Forestry

Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources for human and environmental benefits.[1] Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands.[2] The science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, physical, social, political and managerial sciences.[3]

Modern forestry generally embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation, landscape and community protection, employment, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, and preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a verderer, or a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is often used synonymously with forestry.

Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere,[4] and forestry has emerged as a vital applied science, craft, and technology.

Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries.[5] For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area,[6] wood is the most important renewable resource, and forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year.[7]

A deciduous beech forest in Slovenia
A deciduous beech forest in Slovenia
Forstarbeiten in Österreich
Forestry work in Austria

History

Background

The preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the 'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy, construction and housing. The development of modern forestry is closely connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property.[8]

Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood that was necessary for the Roman Empire.[9] Large deforestations came with respectively after the decline of the Romans.[9] However already in the 5th century, monks in the then Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food.[10] This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.[10]

Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests.[10] The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan. It was also later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi (1562–1633).

In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch (resin) was essential for the caulking of ships, falking and hunting rights, firewood and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, and for grazing animals in forests. The notion of "commons" (German "Allmende") refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.

Early modern forestry development

Gewinnung von Schnittreisig
Exploitation of brushwood at the Golden Steinrueck, Vogelsberg

Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, and as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction.[11] His successor Dom Dinis continued the practice and the forest exists still today.[12]

Forest management also flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg,[13] and in 16th-century Japan.[14] Typically, a forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; the harvest of timber was planned with an eye to regeneration. As timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar, Danube and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were closely connected. Large firs in the black forest were called „Holländer“, as they were traded to the Dutch ship yards. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs. The crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries, ovens and livestock stables.[15] Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.

Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey (rushes) of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of 'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is closely connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz (1645–1714), a mining administrator in Saxony. His book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht (1713) was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored strictly enclosed private property.[16] The Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons.[17] At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns.[18]

The practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had already acquired some popularity. Louis XIV's minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert's oak Forest of Tronçais, planted for the future use of the French Navy, matured as expected in the mid-19th century: "Colbert had thought of everything except the steamship," Fernand Braudel observed.[19] In parallel, schools of forestry were established beginning in the late 18th century in Hesse, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Sweden, France and elsewhere in Europe.

Forest conservation and early globalization

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, forest preservation programs were established in British India, the United States, and Europe. Many foresters were either from continental Europe (like Sir Dietrich Brandis), or educated there (like Gifford Pinchot). Sir Dietrich Brandis is considered the father of tropical forestry, European concepts and practices had to be adapted in tropical and semi arid climate zones. The development of plantation forestry was one of the (controversial) answers to the specific challenges in the tropical colonies. The enactment and evolution of forest laws and binding regulations occurred in most Western nations in the 20th century in response to growing conservation concerns and the increasing technological capacity of logging companies. Tropical forestry is a separate branch of forestry which deals mainly with equatorial forests that yield woods such as teak and mahogany.

Mechanization

Forestry mechanization was always in close connection to metal working and the development of mechanical tools to cut and transport timber to its destination. Rafting belongs to the earliest means of transport. Steel saws came up in the 15th century. The 19th century widely increased the availability of steel for whipsaws and introduced Forest railways and railways in general for transport and as forestry customer. Further human induced changes, however, came since World War II, respectively in line with the "1950s syndrome".[20] The first portable chainsaw was invented in 1918 in Canada, but large impact of mechanization in forestry started after World War II. Forestry harvesters are among the most recent developments. Although drones, planes, laser scanning, satellites and robots also play a part in forestry.

Early journals which are still present

Forestry in the 21st century

Laser guided cutting of wood inside modern woodmill
A modern sawmill

Today a strong body of research exists regarding the management of forest ecosystems and the genetic improvement of tree species and varieties. Forestry studies also include the development of better methods for the planting, protecting, thinning, controlled burning, felling, extracting, and processing of timber. One of the applications of modern forestry is reforestation, in which trees are planted and tended in a given area.

