestry) were established in Scotland on 1 April 2019.[3] The commission was set up in 1919 to expand Britain's forests and woodland after depletion during the First World War. To do this, the commission bought large amounts of former agricultural land, eventually becoming the largest land owner in Britain. The Commission is divided into three divisions: Forestry England, Forestry Commission and Forest Research.[4]

Over time the purpose of the Commission broadened to include many other activities beyond timber production. One major activity is scientific research, some of which is carried out in research forests across Britain. Recreation is also important, with several outdoor activities being actively promoted. Protecting and improving biodiversity across England's forests are also part of the Forestry Commission's remit.

The Commission received criticism for its reliance on conifers, particularly the uniform appearance of conifer forests and concerns over a lack of biodiversity. Protests from the general public and conservation groups accompanied attempts to privatise the organisation in 1993 and 2010.

Forestry Commission
Forestry Commission Logo
Agency overview
TypeNon-ministerial government department
Annual budget£50.8 million (2009-2010)[1]
Agency executive
Parent department
Child agencies


Prior to the setting up of separate bodies for Scotland the Forestry Commission managed almost 700,000 hectares (about 1.7 million acres) of land in England and Scotland, making it the country's biggest land manager.[5] The majority of the land (70%) was in Scotland, 30% of the landholding is in England.[6] Activities carried out on the forest estate include maintenance and improvement of the natural environment and the provision of recreation, timber harvesting to supply domestic industry, regenerating brownfield and replanting of harvested areas.

Afforestation was the main reason for the creation of the commission in 1919. Britain had only 5% of its original forest cover left and the government at that time wanted to create a strategic resource of timber.[7] Since then forest coverage has doubled and the commission's remit expanded to include greater focus on sustainable forest management and maximising public benefits. Woodland creation continues to be an important role of the commission, however, and works closely with government to achieve its goal of 12% forest coverage by 2060,[8] championing initiatives such as The Big Tree Plant and Woodland Carbon Code.

The Forestry Commission is also the government body responsible for the regulation of private forestry in England; felling is generally illegal without first obtaining a licence from the Commission.[9] The Commission is also responsible for encouraging new private forest growth and development. Part of this role is carried out by providing grants in support of private forests and woodlands.

Bucknell Wood - Bluebells
A Panoramic in the north-east of Bucknell Wood, part of Whittlewood Forest


Logging in Wykeham Forest - - 1226569
The Forestry Commission produces timber from state owned forests

The Forestry Commission was established as part of the Forestry Act 1919.[7] The board was initially made up of eight forestry commissioners and was chaired by Simon Fraser, 14th Lord Lovat from 1919 to 1927.[10] The commission was set up to increase the amount of woodland in Britain by buying land for afforestation and reforestation.[7] The commission was also tasked with promoting forestry and the production of timber for trade.[11] During the 1920s the Commission focused on acquiring land to begin planting out new forests; much of the land was previously used for agricultural purposes.[7] During the Great Depression the Forestry Commission's estate continued to grow so that it was just over 360,000 hectares of land by 1934.[7] The low cost of land, and the need to increase timber production meant that by 1939 the Forestry Commission was the largest landowner in Britain.[12]

At the outbreak of the Second World War the Forestry Commission was split into the Forest Management Department, to continue with the Commission's duties, and the Timber Supply Department to produce enough timber for the war effort.[7] This division lasted until 1941, when the Timber Supply Department was absorbed by the Ministry of Supply.[13] Much of the timber supplied for the war came from the New Forest and the Forest of Dean.[7] The war also saw the Commission introduce the licensing system for tree felling.[7] By the end of the war approximately a third of available timber had been cut down and used.[12]

The advisory committee on Forest Research was formed in 1929 to guide the research efforts of the Forestry Commission.[14] After the war, the Commission began to increase its research output significantly.[7] This included the establishment of three research stations beginning with Alice Holt Lodge in 1946.[15] The expansion in research accompanied a significant increase in timber sales, exceeding £2 million per year during the 1950s.[7]

The Countryside Act 1968 required public bodies, including the Forestry Commission, to "have regard to the desirability of conserving the natural beauty and amenity of the countryside."[16] This forced the Commission to focus on conservation and recreation as well as the production and sale of timber. The conservation effort was partly driven by Peter Garthwaite[17] and Sylvia Crowe. Crowe also helped the Commission landscape their forests to make them more appropriate for recreational use.[7]

