Forest

A forest is a large area dominated by trees.[1] Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function.[2][3][4] According to the widely used[5][6] Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares (9.9×109 acres) (15 million square miles) or approximately 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006.[4]

Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed around the globe.[7] Forests account for 75% of the gross primary production of the Earth's biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass. Net primary production is estimated at 21.9 gigatonnes carbon per year for tropical forests, 8.1 for temperate forests, and 2.6 for boreal forests.[7]

Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones: boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes. Higher elevation areas tend to support forests similar to those at higher latitudes, and amount of precipitation also affects forest composition.

Human society and forests influence each other in both positive and negative ways.[8] Forests provide ecosystem services to humans and serve as tourist attractions. Forests can also affect people's health. Human activities, including harvesting forest resources, can negatively affect forest ecosystems.

Zall Dajti
Forest on Mount Dajt, Albania

Definition

Gate in the forest - geograph.org.uk - 1726119
Forest in the Scottish Highlands

Although forest is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition, with more than 800 definitions of forest used around the world.[4] Although a forest is usually defined by the presence of trees, under many definitions an area completely lacking trees may still be considered a forest if it grew trees in the past, will grow trees in the future,[9] or was legally designated as a forest regardless of vegetation type.[10][11]

There are three broad categories of forest definitions in use: administrative, land use, and land cover.[10] Administrative definitions are based primarily upon the legal designations of land, and commonly bear little relationship to the vegetation growing on the land: land that is legally designated as a forest is defined as a forest even if no trees are growing on it.[10] Land use definitions are based upon the primary purpose that the land serves. For example, a forest may be defined as any land that is used primarily for production of timber. Under such a land use definition, cleared roads or infrastructure within an area used for forestry, or areas within the region that have been cleared by harvesting, disease or fire are still considered forests even if they contain no trees. Land cover definitions define forests based upon the type and density of vegetation growing on the land. Such definitions typically define a forest as an area growing trees above some threshold. These thresholds are typically the number of trees per area (density), the area of ground under the tree canopy (canopy cover) or the section of land that is occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks (basal area).[10] Under such land cover definitions, an area of land can only be known as forest if it is growing trees. Areas that fail to meet the land cover definition may be still included under while immature trees are establishing if they are expected to meet the definition at maturity.[10]

Under land use definitions, there is considerable variation on where the cutoff points are between a forest, woodland, and savanna. Under some definitions, forests require very high levels of tree canopy cover, from 60% to 100%,[12] excluding savannas and woodlands in which trees have a lower canopy cover. Other definitions consider savannas to be a type of forest, and include all areas with tree canopies over 10%.[9]

Some areas covered in trees are legally defined as agricultural areas, e.g. Norway spruce plantations in Austrian forest law when the trees are being grown as Christmas trees and below a certain height.

Etymology

Niepolomice oli 2013251
Since the 13th century, the Niepołomice Forest in Poland has had special use and protection. In this view from space, different coloration can indicate different functions.[13]

The word forest comes from Middle English, from Old French forest (also forès) "forest, vast expanse covered by trees"; first introduced in English as the word for wild land set aside for hunting[14] without the necessity in definition for the existence of trees.[15] Possibly a borrowing (probably via Frankish or Old High German) of the Medieval Latin word foresta "open wood", foresta was first used by Carolingian scribes in the Capitularies of Charlemagne to refer specifically to the king's royal hunting grounds. The term was not endemic to Romance languages (e.g. native words for "forest" in the Romance languages evolved out of the Latin word silva "forest, wood" (English sylvan); cf. Italian, Spanish, Portuguese selva; Romanian silvă; Old French selve); and cognates in Romance languages, such as Italian foresta, Spanish and Portuguese floresta, etc. are all ultimately borrowings of the French word.

The forest near Blatets, Vinitsa
A forest near Vinitsa, North Macedonia

The exact origin of Medieval Latin foresta is obscure. Some authorities claim the word derives from the Late Latin phrase forestam silvam, meaning "the outer wood"; others claim the term is a latinisation of the Frankish word *forhist "forest, wooded country", assimilated to forestam silvam (a common practice among Frankish scribes). Frankish *forhist is attested by Old High German forst "forest", Middle Low German vorst "forest", Old English fyrhþ "forest, woodland, game preserve, hunting ground" (English frith), and Old Norse fýri "coniferous forest", all of which derive from Proto-Germanic *furhísa-, *furhíþija- "a fir-wood, coniferous forest", from Proto-Indo-European *perkwu- "a coniferous or mountain forest, wooded height".