Trees provide numerous environmental, social and economic benefits for people.[29] In many regions the forest industry is of major ecological, economic, and social importance. Third-party certification systems that provide independent verification of sound forest stewardship and sustainable forestry have become commonplace in many areas since the 1990s. These certification systems developed as a response to criticism of some forestry practices, particularly deforestation in less-developed regions along with concerns over resource management in the developed world. Some certification systems are criticized for primarily acting as marketing tools and for lacking in their claimed independence.

In topographically severe forested terrain, proper forestry is important for the prevention or minimization of serious soil erosion or even landslides. In areas with a high potential for landslides, forests can stabilize soils and prevent property damage or loss, human injury, or loss of life.

Public perception of forest management has become controversial, with growing public concern over perceived mismanagement of the forest and increasing demands that forest land be managed for uses other than for pure timber production, for example: indigenous rights, recreation, watershed management, and preservation of wilderness, waterways and wildlife habitat. Some of the advantages and disadvantages accruing to monoculture in farming also apply to monoculture in forestry. Sharp disagreements over the role of forest fires, logging, motorized recreation and other issues drive debate while the public demand for wood products continues to increase.

Foresters

Sanpablotregua
Foresters of the Austral University of Chile in the Valdivian forests of San Pablo de Tregua, Chile

Foresters work for the timber industry, government agencies, conservation groups, local authorities, urban parks boards, citizens' associations, and private landowners. The forestry profession includes a wide diversity of jobs, with educational requirements ranging from college bachelor's degrees to PhDs for highly specialized work. Industrial foresters plan forest regeneration starting with careful harvesting. Urban foresters manage trees in urban green spaces. Foresters work in tree nurseries growing seedlings for woodland creation or regeneration projects. Foresters improve tree genetics. Forest engineers develop new building systems. Professional foresters measure and model the growth of forests with tools like geographic information systems. Foresters may combat insect infestation, disease, forest and grassland wildfire, but increasingly allow these natural aspects of forest ecosystems to run their course when the likelihood of epidemics or risk of life or property are low. Increasingly, foresters participate in wildlife conservation planning and watershed protection. Foresters have been mainly concerned with timber management, especially reforestation, maintaining forests at prime conditions, and fire control.[30]

Forestry plans

Foresters develop and implement forest management plans relying on mapped resource inventories showing an area's topographical features as well as its distribution of trees (by species) and other plant cover. Plans also include landowner objectives, roads, culverts, proximity to human habitation, water features and hydrological conditions, and soils information. Forest management plans typically include recommended silvicultural treatments and a timetable for their implementation. Application of digital maps in Geographic Informations systems (GIS) that extracts and integrates different information about forest terrains, soil type and tree covers, etc. using, e.g. laser scanning, enhances forest management plans in modern systems.

Forest management plans include recommendations to achieve the landowner's objectives and desired future condition for the property subject to ecological, financial, logistical (e.g. access to resources), and other constraints. On some properties, plans focus on producing quality wood products for processing or sale. Hence, tree species, quantity, and form, all central to the value of harvested products quality and quantity, tend to be important components of silvicultural plans.

Good management plans include consideration of future conditions of the stand after any recommended harvests treatments, including future treatments (particularly in intermediate stand treatments), and plans for natural or artificial regeneration after final harvests.

The objectives of landowners and leaseholders influence plans for harvest and subsequent site treatment. In Britain, plans featuring "good forestry practice" must always consider the needs of other stakeholders such as nearby communities or rural residents living within or adjacent to woodland areas. Foresters consider tree felling and environmental legislation when developing plans. Plans instruct the sustainable harvesting and replacement of trees. They indicate whether road building or other forest engineering operations are required.

Agriculture and forest leaders are also trying to understand how the climate change legislation will affect what they do. The information gathered will provide the data that will determine the role of agriculture and forestry in a new climate change regulatory system.[30]

Forestry as a science

Over the past centuries, forestry was regarded as a separate science. With the rise of ecology and environmental science, there has been a reordering in the applied sciences. In line with this view, forestry is a primary land-use science comparable with agriculture.[31] Under these headings, the fundamentals behind the management of natural forests comes by way of natural ecology. Forests or tree plantations, those whose primary purpose is the extraction of forest products, are planned and managed utilizing a mix of ecological and agroecological principles.[32]