Northern Research Station - - 422952
The entrance to Northern Research station

Having begun to develop campsites within their forests during the early 1960s,[18] the Commission set up a Forest Cabins Branch during the 1970s to expand the number of cabins available for the public to stay in during their holidays.[7] In 1970 the Commission opened its Northern research station in Roslin.[19] The 1970s also saw the publication of a Treasury report which stated "afforestation ... and replanting fell far short of achieving the official 10% return on investment" with concerns over the long term profitability of timber production.[12] This was coupled with a major outbreak of Dutch elm disease throughout the decade.[7]

The early 1980s recession forced the Forestry Commission to expand its sales beyond Britain, exports quickly reached 500,000 tonnes of timber per year.[7] The Forestry Act 1981 allowed the sale of Commission land that was used for forestry.[20] By 1986 there were calls for the full privatisation of the Forestry Commission and its estate.[21][22] The Great Storm of 1987 caused significant damage to Commission owned forests, though most of the downed trees were recovered and eventually sold.[23]

The early 1990s saw the Department of Forestry absorb the Forest Authority from the Commission, which had previously acted as a separate government department.[13] The management of the forest estate became the responsibility of Forest Enterprise, making up a major part of the reduced Forestry Commission.[24] In 1993 it was again suggested that the Forestry Commission could be privatised, sparking protest from many conservation groups.[13][25] After the Forestry Review Group produced their report in 1994, it was announced by the government that "Forestry Commission woodlands will remain in the public sector".[13]

The decline in timber sales since the mid-1990s forced the Commission to focus on research and recreation more than ever before, something that was encouraged by the Government.[12] As a result the Forestry Commission began to expand woodland around urban areas for the first time.[12]

Devolution meant the Forestry Commission had to report to the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly as well as the national Government. This was achieved by splitting responsibility for forests by national borders, resulting in the creation of Forestry Commission England, Scotland and Wales as sub-departments of the Forestry Commission of Great Britain.[26] On 1 April 2013 Forestry Commission Wales was merged into Natural Resources Wales: between that date and April 2019 the Forestry Commission was responsible only for English and Scottish forests.

In October 2010, the Government introduced the Public Bodies Bill to The House of Lords,[27] which would have enabled the Secretary of State to sell or lease public forests in England.[28][29] According to The Guardian, "the news [was] met with near-universal disgust and shock".[30] The same newspaper also quoted Caroline Lucas MP, leader of the Green Party of England and Wales, as saying it was an "unforgivable act of environmental vandalism". An online petition opposing the sale received more than 500,000 signatories.[31] In February 2011, after a sustained campaign of protest by groups such as the Ramblers, Save Our Woods and Hands off our Forest, the government announced it had abandoned its current plans and would remove the forestry clauses from the Public Bodies Bill. An 'independent panel' was also established to advise on the future direction of forestry and woodland policy in England, and on the role of the Forestry Commission.[32][33][34] The panel's interim report in late 2011 suggested that the government had ignored the benefits of publicly owned forests.[35]

Due to austerity policies enacted in the UK from 2010 the Forestry Commission, like many government bodies, suffered a considerable cut in its budget to meet its running costs, despite buoyant timber production, recreation usage and revenue. There have been considerable jobs losses in some sections, starting with 450 job losses in 2011. Employee salaries were effectively frozen in 2011, with progression pay being removed, and the bottom of pay scales becoming the standard rate for the job. This has created a wide variation in salaries for employees doing the same job and has reduced wage competitiveness, compared to some forestry employers. However, other government departments in Scotland and Northern Ireland have continued to honour progression pay. This has created some retention and recruitment problems, particularly for professions such as forestry management and IT.

Forestry Commission Wales (Comisiwn Coedwigeath Cymru) was separated from Forestry Commission on 1 April 2013, and merged with Environment Agency Wales and Countryside Council for Wales to create natural Resources Wales,[2] a single body delivering the environmental priorities of the Welsh Government.[36] This move was controversial among forestry officials, with worries that the industry's voice will not be adequately heard in the new organisation.[37] On 1 April 2019 two new bodies (Forestry and Land Scotland and Scottish Forestry) were established in Scotland on 1 April 2019 to take over the Commissions responsibilities in Scotland.[3]

The Forestry Commission’s social concern

The Forestry Commission had for half a century a most interesting social policy which has had a large impact on upland Britain, but is rarely considered nowadays.[38] Integral to the Acland Report of 1916, which led to the setting up of the Forestry Commission immediately after the war, was the wider social concern. Large areas of upland Britain, it pointed out, were ‘waste’ and depopulated, and trees would not only increase their productiveness but ‘demanded a higher rural population’ than sheep rearing. They envisaged that ‘the small holdings will be grouped together on the best land within or near the forests so as to economise labour in the working of the holdings, ... and to provide an ample supply of ... labour for [forestry] work. Families settled on new holdings in forest areas will be a net addition to the resident rural population’.[39]