Uses of the word "forest" in English to denote any uninhabited area of non-enclosure are now considered archaic.[16] The word was introduced by the Norman rulers of England as a legal term (appearing in Latin texts like the Magna Carta) denoting an uncultivated area legally set aside for hunting by feudal nobility (see Royal Forest).[16][17]

Tywi Forest road, Ceredigion - geograph.org.uk - 1510647
Tywi Forest, Wales

These hunting forests were not necessarily wooded much, if at all. However, as hunting forests did often include considerable areas of woodland, the word "forest" eventually came to mean wooded land more generally. By the start of the 14th century, the word appeared in English texts, indicating all three senses: the most common one, the legal term and the archaic usage.[16] Other terms used to mean "an area with a high density of trees" are wood, woodland, wold, weald, holt, frith and firth. Unlike forest, these are all derived from Old English and were not borrowed from another language. Some classifications now reserve the term woodland for an area with more open space between trees and distinguish among woodlands, open forests, and closed forests based on crown cover.[18]

Evolution

The first known forests on Earth arose in the Late Devonian (approximately 380 million years ago), with the evolution of Archaeopteris.[19] Archaeopteris was a plant that was both tree-like and fern-like, growing to 10 metres (33 ft) in height. Archaeopteris quickly spread throughout the world, from the equator to subpolar latitudes.[19] Archaeopteris formed the first forest by being the first known species to cast shade due to its fronds and forming soil from its roots. Archaeopteris was deciduous, dropping its fronds onto the forest floor. The shade, soil, and forest duff from the dropped fronds created the first forest.[19] The shed organic matter altered the freshwater environment, slowing it down and providing food. This promoted freshwater fish.[19]

Ecology

Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earth's biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass.[7] Forest ecosystems can be found in all regions capable of sustaining tree growth, at altitudes up to the tree line, except where natural fire frequency or other disturbance is too high, or where the environment has been altered by human activity.

The latitudes 10° north and south of the equator are mostly covered in tropical rainforest, and the latitudes between 53°N and 67°N have boreal forest. As a general rule, forests dominated by angiosperms (broadleaf forests) are more species-rich than those dominated by gymnosperms (conifer, montane, or needleleaf forests), although exceptions exist.

Forests sometimes contain many tree species within a small area (as in tropical rain and temperate deciduous forests), or relatively few species over large areas (e.g., taiga and arid montane coniferous forests). Forests are often home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities. Much of this biomass occurs below ground in the root systems and as partially decomposed plant detritus. The woody component of a forest contains lignin, which is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate.

Components

Brussels Zonienwoud
Even, dense old-growth stand of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) prepared to be regenerated by their saplings in the understory, in the Brussels part of the Sonian Forest.

A forest consists of many components that can be broadly divided into two categories that are biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components. The living parts include trees, shrubs, vines, grasses and other herbaceous (non-woody) plants, mosses, algae, fungi, insects, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and microorganisms living on the plants and animals and in the soil.

Layers

Spiny Forest Ifaty Madagascar
Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and other vegetation

A forest is made up of many layers. Starting from the ground level and moving up, the main layers of all forest types are the forest floor, the understory and the canopy. The emergent layer exists in tropical rainforests. Each layer has a different set of plants and animals depending upon the availability of sunlight, moisture and food.

  • Forest floor contains decomposing leaves, animal droppings, and dead trees. Decay on the forest floor forms new soil and provides nutrients to the plants. The forest floor supports ferns, grasses, mushroom and tree seedlings.
  • Understory is made up of bushes, shrubs, and young trees that are adapted to living in the shades of the canopy.
  • Canopy is formed by the mass of intertwined branches, twigs and leaves of the mature trees. The crowns of the dominant trees receive most of the sunlight. This is the most productive part of the trees where maximum food is produced. The canopy forms a shady, protective "umbrella" over the rest of the forest.
  • Emergent layer exists in the tropical rain forest and is composed of a few scattered trees that tower over the canopy.[20]

Types

Prospectcreek
A dry sclerophyll forest in Sydney, which is dominated by eucalyptus trees.

Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity. One such way is in terms of the biome in which they exist, combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species (whether they are evergreen or deciduous). Another distinction is whether the forests are composed predominantly of broadleaf trees, coniferous (needle-leaved) trees, or mixed.

The number of trees in the world, according to a 2015 estimate, is 3 trillion, of which 1.4 trillion are in the tropics or sub-tropics, 0.6 trillion in the temperate zones, and 0.7 trillion in the coniferous boreal forests. The estimate is about eight times higher than previous estimates, and is based on tree densities measured on over 400,000 plots. It remains subject to a wide margin of error, not least because the samples are mainly from Europe and North America.[21]

Forests can also be classified according to the amount of human alteration. Old-growth forest contains mainly natural patterns of biodiversity in established seral patterns, and they contain mainly species native to the region and habitat. In contrast, secondary forest is regrowing forest following timber harvest and may contain species originally from other regions or habitats.[22]

Different global forest classification systems have been proposed, but none has gained universal acceptance.[23] UNEP-WCMC's forest category classification system is a simplification of other more complex systems (e.g. UNESCO's forest and woodland 'subformations'). This system divides the world's forests into 26 major types, which reflect climatic zones as well as the principal types of trees. These 26 major types can be reclassified into 6 broader categories: temperate needleleaf; temperate broadleaf and mixed; tropical moist; tropical dry; sparse trees and parkland; and forest plantations.[23] Each category is described as a separate section below.