Genetic diversity in forestry

The provenance of forest reproductive material used to plant forests has great influence on how the trees develop, hence why it is important to use forest reproductive material of good quality and of high genetic diversity.[33]

The term, genetic diversity describe differences in DNA sequence between individuals as distinct from variation caused by environmental influences. The unique genetic composition of an individual (its genotype) will determine its performance (its phenotype) at a particular site.[34]

Genetic diversity is needed to maintain the vitality of forests and to provide resilience to pests and diseases. Genetic diversity also ensures that forest trees can survive, adapt and evolve under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, genetic diversity is the foundation of biological diversity at species and ecosystem levels. Forest genetic resources are therefore important to consider in forest management.[33]

Genetic diversity in forests is threatened by forest fires, pests and diseases, habitat fragmentation, poor silvicultural practices and inappropriate use of forest reproductive material. Furthermore, the marginal populations of many tree species are facing new threats due to climate change.[33]

Most countries in Europe have recommendations or guidelines for selecting species and provenances that can be used in a given site or zone.[34]

Education

History of forestry education

The first dedicated forestry school was established by Georg Ludwig Hartig at Hungen in the Wetterau, Hesse, in 1787, though forestry had been taught earlier in central Europe, including at the University of Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt.

In Spain, the first forestry school was the Forest Engineering School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes), founded in 1844.

The first in North America, the Biltmore Forest School was established near Asheville, North Carolina, by Carl A. Schenck on September 1, 1898, on the grounds of George W. Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate. Another early school was the New York State College of Forestry, established at Cornell University just a few weeks later, in September 1898. Early 19th century North American foresters went to Germany to study forestry. Some early German foresters also emigrated to North America.

In South America the first forestry school was established in Brazil, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, in 1962, and moved the next year to become a faculty at the Federal University of Paraná, in Curitiba.[35]

Forestry education today

Burn9582
Prescribed burning is used by foresters to reduce fuel loads

Today, forestry education typically includes training in general biology, ecology, botany, genetics, soil science, climatology, hydrology, economics and forest management. Education in the basics of sociology and political science is often considered an advantage. Professional skills in conflict resolution and communication are also important in training programs.[36]

In India, forestry education is imparted in the agricultural universities and in Forest Research Institutes (deemed universities). Four year degree programmes are conducted in these universities at the undergraduate level. Masters and Doctorate degrees are also available in these universities.

In the United States, postsecondary forestry education leading to a Bachelor's degree or Master's degree is accredited by the Society of American Foresters.[37]

In Canada the Canadian Institute of Forestry awards silver rings to graduates from accredited university BSc programs, as well as college and technical programs.[38]

In many European countries, training in forestry is made in accordance with requirements of the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area.

The International Union of Forest Research Organizations is the only international organization that coordinates forest science efforts worldwide.[39]