This remained the philosophy of the Commission for nearly fifty years. In 1946 the incoming Director General wrote of the employment created and the help of the Commission towards a solution of ‘one of the baffling social problems of our time... to draw men and their families “back to the land” and to make the attraction permanent’, especially through the smallholdings policy.[40]

Lord Lovat, the ‘Father’ of the Forestry Commission, had extensive landholdings in Scotland, and it was in the Highlands that he and other Scottish landowners such as Sir John Stirling-Maxwell conceived the scheme of land settlement allied to forestry. As first chairman of the Commission he was able to put into practice all over Britain this ‘long cherished dream’ of repopulating the hill country, thanks to his good contacts in government. Money for the scheme was promised first by Philip Snowden, Chancellor in the first Labour government, and then by his successor in Baldwin’s Conservative administration, Winston Churchill.

The scheme accordingly went ahead, and created smallholdings in the new forests, of approximately ten acres, let for £15 a year. Originally 150 days work was provided in the forests, but “In practice, of course, these smallholdings attracted the cream of our men whom we were glad to employ on fulltime...”[41] Existing and often derelict agricultural dwellings were adapted and new ones built to a small number of basic designs. The scheme “was never a directly economic proposition, but in the pre-war days when motor traffic was lacking and it was much more important than today to have a solid caucus of skilled woodmen [sic] living in the forests, the indirect benefits were inestimable. The holdings were a great success, and filled a genuine need in the countryside...”[42]

The number of smallholdings built up until 1931, slowed down after the Great Depression, was revived by the Special Areas programme of 1934 onwards, but the creation of new holdings was virtually ended by the Second World War. The total number of smallholdings was 1511. After 1945 policy shifted to the building of houses without holdings. This was more economic for the Commission, and numbers of these peaked in 1955, with 2688 cottages built by then. The smallholdings policy had been ‘adequate during the early years of State forest development, when only a small nucleus of men was needed to plant and tend each forest. But expanding programmes of afforestation, new methods of fire protection, and above all the greatly increased volume of utilisation work that results as soon as the young woods reach the thinning stage, have made it essential, in most of the larger forests, to concentrate the building of new houses in villages or small community groups.’[43] With houses designed for head foresters, the peak year for all forest tenancies was 1958, with the Commission owning a total of 4627 properties.[44]

Many of the more ambitious forest villages were never completed, partly because of their isolation, partly through financial restrictions, and partly because mechanisation, transport improvements, and more use of contract labour, all meant there was less need for staff houses. The social desirability of “company villages” in remote locations was questioned.[45]

Some houses had been sold on the open market by 1972, when government policy encouraged the disposal of ‘surplus’ land and buildings because of the cost of the traditional social objectives.[46] The gradual sale of housing to incomers became a flood in 1978-9 (under Labour), and the Thatcher administration then encouraged surviving tenants to buy with generous discounts.[47]

Although the social policy of the Forestry Commission is a thing of the past, its social impact on upland areas remains large, with many hamlets and small villages in what would otherwise be deserted or near deserted valleys.[48]

Organisational structure

The Forestry Commission is governed by a Board of Commissioners made up of a chairperson and up to ten Forestry Commissioners.[49] The Director England (Ian Gambles) and the Head of Forestry Commission Scotland (Jo O'Hara) make up two of these Commissioners. These Directors are appointed by the Queen. An Executive Board works with the Commissioners to handle the strategic management of the Forestry Commission.[50]

In 2003 forestry policy and the ownership of the state forests was devolved to the each of the three Administrations, and separate bodies have since been established for Wales and Scotland. Forestry Commission England continues to reports to the Westminster Parliament. Cross-border arrangements have been established whereby Scottish Forestry is responsible for management of the UK Forestry Standard and the Woodland Carbon Code and for provision of economic advice on forestry whilst Natural Resources Wales co-ordinates the commissioning, co-ordination and programme management of forestry research. Forest Research remains a separate executive agency of the Forestry Commissioners, whilst the residual Forestry Commission (now covering only England for most purposes) continues to be responsible on behalf of the whole of the UK for co-ordinating international forestry policy support and certain plan health functions in respect of trees and forestry.[51]

Forest Research

Forest Research is the research agency of the Forestry Commission that undertakes scientific research and surveys. Its core roles are to provide the evidence base for British forestry policies and to identify methods for sustainable forestry management.[52] It also carries out research with, or on behalf of, academic and commercial organisations.[53]