Temperate needleleaf

Temperate needleleaf forests mostly occupy the higher latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere, as well as high altitude zones and some warm temperate areas, especially on nutrient-poor or otherwise unfavourable soils. These forests are composed entirely, or nearly so, of coniferous species (Coniferophyta). In the Northern Hemisphere pines Pinus, spruces Picea, larches Larix, firs Abies, Douglas firs Pseudotsuga and hemlocks Tsuga, make up the canopy, but other taxa are also important. In the Southern Hemisphere, most coniferous trees (members of the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae) occur in mixtures with broadleaf species, and are classed as broadleaf and mixed forests.[23]

Temperate broadleaf and mixed

Namdapha2
Broadleaf forest in Bhutan

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests include a substantial component of trees in the Anthophyta. They are generally characteristic of the warmer temperate latitudes, but extend to cool temperate ones, particularly in the southern hemisphere. They include such forest types as the mixed deciduous forests of the United States and their counterparts in China and Japan, the broadleaf evergreen rainforests of Japan, Chile and Tasmania, the sclerophyllous forests of Australia, central Chile, the Mediterranean and California, and the southern beech Nothofagus forests of Chile and New Zealand.[23]

Tropical moist

There are many different types of tropical moist forests, with lowland evergreen broad leaf tropical rainforests, for example várzea and igapó forests and the terra firma forests of the Amazon Basin; the peat swamp forests, dipterocarp forests of Southeast Asia; and the high forests of the Congo Basin. Seasonal tropical forests, perhaps the best description for the colloquial term "jungle", typically range from the rainforest zone 10 degrees north or south of the equator, to the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Forests located on mountains are also included in this category, divided largely into upper and lower montane formations on the basis of the variation of physiognomy corresponding to changes in altitude.[24]

Tropical dry

Tropical dry forests are characteristic of areas in the tropics affected by seasonal drought. The seasonality of rainfall is usually reflected in the deciduousness of the forest canopy, with most trees being leafless for several months of the year. However, under some conditions, e.g. less fertile soils or less predictable drought regimes, the proportion of evergreen species increases and the forests are characterised as "sclerophyllous". Thorn forest, a dense forest of low stature with a high frequency of thorny or spiny species, is found where drought is prolonged, and especially where grazing animals are plentiful. On very poor soils, and especially where fire or herbivory are recurrent phenomena, savannas develop.[23]

Sparse trees and parkland

Urals forest
Taiga forest near Saranpaul in the northeast Ural Mountains, Khanty–Mansia, Russia. Trees include Picea obovata (dominant on right bank), Larix sibirica, Pinus sibirica, and Betula pendula.

Sparse trees and savanna are forests with lower canopy cover of trees. They occur principally in areas of transition from forested to non-forested landscapes. The two major zones in which these ecosystems occur are in the boreal region and in the seasonally dry tropics. At high latitudes, north of the main zone of boreal forest, growing conditions are not adequate to maintain a continuous closed forest cover, so tree cover is both sparse and discontinuous. This vegetation is variously called open taiga, open lichen woodland, and forest tundra. A savanna is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses. Savannas maintain an open canopy despite a high tree density.[23]

Forest plantations

Forest plantations are generally intended for the production of timber and pulpwood. Commonly mono-specific and/or composed of introduced tree species, these ecosystems are not generally important as habitat for native biodiversity. However, they can be managed in ways that enhance their biodiversity protection functions and they can provide ecosystem services such as maintaining nutrient capital, protecting watersheds and soil structure, and storing carbon.[22][23]

Societal significance

Redwood M D Vaden
Redwood tree in northern California redwood forest, where many redwood trees are managed for preservation and longevity, rather than being harvested for wood production

Forests provide a diversity of ecosystem services including:

Some researchers state that forests do not only provide benefits, but can in certain cases also incur costs to humans.[27][28] Forests may impose an economic burden,[29][30] diminish the enjoyment of natural areas,[31] reduce the food producing capacity of grazing land [32] and cultivated land,[33] reduce biodiversity [34][35] reduce available water for humans and wildlife,[36][37] harbour dangerous or destructive wildlife,[27][38] and act as reservoirs of human and livestock disease.[39][40]

The management of forests is often referred to as forestry. Forest management has changed considerably over the last few centuries, with rapid changes from the 1980s onwards culminating in a practice now referred to as sustainable forest management. Forest ecologists concentrate on forest patterns and processes, usually with the aim of elucidating cause-and-effect relationships. Foresters who practice sustainable forest management focus on the integration of ecological, social, and economic values, often in consultation with local communities and other stakeholders.