Miscellaneous about Forestry research and education

See also

References

  1. ^ "SAFnet Dictionary | Definition For [forestry]". Dictionaryofforestry.org. 2008-10-22. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  2. ^ "Seed Origin - Forestry Focus". Forestry Focus. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  3. ^ Young, Raymond A. (1982). Introduction to Forest Science. John Wiley & Sons. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-471-06438-1.
  4. ^ "ecosystem part of biosphere". Tutorvista.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-11. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  5. ^ "How does the forest industry contribute to the economy?". www.nrcan.gc.ca. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  6. ^ Bundeswaldinventur 2002 Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine, Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV), retrieved, 17 January 2010
  7. ^ Unternehmen Wald, forests as an enterprise, German private forestry association website Archived 2016-09-18 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ compare Joachim Radkau Wood: A History, 2011
  9. ^ a b The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History, by Alfred Thomas Grove, Oliver Rackham, Yale University Press, 2003, review at Yale university press Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History (review) Brian M. Fagan, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 32, Number 3, Winter 2002, pp. 454-455 | Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ a b c T. Mirov, Nicholas; Hasbrouck, Jean (1976). "6". The story of pines. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-253-35462-4.
  11. ^ H. V. Livermore (2004). Portugal: A Traveller's History. Boydell Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-84383-063-4. Archived from the original on 2017-12-11.
  12. ^ "PGF - Mata Nacional de Leiria — ICNF". www.icnf.pt.
  13. ^ Buttinger, Sabine (2013). "Idee der Nachhaltigkeit" [The Idea of Sustainability]. Damals (in German). 45 (4): 8.
  14. ^ "Forestry in Yashino". City of Nara, Nara. Archived from the original on 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
  15. ^ Beschreibung eines großen Rheinfloßes Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Radkau, Joachim. Nature and Power. A Global History of the Environment. Cambridge University Press. 2008.
  17. ^ Nature and Power, A Global History of the Environment, by Joachim Radkau, 2008, p. 72
  18. ^ The end of the commons as a watershed' The Age of Ecology, Joachim Radkau, John Wiley & Sons, 03.04.2014, p. 15 ff
  19. ^ Braudel, Fernand (1979). The Wheels of Commerce: Civilization and Capitalism: 15th-18th Century (Volume II). University of California Press. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-520-08115-4.
  20. ^ Christian Pfister (Hrsg.), Das 1950er Syndrom: Der Weg in die Konsumgesellschaft, Bern 1995
  21. ^ a b c d e f Petru-Ioan Becheru (Aug 2012). "Revista pădurilor online". Rev. pădur. (in Romanian). 127 (4): 46–53. ISSN 1583-7890. 16819. Retrieved 2012-10-21.(webpage has a translation button)
  22. ^ "Swiss Forestry Society". www.szf-jfs.org.
  23. ^ "indianforester.org". indianforester.org. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  24. ^ Šumarski list (Forestry Review), with full digital archive since 1877
  25. ^ "Revista Montes, with 12.944 free downloadable digital files from 1868". Revistamontes.net. Archived from the original on 2013-11-27. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  26. ^ Victor Giurgiu (Nov 2011). "Revista pădurilor (Journal of forests) 125 years of existence". Rev. pădur. 126 (6): 3–7. ISSN 1583-7890. Archived from the original on 2016-05-17. Retrieved 2012-04-06.(webpage has a translation button)
  27. ^ "Časopis". SCIndeks. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  28. ^ "Udruženje šumarskih inženjera i tehničara Srbije - Istorijat". Srpskosumarskoudruzenje.org.rs. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  29. ^ "Department of environmental conservation". New York State Department. Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2014-11-29.
  30. ^ a b "PowerSearch Logout". Find.galegroup.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  31. ^ Wojtkowski, Paul A. (2002) Agroecological Perspectives in Agronomy, Forestry and Agroforestry. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH, 356p.
  32. ^ Wojtkowski, Paul A. (2006) Undoing the Damage: Silviculture for Ecologists and Environmental Scientists. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield, NH, 313p.
  33. ^ a b c de Vries, S.M.G., Alan, M., Bozzano, M., Burianek, V., Collin, E., Cottrell, J., Ivankovic, M., Kelleher, C.T., Koskela, J., Rotach, P., Vietto, L. and Yrjänä, L. (2015). "Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees and establishment of a core network of dynamic conservation units" (PDF). European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.: xii + 40 p. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-01-31.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ a b Konnert, M., Fady, B., Gömöry, D., A’Hara, S., Wolter, F., Ducci, F., Koskela, J., Bozzano, M., Maaten, T. and Kowalczyk, J. (2015). "Use and transfer of forest reproductive material in Europe in the context of climate change" (PDF). European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.: xvi and 75 p. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-04.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ "News of the world". Unasylva. FAO. 23 (3). 1969. Archived from the original on 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
  36. ^ Sample, V. A.; Bixler, R. P.; McDonough, M. H.; Bullard, S. H.; Snieckus, M. M. (July 16, 2015). "The Promise and Performance of Forestry Education in the United States: Results of a Survey of Forestry Employers, Graduates, and Educators". Journal of Forestry. 113 (6): 528–537. doi:10.5849/jof.14-122.
  37. ^ "SAF Accredited and Candidate Forestry Degree Programs" (PDF) (Press release). Society of American Foresters. 2008-05-19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-26. The Society of American Foresters grants accreditation only to specific educational curricula that lead to a first professional degree in forestry at the bachelor's or master's level.
  38. ^ "Canadian Institute of Forestry - Silver Ring Program". Cif-ifc.org. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  39. ^ "Discover IUFRO:The Organization". IUFRO. Archived from the original on 2010-07-08. Retrieved 2010-10-12.