There are three forest research stations run by Forest Research.[54] A research station is located in each of the constituent countries of Great Britain: Alice Holt in England; the Northern research station in Scotland and the smaller Aberystwyth Research Unit in Wales.[54] The Alice Holt research station was the Commission's first research station, established in 1946;[15] it is the main research station of Forest Research.[55] The Northern research station in Midlothian was opened in 1970.[19] In 2009, a smaller research unit was established in Aberystwyth.[56]

Forest Research's Technical Services Unit is run from the Northern Research Station and maintains a network of five field stations to conduct research for the Forestry Commission and other organisations.[57] The Technical Services Unit is also responsible for six satellite stations and the research station nurseries.[57]

In 2006, Forest Research made Alice Holt forest the first research forest in Britain.[58] It was followed by the Dyfi Catchment and Woodland Research Platform, Gwynedd, in 2012.[58] Alice Holt was chosen as a research forest because it has been the base for research by the Forestry Commission since 1946 and over that time the Commission maintained detailed records of the forest and experiments carried out within it.[59]


Until the introduction of the Countryside Act 1968, the main purpose of the Forestry Commission was to maximise timber sales.[16] The act gave the public the right to use much of the forest estate for recreation, this led to the Commission providing additional facilities for the public.[7] Sylvia Crowe was hired as a consultant to identify how to improve the landscape of Commission forests for recreation.[60] The focus on recreation allowed the Forestry Commission to become the largest provider of outdoor recreation in Britain.[61]

The Commission works with various associations involved in rambling, cycling and horse riding to promote the use of its land for recreation. A notable example is the 7stanes project in Scotland where seven purpose built areas of man-made mountain bike trails have been laid; the accessible extensions provide recreational facilities for disabled cyclists.[62] During the summer months, it hosts a series of live music concerts across seven forests.[63]


Early plantations were criticised for their lack of diversity, however the Forestry Commission has been steadily improving the value of its woodlands for wildlife. The large blocks of conifer associated with the earlier plantings were beneficial to some species such as siskin, goldcrest, crossbill, most members of the tit family, long-eared owl, nightjar, roe deer, pine marten and polecat, but the greater emphasis on diversity now favours a much wider range of species, including broadleaved and open ground specialist species.


Timber harvesting in Kielder Forest
Timber harvesting at Kielder

The Forestry Commission manages approximately 700,000 hectares of land, 70% of which is in Scotland.[64] The largest forest managed by the Commission is Galloway Forest Park in Scotland; at 300 square miles it is also the largest forest in Britain.[65] The Commission also owns Kielder Forest, the largest forest in England.[66]

When the Forestry Commission was founded in 1919 it inherited several forests, some of which were former royal forests and contained ancient woodland.[67] Much of the land bought by the Commission in its early years was intensively planted with conifers.[7] Kielder was one of these "new" forests, having been planted in 1926.[68]

The early reliance on conifers, usually of the same age class and very dark in appearance, led to criticism that the forests appeared too artificial.[69] The Commission was originally given land with poor soil quality, usually in highland areas; conifers were used because they can grow well in such difficult conditions.[70] By the 1960s these trees were almost fully grown and the Forestry Commission received a large number of complaints that their blanket forests were an eyesore.[71]

Since then, landscape improvement has been a key feature of the Forestry Commission's work. All forests are covered by a Forest Design Plan, which aims to balance the different objectives of timber production, landscape amelioration, ecological restoration, recreation provision and other relevant objectives.[72] Forest management is a long term business, with plans frequently extending for a minimum of twenty-five or thirty years into the future.