Checkerboard forest in Idaho
Priest River winding through Whitetail Butte with lots of forestry to the east—these lot patterns have existed since the mid-19th century. The white patches reflect areas with younger, smaller trees, where winter snow cover shows up brightly to the astronauts. Dark green-brown squares are parcels

Humans have generally decreased the amount of forest worldwide. Anthropogenic factors that can affect forests include logging, urban sprawl, human-caused forest fires, acid rain, invasive species, and the slash and burn practices of swidden agriculture or shifting cultivation. The loss and re-growth of forest leads to a distinction between two broad types of forest, primary or old-growth forest and secondary forest. There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, weather, competition between species, etc. In 1997, the World Resources Institute recorded that only 20% of the world's original forests remained in large intact tracts of undisturbed forest.[41] More than 75% of these intact forests lie in three countries—the boreal forests of Russia and Canada and the rainforest of Brazil.

In 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization[42] reported that world deforestation, mainly the conversion of tropical forests to agricultural land, had decreased over the past ten years but still continues at a high rate in many countries. Globally, around 13 million hectares of forests were converted to other uses or lost through natural causes each year between 2000 and 2010 as compared to around 16 million hectares per year during the 1990s. The study covered 233 countries and areas. Brazil and Indonesia, which had the highest loss of forests in the 1990s, have significantly reduced their deforestation rates. China instituted a ban on logging, beginning in 1998, due to the erosion and flooding that it caused.[43] In addition, ambitious tree planting programmes in countries such as China, India, the United States and Vietnam – combined with natural expansion of forests in some regions – have added more than seven million hectares of new forests annually. As a result, the net loss of forest area was reduced to 5.2 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2010, down from 8.3 million hectares annually in the 1990s. In 2015, a study for Nature Climate Change showed that the trend has recently been reversed, leading to an "overall gain" in global biomass and forests. This gain is due especially to reforestation in China and Russia.[44] However new forests are not completely equivalent to old growth forests in terms of species diversity, resilience and carbon capture. On September 7, 2015, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations released a new study stating that, over the last 25 years, the global deforestation rate has decreased by 50% due to improved management of forests and greater government protection.[45][46]

Smaller areas of woodland in cities may be managed as urban forestry, sometimes within public parks. These are often created for human benefits; Attention Restoration Theory argues that spending time in nature reduces stress and improves health, while forest schools and kindergartens help young people to develop social as well as scientific skills in forests. These typically need to be close to where the children live, for practical logistics.

Canada

Canada has about 4,020,000 square kilometres (1,550,000 sq mi) of forest land. More than 90% of forest land is publicly owned and about 50% of the total forest area is allocated for harvesting. These allocated areas are managed using the principles of sustainable forest management, which includes extensive consultation with local stakeholders. About eight percent of Canada’s forest is legally protected from resource development.[47][48] Much more forest land—about 40 percent of the total forest land base—is subject to varying degrees of protection through processes such as integrated land use planning or defined management areas such as certified forests.[48]

By December 2006, over 1,237,000 square kilometres of forest land in Canada (about half the global total) had been certified as being sustainably managed.[49] Clearcutting, first used in the latter half of the 20th century, is less expensive, but devastating to the environment, and companies are required by law to ensure that harvested areas are adequately regenerated. Most Canadian provinces have regulations limiting the size of clear-cuts, although some older clear-cuts can range upwards of 110 square kilometres (27,000 acres) in size which was cut over several years.

Latvia

Latvian Forest Tomes pagasts, Ķeguma novads, Latvia
Latvian Pine Forest in Ķegums Municipality

Latvia has about 3,270,000 hectares (12,626 sq mi) of forest land which equates to 50.6% of Latvia's total area (24,938 sq mi). 1,510,000 hectares of forest land (46.3% of total forest land) is publicly owned and 1,750,000 hectares of forest land (53.7% of total forest land) is in private hands. Latvia's forests have been steadily increasing over the years which is in contrast to many other nations, mostly due to the forestation of land not used for agriculture. In 1935 there was only 1,757,000 hectares of forest, today this has increased by more than 150%. Birch is the most common tree at 28.2% followed by pine (26,9%), spruce (18.3%), grey alder (9.7%), aspen (8,0%), black alder (5.7%), oak/ash (1.2%) and finally hardwood making up the rest (2.0%).[50][51]

United States

In the United States, most forests have historically been affected by humans to some degree, though in recent years improved forestry practices have helped regulate or moderate large scale or severe impacts. However, the United States Forest Service estimates a net loss of about 2 million hectares (4,942,000 acres) between 1997 and 2020; this estimate includes conversion of forest land to other uses, including urban and suburban development, as well as afforestation and natural reversion of abandoned crop and pasture land to forest. However, in many areas of the United States, the area of forest is stable or increasing, particularly in many northern states. The opposite problem from flooding has plagued national forests, with loggers complaining that a lack of thinning and proper forest management has resulted in large forest fires.[52][53]