Further reading

  • Eyle, Alexandra. 1992. Charles Lathrop Pack: Timberman, Forest Conservationist, and Pioneer in Forest Education. Syracuse, NY: ESF College Foundation and College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Distributed by Syracuse University Press. Available: Google books.
  • Hammond, Herbert. 1991. Seeing the Forest Among the Trees. Winlaw/Vancouver: Polestar Press, 1991.
  • Hart, C. 1994. Practical Forestry for the Agent and Surveyor. Stroud. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-86299-962-6
  • Hibberd, B.G. (Ed). 1991. Forestry Practice. Forestry Commission Handbook 6. London. HMSO. ISBN 0-11-710281-4
  • Kimmins, Hammish. 1992. Balancing Act: Environmental Issues in Forestry. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
  • Maser, Chris. 1994. Sustainable Forestry: Philosophy, Science, and Economics. DelRay Beach: St. Lucie Press.
  • Miller, G. Tyler. 1990. Resource Conservation and Management. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.
  • Nyland, Ralph D. 2007. Silviculture: Concepts and Applications. 2nd ed. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.
  • Radkau, Joachim Wood: A History, ISBN 978-0-7456-4688-6, November 2011, Polity
  • Stoddard, Charles H. 1978. Essentials of Forestry. New York: Ronald Press.
  • [1]. Vira, B. et al. 2015. Forests and Food: Addressing Hunger and Nutrition Across Sustainable Landscapes. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers.
  • Scott, James C. 1998. Seeing Like a State: Nature and Space. Yale University Press

External links

Arbor Day

Arbor Day (or Arbour; from the Latin arbor, meaning tree) is a holiday in which individuals and groups are encouraged to plant trees. Today, many countries observe such a holiday. Though usually observed in the spring, the date varies, depending on climate and suitable planting season.

Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy.

FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all. Its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates as "let there be bread". As of August 2018, The FAO has 197 member states, including the European Union (a "member organization"), Niue and The Cook Islands (States in free-association with New Zealand), and the Faroe Islands and Tokelau, which are associate members.

Forestry Commission

The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in England. It was formerly also responsible for Forestry in Wales and Scotland, however on 1 April 2013 Forestry Commission Wales merged with other agencies to become Natural Resources Wales, whilst two new bodies (Forestry and Land Scotland and Scottish Forestry) were established in Scotland on 1 April 2019. The commission was set up in 1919 to expand Britain's forests and woodland after depletion during the First World War. To do this, the commission bought large amounts of former agricultural land, eventually becoming the largest land owner in Britain. The Commission is divided into three divisions: Forestry England, Forestry Commission and Forest Research.Over time the purpose of the Commission broadened to include many other activities beyond timber production. One major activity is scientific research, some of which is carried out in research forests across Britain. Recreation is also important, with several outdoor activities being actively promoted. Protecting and improving biodiversity across England's forests are also part of the Forestry Commission's remit.

The Commission received criticism for its reliance on conifers, particularly the uniform appearance of conifer forests and concerns over a lack of biodiversity. Protests from the general public and conservation groups accompanied attempts to privatise the organisation in 1993 and 2010.

Forestry in India

Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a major environmental resource. India is one of the ten most forest-rich countries of the world along with Russia, Brazil, Canada, United States of America, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Australia, Indonesia and Sudan. Together, India and these countries account for 67 percent of total forest area of the world. India's forest cover grew at 0.20% annually over 1990-2000, and has grown at the rate of 0.7% per year over 2000-2010, after decades where forest degradation was a matter of serious concern.As of 2010, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates India's forest cover to be about 68 million hectares, or 22% of the country's area and by 2015 FAO Global assessment observers the forest cover increasing to 70.68 million hectares occupying 23.8% of the total land area of the country. The 2013 Forest Survey of India states its forest cover increased to 69.8 million hectares by 2012, per satellite measurements; this represents an increase of 5,871 square kilometers of forest cover in 2 years. However, the gains were primarily in northern, central and southern Indian states, while northeastern states witnessed a net loss in forest cover over 2010 to 2012.