See also


  1. ^ Forestry Commission Annual Report 2009-2010 (PDF), Forestry Commission, 22 July 2010, retrieved 18 December 2010
  2. ^ a b "Welsh Government-Natural Resources Wales". 9 April 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Forestry Commission Scotland and Forest Enterprise Scotland no longer exist". Scottish Government. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  4. ^ "We're Evolving". Forestry England. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Who owns Britain: Top UK landowners". Country Life. 11 November 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  6. ^ Forestry Facts & Figures 2011 (PDF). Forestry Commission. 2011. ISBN 978-0-85538-852-2. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "History of the Forestry Commission". The Forestry Commission. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  8. ^ "Government Forestry and Woodlands" (PDF). Defra. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  9. ^ "Felling Licences". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  10. ^ "Forestry Commission Changes". The Glasgow Herald. 1 January 1927. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  11. ^ "Forestry Commission – a brief history" (PDF). Woodland Trust. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  12. ^ a b c d e Sylvie Nail (July 2008). Forest Policies and Social Change in England. Springer. p. 332. ISBN 9781402083648.
  13. ^ a b c d Ernest Glenesk Richards (2003). British Forestry in the 20th Century:Policy and Achievements. Brill. p. 16. ISBN 9789067643603.
  14. ^ "Forestry Commission: Research Division: Correspondence and Papers". National Archives. 1925–1961. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  15. ^ a b "History of Alice Holt Lodge". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  16. ^ a b "The Countryside Bill". Forestry. 41 (1). Oxford Journals. 1968. p. 5. doi:10.1093/forestry/41.1.5. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  17. ^ "Peter Garthwaite". The Daily Telegraph. The Daily Telegraph. 15 June 2001. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  18. ^ "History of Forest Holidays". Forest Holidays. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  19. ^ a b "Celebrating the Northern Research Station's 40th anniversary". Forestry Commission. June 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  20. ^ "Re-positioning programme". Forestry Commission Scotland. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  21. ^ Eamonn Butler (14 December 2004). "Douglas Mason". The Independent. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  22. ^ "Forestry Commission: Assets Disposal Policy". 472. Hansard. 12 March 1986. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  23. ^ "The Great Storm of 1987 - Managing the timber". Forestry Commission. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  24. ^ "About us - Forest Enterprise". Forestry Commission. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  25. ^ Oliver Gillie (10 February 1994). "Appeals to halt forestry sell-off: Privatisation plans attacked after report claims safeguarding public access to woodlands would cost pounds 170m". The Independent. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  26. ^ "FORESTRY AGENCY BRANCHES OUT". Forestry Commission. 31 March 2003. Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  27. ^ "Public Bodies Bill [HL]".
  28. ^ "Forestry in England: A new strategic approach".
  29. ^ Government briefing notes Archived 24 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Leo Hickman (29 October 2010). "The great forest sell-off". the Guardian.
  31. ^ "'No sell-off' for public forests". BBC News. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  32. ^ Watt, Nicholas (17 February 2011). "Forest sell-off abandoned: I'm sorry, I got it wrong, says Caroline Spelman". The Guardian.
  33. ^ "Sale of forests in England scrapped". BBC News.
  34. ^ "Forest sale axed: Caroline Spelman says 'I'm sorry'". BBC News. 17 February 2011.
  35. ^ Damian Carrington (7 December 2011). "Forestry sell-off plan overlooked benefits, panel says". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  36. ^ "Single Body". Welsh Government. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  37. ^ "Forestry concern as minister names natural resources body". BBC News. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  38. ^ Jan-Willem Oosthoek, The Logic of British Forest Policy, 1919-1970, Paper presented at the 3rd Conference of the European Society for Ecological Economics, 2000; Charles Gordon Clark, Forestry Commission social policy as illustrated by Brecon (later Brycheiniog) Forest, in Brycheiniog, The Journal of the Brecknock Society, vol. XLV 2014
  39. ^ Acland Report 1918: 28
  40. ^ Taylor, W. L., Forests and Forestry in Great Britain, 1946, p. 102-3
  41. ^ Ryle, George, Forest Service, 1969, p. 188
  42. ^ Ryle, op. cit.
  43. ^ Edlin, H.L., Britain’s New Forest Villages, article in Unasylva, 1952-3, p. 151; cf Annual Reports, e.g. 1951, 1952.
  44. ^ Annual Reports of the Forestry Commission, HMSO, 1920 onwards, for all figures of tenancies
  45. ^ Smith, F. V., Sociological Survey of Border Forest Villages, Forestry Commission Research and Development Paper 112, 1976; Irving, B. L., and E. L. Hilgendorf, Tied Houses in British Forestry, Forestry Commission Research and Development Paper 117, nd, ?1977-8
  46. ^ Forestry Policy, HMSO, 1972
  47. ^ Annual Reports 1981, 1982
  48. ^ Charles Gordon Clark, Forestry Commission Social Policy as illustrated by Brecon (later Brycheiniog) Forest, in Brycheiniog, The Journal of the Brecknock Society, Volume XLV, 2014, pp. 101-114
  49. ^ "About us - Structure". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  50. ^ "Executive Board". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  51. ^ "Forestry devolution: resource list". Scottish Government. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  52. ^ "About Forest Research". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  53. ^ "Forest Research clients". Forestry Commission. Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  54. ^ a b "Addresses and directions". Forestry Commission (Forest Research). Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  55. ^ "Forestry Commission: Alice Holt Research Station: Registered Files". National Archives. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  56. ^ "Honorary Professorship for Services to Forest Research". Forestry Commission. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  57. ^ a b "Technical Services Unit". Forest Research. Archived from the original on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  58. ^ a b "Research forests". Forest Research. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  59. ^ "Alice Holt Research Forest Brochure" (PDF). Forest Research. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  61. ^ "The Forestry Commission". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  62. ^ Michael Lloyd (19 February 2005). "Trails open up to disabled bikers". BBC News. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  63. ^ "A Brief History of Forestry Commission Live Music". Forestry Commission. 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  64. ^ "Renting out land to wind firms 'crazy' says Mackie". The Scotsman. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  65. ^ "Forest park given Dark Sky honour". BBC News. 16 November 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  66. ^ "Kielder". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  67. ^ "Ancient woodland". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  68. ^ "North Tyne at Tarset (23005)". Environment agency. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  69. ^ J. Tsouvalis, C. Watkins (2000). Imagining and Creating Forests in Britain. University of Nottingham.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  70. ^ Antoinette M. Mannion (27 February 2006). Carbon And Its Domestication. Springer. p. 319.
  71. ^ Tom Turner (1 April 1998). Landscape Planning And Environmental Impact Design. Psychology Press. p. 425.
  72. ^ "Forest Design Plan Process". Forestry Commission Wales. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2012.