Land area

Forest land area[54]
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
('000 km2) ('000 mi2) ('000 km2) ('000 mi2) ('000 km2) ('000 mi2) ('000 km2) ('000 mi2) ('000 km2) ('000 mi2)
Australia 1,511 583 1,502 580 1,493 576 1,473 569 1,467 566
Brazil 5,239 2,023 5,217 2,014 5,195 2,006 5,183 2,001 5,173 1,997
Canada 3,101 1,197 3,101 1,197 3,101 1,197 3,101 1,197 3,101 1,197
China 2,013 777 2,041 788 2,069 799 2,159 834 2,168 837
European Union 1,559 602 1,564 604 1,569 606 1,573 607 1,578 609
Germany 111 43 111 43 111 43 113 44 113 44
India 681 263 683 264 684 264 693 268 693 268
Indonesia 958 370 951 367 944 364 937 362 931 359
Japan 250 97 250 97 250 97 251 97 251 97
Russia 8,090 3,120 8,090 3,120 8,091 3,124 8,092 3,124 8,093 3,125
United States 3,033 1,171 3,036 1,172 3,040 1,170 3,049 1,177 3,051 1,178
World total 40,318 15,567 40,261 15,545 40,204 15,523 40,184 15,515 39,519 15,258

See also

References

  1. ^ "Forest". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  2. ^ Schuck, Andreas; Päivinen, Risto; Hytönend, Tuomo; Pajari, Brita (2002). "Compilation of Forestry Terms and Definitions" (PDF). Joensuu, Finland: European Forest Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  3. ^ "Definitions: Indicative definitions taken from the Report of the ad hoc technical expert group on forest biological diversity". Convention on Biological Diversity. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "Forest definition and extent" (PDF). United Nations Environment Programme. 27 January 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  5. ^ "Comparative framework and Options for harmonization of definitions". Second Expert Meeting on Harmonizing Forest-Related Definitions. FAO. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  6. ^ Johnson, F.X.; Pacini, H.; Smeets, E (2013). Transformations in EU biofuels markets under the Renewable Energy Directive and the implications for land use, trade and forests. CIFOR. p. 32. ISBN 978-602-8693-81-3.
  7. ^ a b c Pan, Yude; Birdsey, Richard A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Jackson, Robert B. (2013). "The Structure, Distribution, and Biomass of the World's Forests" (PDF). Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 44: 593–62. doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135914. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 August 2016.
  8. ^ Vogt, Kristina A, ed. (2007). "Global Societies and Forest Legacies Creating Today's Forest Landscapes". Forests and Society: Sustainability and Life Cycles of Forests in Human Landscapes. CABI. pp. 30–59. ISBN 978-1-84593-098-1.
  9. ^ a b MacDicken, Kenneth (15 March 2013). "Forest Resources Assessment Working Paper 180" (PDF). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Forestry Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d e Watson, Robert T.; Verardo, David J.; Noble, Ian R.; Bolin, Bert; Ravindranath, N.H.; Dokken, David J., eds. (2000). "Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  11. ^ Menzies, Nicholas; Grinspoon, Elisabeth (22 October 2007). "Facts on Forests and Forestry". ForestFacts.org, a subsidiary of GreenFacts.org. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  12. ^ "Introduction: Definition of a Forest". MuseumLink Illinois. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  13. ^ "A Polish Royal Forest". NASA Earth Observatory. 29 November 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014.
  14. ^ "Broadsheet: The News Letter for Broadland Tree Wardens" (PDF). April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-16.
  15. ^ Ritter, E (2011). Dauksta, D (ed.). New Perspectives on People and Forests. World Forests. 9. Springer. ISBN 978-94-007-1149-5.
  16. ^ a b c "forest, noun". Oxford English Dictionary online edition. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  17. ^ "forest, noun". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3 ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1996. ISBN 978-0-395-44895-3.
  18. ^ "What is a Forest?". Australian Government/Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry/Rural Areas. 28 March 2007. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  19. ^ a b c d "The First Forests". Devonian Times. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  20. ^ The Living World. D.A.V. College Managing Committee.
  21. ^ Amos, Jonathan (3 September 2015). "Earth's trees number 'three trillion'". BBC. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  22. ^ a b Chazdon, Robin L. (2008). "Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands" (PDF). Science. 320 (5882): 1458–60. Bibcode:2008Sci...320.1458C. doi:10.1126/science.1155365. PMID 18556551. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 October 2016.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Jenkins, Martin D.; Groombridge, Brian (2002). World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's Living Resources in the 21st Century. World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Environment Programme. ISBN 978-0-520-23668-4.
  24. ^ Chape, S; Spalding, M; Jenkins, M (2008). The world's protected areas: status, values and prospects in the 21st century. Univ de Castilla La Mancha. ISBN 978-0-520-24660-7.