In 2002, forestry industry contributed 1.7% to India's GDP. In 2010, the contribution to GDP dropped to 0.9%, largely because of rapid growth of the economy in other sectors and the government's decision to reform and reduce import tariffs to let imports satisfy the growing Indian demand for wood products. India produces a range of processed forest (wood and non-wood) products ranging from wood panel products and wood pulp to make bronze, rattazikistan ware and pern resin. India's paper industry produces over 3,000 metric tonnes annually from more than 400 mills. The furniture and craft industry is another consumer of wood. India's wood-based processing industries consumed about 30 million cubic metres of industrial wood in 2002. India annually consumes an additional 270 million tonnes of fuelwood, 2800 million tonnes of fodder, and about 102 million cubic meter of forest products - valued at about ₹27,500 crore (US$3.8 billion) a year.

India is one of the world's largest consumer of fuel-wood. India's consumption of fuel-wood is about five times higher than what can be sustainably removed from forests. However, a large percentage of this fuel-wood is grown as biomass remaining from agriculture, and is managed outside forests. Fuel-wood meets about 40% of the energy needs of the country. Around 80% of rural people and 48% of urban people use fuel-wood. Unless India makes major, rapid and sustained effort to expand electricity generation and power plants, the rural and urban poor in India will continue to meet their energy needs through unsustainable destruction of forests and fuel wood consumption. India's dependence on fuel-wood and forestry products as a primary energy source is not only environmentally unsustainable, it is a primary cause of India's near-permanent haze and air pollution.Forestry in India is more than just about wood and fuel. India has a thriving non-wood forest products industry, which produces latex, gums, resins, essential oils, flavours, fragrances and aroma chemicals, incense sticks, handicrafts, thatching materials and medicinal plants. About 60% of non-wood forest products production is consumed locally. About 50% of the total revenue from the forestry industry in India is in non-wood forest products category. In 2002, non-wood forest products were a source of significant supplemental income to over 400 million people in India, mostly rural.

Forestry in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom, being in the British Isles, is ideal for tree growth, thanks to its mild winters, plentiful rainfall, fertile soil and hill-sheltered topography. Growth rates for broadleaved (hardwood) trees exceed those of mainland Europe, while conifer (softwood) growth rates are three times those of Sweden and five times those of Finland. In the absence of people, much of Great Britain would be covered with mature oaks, except for Scotland. Although conditions for forestry are good, trees do face damage threats arising from fungi, parasites and pests.Nowadays, about 12.9% of Britain's land surface is wooded. The country's supply of timber was severely depleted during the First and Second World Wars, when imports were difficult, and the forested area bottomed out at under 5% of Britain's land surface in 1919. That year, the Forestry Commission was established to produce a strategic reserve of timber. Other European countries average from 25% to 72% (Finland) of their area as woodland.Of the 31,380 square kilometres (12,120 sq mi) of forest in Britain, around 30% is publicly owned and 70% is in the private sector. More than 40,000 people work on this land. Broadleaves account for 29% of Britain's woodlands, the rest being conifers, but considering only England, the figures are 55% broadleaf and 45% conifer. Britain's native tree flora comprises 32 species, of which 29 are broadleaves. Britain's industry and populace uses at least 50 million tonnes of timber a year. More than 75% of this is softwood, and Britain's forests cannot supply the demand; in fact, less than 10% of the timber used in Britain is home-grown. Paper and paper products make up more than half the wood consumed in Britain by volume.In October 2010, the new coalition government of the UK suggested it might sell off around half the Forestry Commission-owned woodland in the UK. A wide variety of groups were vocal about their disapproval, and by February 2011, the government abandoned the idea. Instead, it set up the Independent Panel on Forestry led by Rt Rev James Jones, then the Bishop of Liverpool. This body published its report in July 2012. Among other suggestions, it recommended that the forested portion of England should rise to 15% of the country's land area by 2060.

John Deere

John Deere is the brand name of Deere & Company, an American corporation that manufactures agricultural, construction, and forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains (axles, transmissions, gearboxes) used in heavy equipment, and lawn care equipment. In 2018, it was listed as 102nd in the Fortune 500 America's ranking and was ranked 394th in the global ranking. The company also provides financial services and other related activities.