External links

Alexander Floyd

Alexander Geoffrey Floyd is an Australian botanist with an expert knowledge of rainforest plants, particularly the rainforest trees of New South Wales. He has worked with the New South Wales Forestry Commission, the Department of Forestry in Papua-New Guinea, and the National Parks and Wildlife Service of New South Wales. He helped create the North Coast Regional Botanic Garden at Coffs Harbour. Two genera and several species of plants are named in his honour; including Floydia, Alexfloydia, and Endiandra floydii.

Bedford Purlieus National Nature Reserve

Bedford Purlieus is a 211-hectare (520-acre) ancient woodland in Cambridgeshire, in the United Kingdom. It is a national nature reserve and Site of Special Scientific Interest owned and managed by the Forestry Commission. In Thornhaugh civil parish, 10 km (6.2 mi) south of Stamford and 14 km (8.7 mi) west of Peterborough, the wood is within the Peterborough unitary authority area of Cambridgeshire, and borders Northamptonshire. In Roman times it was an iron smelting centre, during the medieval period it was in the Royal Forest of Rockingham, and later it became part of the estates of the Duke of Bedford. Bedford Purlieus appears to have been continuously wooded at least from Roman times, and probably since the ice receded. The woodland may have the richest range of vascular plants of any English lowland wood. It acquired particular significance in the 1970s as an early subject for the historical approach to ecology and woodland management.

Delamere Forest

Delamere Forest or Delamere Forest Park is a large wood near the village of Delamere in Cheshire, England. The woodland, which is managed by the Forestry Commission, covers an area of 972 hectares (2,400 acres) making it the largest area of woodland in the county. It contains a mixture of deciduous and evergreen trees.Delamere, which means "forest of the lakes", is all that remains of the great Forests of Mara and Mondrem which covered over 60 square miles (160 km2) of this part of Cheshire. Established in the late 11th century, they were the hunting forests of the Norman Earls of Chester. Order was maintained under forest law. However this governance limited the agricultural potential of the area for centuries. It was not until ownership passed to The Crown in 1812 that the ancient ordnances were abolished. In 1924 the woodland came under the control of the Forestry Commission.

The area also includes Old Pale hill, the high point of the northern mass of the Mid Cheshire Ridge, and Blakemere Moss, a lake around 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) in length. Black Lake, a rare example of quaking bog or schwingmoor, has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and forms part of an international Ramsar site; Linmer Moss has also been designated an SSSI for its fenland habitat. The white-faced darter, a species of dragonfly rare in the UK, and marsh fern and white sedge, wetland plants that are rare in Cheshire, are found here.

Delamere Forest is a popular recreational area that is used by walkers, cyclists, mountain bikers and horse riders. It is also an outdoor concert venue.

Duffie Oak

The Duffie Oak is a historic Southern live oak in Mobile, Alabama. Being approximately 300 years old, it is considered by scholars to be the oldest living landmark in the city. It was originally known as the Seven Sisters Oak for its number of large limbs. It was later renamed for former mayor of Mobile George A. Duffie, who lived nearby.The tree has a circumference at breast height (CBH) of 30 feet 11 inches (9.42 m), a height of 48 feet (15 m) and a limb spread of 126 feet (38 m). It was recognized by the National Arborist Association in 1977. The Alabama Forestry Commission recognized it as a famous and historic tree in 2003.