  25. ^ GLOBAL WARMING OF 1.5 °C an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty Summary for Policymakers (PDF). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 6 October 2018. p. 22. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  26. ^ S. Write, Jonathon; Fu, Rong; R. Worden, John; Chakraborty, Sudip; E. Clinton, Nicholas; Risi, Camille; Sun, Ying; Yin, Lei (20 July 2017). "Rainforest-initiated wet season onset over the southern Amazon". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (Forests, Rainfall): 8481–86. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114.8481W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1621516114. PMC 5558997. PMID 28729375. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  27. ^ a b Nasi, R; Wunder, S; Campos A, JJ (11 March 2002). "Forest ecosystem services: can they pay our way out of deforestation?" (PDF). UNFF II. Costa Rica. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 December 2014.
  28. ^ Emerton, Lucy (1999). Mount Kenya: The Economics Of Community Conservation (PDF) (Community Conservation research Working Paper). Evaluating Eden Series. University of Manchester Institute of Development Policy and Management. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 December 2014.
  29. ^ de Boo, Henneleen, Lette, Henk (2002). "Economic Valuation of Forests and Nature A support tool for effective decision-making". Theme Studies Series 6 Forests. Ede, The Netherlands: Forestry and Biodiversity Support Group, International Agricultural Centre (IAC), Wageningen National Reference Centre for Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (EC-LNV).
  30. ^ Bishop, Joshua T., ed. (1999). Valuing Forests A Review of Methods and Applications in Developing Countries (PDF). London: Environmental Economics Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2015.
  31. ^ Gray, Emma F.; Bond, William J. (2013). "Will woody plant encroachment impact the visitor experience and economy of conservation areas?". Koedoe. 55 (1). ISSN 0075-6458. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.
  32. ^ Scholes, R.J.; Archer, S.R. (1997). "Tree-Grass Interactions in Savannas" (PDF). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 28: 517–44. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.517. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2014.
  33. ^ Pimentel, David; Pimentel, Marcia H. (2007). Food, Energy, and Society. CRC Press.
  34. ^ Ratajczak, Zakary; Nippert, Jesse B.; Collins, Scott L. (2012). "Woody encroachment decreases diversity across North American grasslands and savannas" (PDF). Ecology. 93 (4): 697–703. doi:10.1890/11-1199.1. PMID 22690619. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 March 2015.
  35. ^ Parr, Catherine L.; Gray, Emma F.; Bond, William J. (2012). "Cascading biodiversity and functional consequences of a global change–induced biome switch". Diversity and Distributions. 18 (5): 493–503. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00882.x. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 January 2017.
  36. ^ Wilcox, B.P.; Kreuter, U.P. (2003). Woody plant: streamflow interactions as a basis for land management decisions in drylands. Proceedings VIIth International Rangelands Congress. pp. 989–96.
  37. ^ Scott, D.F. (1999). "Managing riparian vegetation to sustain streamflow: results of paired catchment experiments in South Africa" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 29 (7): 1149–51. doi:10.1139/x99-042. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 December 2014.
  38. ^ Davidson, A; Elliston, L; Kokic, P; Lawson, K (2005). "Native vegetation: cost of preservation in Australia" (PDF). Australian Commodities. 12 (3): 543–48. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2018.
  39. ^ Wilcox, B.A.; Ellis, B. "Forests and emerging infectious diseases of humans". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  40. ^ Margaletic, J (2003). "Small rodents in the forest ecosystem as infectious disease reservoirs". Acta Med Croatica (in Croatian). 57 (5): 421–26. PMID 15011471.
  41. ^ World Resources Institute (1997). The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge Archived 13 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. ^ "Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. Main report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Rome, Italy". Fao.org. 2010. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  43. ^ "Ban on Logging Saves Forests". people.com.cn. 25 October 2001. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
  44. ^ Liu, Yi Y.; van Dijk, Albert I.J.M.; de Jeu, Richard A.M.; Canadell, Josep G.; McCabe, Matthew F.; Evans, Jason P.; Wang, Guojie (30 March 2015). "Recent reversal in loss of global terrestrial biomass". Nature Climate Change. 5 (5): 470. Bibcode:2015NatCC...5..470L. doi:10.1038/nclimate2581.
  45. ^ "World deforestation slows down as more forests are better managed". fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  46. ^ MacDicken, K.; Jonsson, Ö.; Piña, L.; Maulo, S.; Adikari, Y.; Garzuglia, M.; Lindquist, E.; Reams, G.; D’Annunzio, R. (2015). "Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015" (PDF). fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 October 2015.
  47. ^ "Canada". Global Forest Watch Canada. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  48. ^ a b "Canada's Forests". Natural Resources Canada. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  49. ^ "Statistics". Certification status – Canada & the globe. Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  50. ^ "Forestry in 2015 (only in Latvian) | Latvijas statistika". www.csb.gov.lv. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  51. ^ "Buklets "Meža nozare Latvijā"". www.zm.gov.lv. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  52. ^ "Wildfires Ignite Forest Management Debate". Wildrockiesalliance.org. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  53. ^ Brock, Emily K. (2015). Money Trees: The Douglas Fir and American Forestry, 1900–1944. Oregon State University Press.
  54. ^ "Forest Land Area". FAOSTAT. World Bank. 12 February 2014. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.