Deere & Company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DE. The company's slogan is "Nothing Runs Like a Deere", and its logo is a leaping deer, with the words 'JOHN DEERE' under it. Various logos incorporating a leaping deer have been used by the company for over 155 years.

Land use, land-use change, and forestry

Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF), also referred to as Forestry and other land use (FOLU), is defined by the United Nations Climate Change Secretariat as a "greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use such as settlements and commercial uses, land-use change, and forestry activities."LULUCF has impacts on the global carbon cycle and as such, these activities can add or remove carbon dioxide (or, more generally, carbon) from the atmosphere, influencing climate. LULUCF has been the subject of two major reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Additionally, land use is of critical importance for biodiversity.

List of forestry universities and colleges

This is a list of tertiary educational institutions around the world offering bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees in forestry or related fields. Where noted, the country's accreditation board standard has been used and cited. They are grouped by continent.(For educational institutions with forestry technician or professional certificate programs see: List of forestry technical schools.)

Logging

Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.

In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, however, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities.

Illegal logging refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft by the timber mafia. It can also refer to the harvesting, transportation, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission or from a protected area; the cutting of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits.Clearcut logging is not necessarily considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, and is simply called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers".

Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value, often diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading. It is sometimes called selective logging, and confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.Logging usually refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land that has been flooded by damming to create reservoirs. Such trees are logged using underwater logging or by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests.

Lumberjack

Lumberjacks are North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term usually refers to a bygone era (before 1945 in the United States) when hand tools were used in harvesting trees. Because of its historical ties, the term lumberjack has become ingrained in popular culture through folklore, mass media and spectator sports. The actual work was difficult, dangerous, intermittent, low-paying, and primitive in living conditions. However, the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength, masculinity, confrontation with danger, and resistance to modernization.

Mahogany

Mahogany is a straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the Americas and part of the pantropical chinaberry family, Meliaceae.

Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Thailand and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers.

Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the rubber tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup. The coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing.

Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof.

Nature reserve

A nature reserve (also known as natural reserve, bioreserve, natural/nature preserve, or natural/nature conserve) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws. Normally it is more strictly protected than a nature park.

Plantation

A plantation is the large-scale estate meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton,

coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, sisal, oil seeds, oil palms, rubber trees, and fruits. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations were located.

A plantation house is the main house of a plantation, often a substantial farmhouse, which often serves as a symbol for the plantation as a whole. Plantation houses in the Southern United States and in other areas are known as quite grand and expensive architectural works today, though most were more utilitarian, working farmhouses.

Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of wine and olive oil for export. Plantation agriculture grew rapidly with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like every economic activity, it has changed over time.

Softwood

Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. The term is opposed to hardwood, which is the wood from angiosperm trees.

United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres (780,000 km2). Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System, State and Private Forestry, Business Operations, and the Research and Development branch. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency that is outside the U.S. Department of the Interior.

United States Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry

The Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of all matters relating to the nation's agriculture industry, farming programs, forestry and logging, and legislation relating to nutrition and health.

Université Laval

Université Laval (English: Laval University) is a French-language, public research university in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The University was founded by royal charter issued by Queen Victoria in 1852, with roots in the founding of the Séminaire de Québec in 1663 by François de Montmorency-Laval, making it the oldest centre of higher education in Canada and the first North American institution to offer higher education in French. The university, whose campus was erected from the 1950s onward in the suburban borough of Sainte-Foy–Sillery–Cap-Rouge, is ranked among the top ten Canadian universities in terms of research funding and holds four Canada Excellence Research Chairs.

Urban forestry

Urban forestry is the care and management of single trees and tree populations in urban settings for the purpose of improving the urban environment. Urban forestry advocates the role of trees as a critical part of the urban infrastructure. Urban foresters plant and maintain trees, support appropriate tree and forest preservation, conduct research and promote the many benefits trees provide. Urban forestry is practiced by municipal and commercial arborists, municipal and utility foresters, environmental policymakers, city planners, consultants, educators, researchers and community activists.

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