Dunwich Forest

Dunwich Forest is an area of forest and lowland heath around 1 mile (1.6 km) north-east of the village of Dunwich in the English county of Suffolk. The forest covers an area of around 9 square kilometres (900 ha; 3.5 sq mi) and was originally planted by the Forestry Commission. The forest is within the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and is in the area known as the Suffolk Sandlings. South of the reserve is the National Trust property of Dunwich Heath, one of the largest remaining areas of lowland heath on the Suffolk coast, and the RSPB reserve at Minsmere. To the north and east of the forest are Dingle Marshes, part of the Suffolk Coast National Nature Reserve.

The Forestry Commission purchased land from the Dunwich and Westleton estates during the 1920s. Following the acquisition of this land, they began an afforestation programme to develop a conifer plantation, which became Dunwich Forest. The forest is now a mix of broadleaved and coniferous woodland with some areas of more open heath.In 2006 the Forestry Commission began work on a rewilding programme at Dunwich. Working with the Suffolk Wildlife Trust and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, they plan to gradually replace conifers in the northern area of the forest with broad-leaved trees and to convert areas in the south of the forest to lowland heath, one of the rarest British habitats. Suffolk Wildlife Trust has introduced Dartmoor ponies to the northern area which it manages as a reserve 270 hectares (670 acres) in size.


Esgairgeiliog (also known as Ceinws) is a village in the valley of the Afon Dulas in Powys, Wales.

The Afon Glesyrch joins the Dulas in the middle of the village.

The ERA slate quarry lay in the Glesyrch valley, behind the village.

The Centre for Alternative Technology lies about a mile south of the village.

Forestry in Scotland

Scotland, being in the British Isles, is ideal for tree growth, thanks to its mild winters, plentiful rainfall, fertile soil and hill-sheltered topography. As of 2019 approximately 18.5 % of the country was wooded, compared to a European Union (EU) average of 43 %. Approximately 4,700 km2 of Scotland's forests and woodlands are publicly owned by the Scottish Government via Forestry and Land Scotland, and are termed the National Forest Estate.As of 2015, forestry contributed almost £1 billion to the Scottish economy, and the industry employed over 25,000 people.

Forestry in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom, being in the British Isles, is ideal for tree growth, thanks to its mild winters, plentiful rainfall, fertile soil and hill-sheltered topography. Growth rates for broadleaved (hardwood) trees exceed those of mainland Europe, while conifer (softwood) growth rates are three times those of Sweden and five times those of Finland. In the absence of people, much of Great Britain would be covered with mature oaks, except for Scotland. Although conditions for forestry are good, trees do face damage threats arising from fungi, parasites and pests.Nowadays, about 12.9% of Britain's land surface is wooded. The country's supply of timber was severely depleted during the First and Second World Wars, when imports were difficult, and the forested area bottomed out at under 5% of Britain's land surface in 1919. That year, the Forestry Commission was established to produce a strategic reserve of timber. Other European countries average from 25% to 72% (Finland) of their area as woodland.Of the 31,380 square kilometres (12,120 sq mi) of forest in Britain, around 30% is publicly owned and 70% is in the private sector. More than 40,000 people work on this land. Broadleaves account for 29% of Britain's woodlands, the rest being conifers, but considering only England, the figures are 55% broadleaf and 45% conifer. Britain's native tree flora comprises 32 species, of which 29 are broadleaves. Britain's industry and populace uses at least 50 million tonnes of timber a year. More than 75% of this is softwood, and Britain's forests cannot supply the demand; in fact, less than 10% of the timber used in Britain is home-grown. Paper and paper products make up more than half the wood consumed in Britain by volume.In October 2010, the new coalition government of the UK suggested it might sell off around half the Forestry Commission-owned woodland in the UK. A wide variety of groups were vocal about their disapproval, and by February 2011, the government abandoned the idea. Instead, it set up the Independent Panel on Forestry led by Rt Rev James Jones, then the Bishop of Liverpool. This body published its report in July 2012. Among other suggestions, it recommended that the forested portion of England should rise to 15% of the country's land area by 2060.

Hightower Forest

Hightower Forest is a state forest in Dawson County, Georgia. The forest is 142 acres and is managed by the Georgia Forestry Commission.Currently, the Hightower Forest provides education services for teaching student groups of all ages to learn about the importance of forests and forestry. The Etowah River runs through the forest and the forest is also the location of the Georgia Forestry Commission's Dawson County Fire Control unit.

List of Alabama state forests

The state forests of Alabama are maintained by the Alabama Forestry Commission.

List of Georgia state forests

This is a list of Georgia state forests. In the state of Georgia, all state forests are managed by the Georgia Forestry Commission. All state forests are operated under a multiple-use Forest Stewardship management plan. This takes into account the wood product, wildlife, recreational, soil, aesthetic, historical, and cultural resources of the forest. Some of the state forests are also available for public recreational activities.