External links

Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish: Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; French: Forêt amazonienne; Dutch: Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 km2 (2,700,000 sq mi), of which 5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, and with minor amounts in Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and France (French Guiana). States or departments in four nations contain "Amazonas" in their names. The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, and comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world, with an estimated 390 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species.

Black Forest

The Black Forest (German: Schwarzwald, pronounced [ˈʃvaʁt͡svalt]) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany. It is bounded by the Rhine valley to the west and south. Its highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres (4,898 ft). The region is roughly oblong in shape with a length of 160 km (99 mi) and breadth of up to 50 km (31 mi).

Deciduous

In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.

Generally, the term deciduous means "the dropping of a part that is no longer needed" and the "falling away [of a part] after its purpose is finished". In plants, it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer, deciduous teeth (baby teeth) in some mammals (including humans); or decidua, the uterine lining that sheds off after birth.

Wood from deciduous trees is used in a variety of ways in several industries including lumber for furniture, construction and flooring (oak), ornamental, bowling pins and baseball bats (maple) and furniture, cabinets, plywood and paneling (birch).

Deforestation

Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive the enemy of vital resources and cover for its forces. Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and by the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. As of 2005, net deforestation rates had ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.

Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management, and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that lead to large-scale deforestation. In many countries, deforestation–both naturally occurring and human-induced–is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations, as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More than half of all plant and land animal species in the world live in tropical forests.Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres (890,000 sq mi) of forests around the world were cut down. As a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres (2.4 million square miles) remain of the original 16 million square kilometres (6 million square miles) of tropical rainforest that formerly covered the Earth. An area the size of a football pitch is cleared from the Amazon rainforest every minute, with 136 million acres (55 million hectares) of rainforest cleared for animal agriculture overall.

Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Hollywood Hills)

Forest Lawn Memorial Park – Hollywood Hills is one of the six Forest Lawn cemeteries in Southern California. It is located at 6300 Forest Lawn Drive, Los Angeles, California 90068, in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles. It is on the lower north slope at the east end of the Santa Monica Mountains range that overlooks North Hollywood, Universal City, and Burbank, and the overall San Fernando Valley area of north view Los Angeles.

Forest Lawn – Hollywood Hills is a park dedicated to the preservation of American history and hosts high-profile events such as an annual Veterans Day ceremony attended by dignitaries and other VIPs. Los Angeles Magazine described it as a "theme-park necropolis", paraphrasing Jessica Mitford, indicating "Forest Lawn’s kitsch was just a sophisticated strategy for lubricating the checkbooks of the grieved."

Forest Whitaker

Forest Steven Whitaker III (born July 15, 1961) is an American actor, producer and director who has earned a reputation for intensive character study work for films such as Bird, The Crying Game, Platoon, Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai, The Great Debaters, The Butler and Arrival.He has also appeared in blockbusters such as Rogue One: A Star Wars Story as Saw Gerrera and Black Panther as Zuri.

For his performance as Ugandan dictator Idi Amin in the 2006 film The Last King of Scotland, Whitaker won the Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Golden Globe Award, National Board of Review Award, Screen Actors Guild Award and various critics groups' awards for a lead acting performance.

Forestry

Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands. The science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, physical, social, political and managerial sciences.Modern forestry generally embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation, landscape and community protection, employment, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, and preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a verderer, or a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is often used synonymously with forestry.

Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, and forestry has emerged as a vital applied science, craft, and technology.

Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, and forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year.

Montane ecosystems

Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains. These ecosystems are strongly affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases. They are stratified according to elevation. Dense forests are common at moderate elevations. However, as the elevation increases, the climate becomes harsher, and the plant community transitions to grasslands or tundra.

Nature reserve

A nature reserve (also known as natural reserve, bioreserve, natural/nature preserve, or natural/nature conserve) is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws. Normally it is more strictly protected than a nature park.

Nottingham Forest F.C.

Nottingham Forest Football Club, often referred to as simply Forest, is a professional football club based in West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, England. Forest were founded in 1865 and have played home matches at the City Ground since 1898. They compete in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system.

Forest have won the League title once, two FA Cups, four League Cups, one FA Charity Shield, two European Cups, and one UEFA Super Cup. Their most successful period was under the management reign of Brian Clough and Peter Taylor between 1976 and 1982. The club have mostly competed in the top two league tiers during their history except for five seasons in the third tier.