National Forestry Commission of Mexico

The National Forestry Commission of Mexico (Spanish: Comisión Nacional Forestal or CONAFOR) is a government agency tasked with developing, supporting and promoting the conservation and restoration of Mexico's forests, as well participating in the development of plans, programs and policies for sustainable forestry development. It is part of the Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources and was created on April 4, 2001.

Natural Resources Wales

Natural Resources Wales (Welsh: Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru) is a Welsh Government sponsored body, which became operational from 1 April 2013, when it took over the management of the natural resources of Wales. It was formed from a merger of the Countryside Council for Wales, Environment Agency Wales, and the Forestry Commission Wales, and also assumes some other roles formerly taken by Welsh Government.

RAF North Witham

RAF North Witham is a former World War II airfield in Lincolnshire, England. The airfield is located in Twyford Wood, off the A1 between Stamford and Grantham about 104 miles (167 km) north-northwest of London

Opened in 1943, it was used by both the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces. During the war it was used primarily as a transport airfield. After the war it was closed in late 1945.

Today the remains of the airfield are mostly woodland maintained by the Forestry Commission with the old concrete runways still accessible.

RAF Stoney Cross

RAF Stoney Cross is a former World War II airfield in the New Forest, Hampshire, England. The airfield is located approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) northwest of Lyndhurst and 12 miles (19 km) west of Southampton.

Opened in 1942, it served both the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces. During the war it functioned primarily as a combat bomber and fighter airfield. It closed in January 1948.

Today the remains of the airfield sit on New Forest Crown land managed by the Forestry Commission.

Semyazino Airport

Semyazino Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Семязино) (ICAO: UUBL) is an airport in Russia located 6 km west of Vladimir. It is a forestry commission and VVS Antonov An-26 base.

Spirit Creek Forest

Spirit Creek Forest is a state forest in Richmond County, Georgia. The forest is 725 acres and is managed by the Georgia Forestry Commission. The forest is mostly made up of wetlands, loblolly pines, and bottomland hardwoods.


Vroisha or Frodisia (Greek: Βροΐσια [ˈvro.iʃa] or Φρόδισια; Turkish: Vroişa or Yağmuralan) is a deserted village in the Nicosia District of Cyprus, in the Paphos Forest. Before 1964, it was inhabited exclusively by Turkish Cypriots. Vroisha was deserted between 15 and 18 March 1964.

Soon after, the Forestry Commission of the Republic of Cyprus razed the village to the ground. The village has been known as Vroişa (Vroisha in English) for hundreds of years; sometime after 1974, the Republic of Cyprus changed its official name to "Frodisia".


Whitbarrow is a hill in Cumbria, England. Designated a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest and national nature reserve, it forms part of the Morecambe Bay Pavements Special Area of Conservation due to its supporting some of the best European examples of natural limestone habitats. Also known as Whitbarrow Scar (though properly that term applies to the cliffs lining its western edge), the hill lies about 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) south-west of Kendal, just north of the A590 road, close to the village of Witherslack. Part of the site is a local nature reserve called Whitbarrow Scar.It is a mixture of woodland, grassland and limestone pavement. The hill is prominent from the A590 road with its steep limestone cliffs, laid down in the Carboniferous period some 350 million years ago. The main cliff faces are made up of rocks known as Dalton Beds, above which are Urswick Limestones, of which the limestone pavement (here and elsewhere around Morecambe Bay, including Hutton Roof Crags) has been formed.

Whitbarrow, like most of the Lake District, shows many signs of the last ice age, including glacial erratics (boulders left behind when the ice retreated), and the limestone pavement itself, formed when ice left bare limestone exposed to the elements which eroded it and left us with the grikes and clints we see today. The limestone has been used for many purposes including building, agricultural fertiliser, and production of millstones, but is now protected by law and it is an offence to remove any. Whitbarrow NNR is owned and managed by the Forestry Commission, Lake District National Park Authority and the Cumbria Wildlife Trust.

Much of Whitbarrow is covered in woodland, initially naturally and from 1919 following planting; the Forestry Commission now holds leases on parts of the hill. A variety of techniques are used to manage the woodland, including coppicing; the variety of methods adds to the range of wildlife resulting.

The summit of Whitbarrow Scar is known as Lord’s Seat, and an anticlockwise walk to here from Witherslack, returning along the valley to the west, forms a chapter in The Outlying Fells of Lakeland by Alfred Wainwright. He describes it as "the most beautiful [walk] in this book; beautiful it is every step of the way. ... All is fair to the eye on Whitbarrow."


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