Old-growth forest

An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest or late seral forest — is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community. Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem. The concept of diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters, and diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris.

Old-growth forests are valuable for economic reasons and for the ecosystem services they provide. This can be a point of contention when some in the logging industry may desire to cut down the forests to obtain valuable timber, while environmentalists seek to preserve the forests for benefits such as maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and nutrient cycling.

Plantation

A plantation is the large-scale estate meant for farming that specializes in cash crops. The crops that are grown include cotton,

coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar cane, sisal, oil seeds, oil palms, rubber trees, and fruits. Protectionist policies and natural comparative advantage have sometimes contributed to determining where plantations were located.

A plantation house is the main house of a plantation, often a substantial farmhouse, which often serves as a symbol for the plantation as a whole. Plantation houses in the Southern United States and in other areas are known as quite grand and expensive architectural works today, though most were more utilitarian, working farmhouses.

Among the earliest examples of plantations were the latifundia of the Roman Empire, which produced large quantities of wine and olive oil for export. Plantation agriculture grew rapidly with the increase in international trade and the development of a worldwide economy that followed the expansion of European colonial empires. Like every economic activity, it has changed over time.

Rainforest

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between 250 and 450 centimetres (98 and 177 in), and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests. The monsoon trough, alternatively known as the intertropical convergence zone, plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth's tropical rainforests.

Around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. There may be many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth" and the "world's largest pharmacy", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered there. Rainforests are also responsible for 28% of the world's oxygen turnover, sometimes misnamed oxygen production, processing it through photosynthesis from carbon dioxide and consuming it through respiration.

The undergrowth in some areas of a rainforest can be restricted by poor penetration of sunlight to ground level. If the leaf canopy is destroyed or thinned, the ground beneath is soon colonized by a dense, tangled growth of vines, shrubs and small trees, called a jungle. The term jungle is also sometimes applied to tropical rainforests generally.

Rainforests as well as endemic rainforest species are rapidly disappearing due to deforestation, the resulting habitat loss and pollution of the atmosphere.

Taiga

Taiga (; Russian: тайга́, IPA: [tɐjˈɡa]; possibly of Turkic or Mongolic origin), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and larches.

The taiga or boreal forest is the world's largest land biome. In North America, it covers most of inland Canada, Alaska, and parts of the northern contiguous United States. In Eurasia, it covers most of Sweden, Finland, much of Norway, some of the Scottish Highlands, some lowland/coastal areas of Iceland, much of Russia from Karelia in the west to the Pacific Ocean (including much of Siberia), and areas of northern Kazakhstan, northern Mongolia, and northern Japan (on the island of Hokkaidō). However, the main tree species, the length of the growing season and summer temperatures vary. For example, the taiga of North America mostly consists of spruces; Scandinavian and Finnish taiga consists of a mix of spruce, pines and birch; Russian taiga has spruces, pines and larches depending on the region, while the Eastern Siberian taiga is a vast larch forest.

A different use of the term taiga is often encountered in the English language, with "boreal forest" used in the United States and Canada to refer to only the more southerly part of the biome, while "taiga" is used to describe the more barren areas of the northernmost part of the biome approaching the tree line and the tundra biome. Hoffman (1958) discusses the origin of this differential use in North America and why it is an inappropriate differentiation of the Russian term. Although at high elevations taiga grades into alpine tundra through Krummholz, it is not exclusively an alpine biome; and unlike subalpine forest, much of taiga is lowlands.

Tree

In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk. This trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. Below the ground, the roots branch and spread out widely; they serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller branches and shoots. The shoots typically bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development.

Trees usually reproduce using seeds. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones. Palms, bananas, and bamboos also produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead.

Trees play a significant role in reducing erosion and moderating the climate. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, and fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture. Because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered, with sacred groves in various cultures, and they play a role in many of the world's mythologies.

Tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. True rainforests are typically found between 10 degrees north and south of the equator (see map); they are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome that occurs roughly within the 28 degree latitudes (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). Within the World Wildlife Fund's biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical moist broadleaf forest (or tropical wet forest) that also includes the more extensive seasonal tropical forests.

United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres (780,000 km2). Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System, State and Private Forestry, Business Operations, and the Research and Development branch. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency that is outside the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Wake Forest University

Wake Forest University is a private research university in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Founded in 1834, the university received its name from its original location in Wake Forest, north of Raleigh, North Carolina. The Reynolda Campus, the university's main campus, has been located north of downtown Winston-Salem since the university moved there in 1956. The Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center campus has two locations, the older one located near the Ardmore neighborhood in central Winston-Salem, and the newer campus at Wake Forest Innovation Quarter downtown. The university also occupies lab space at Biotech Plaza at Innovation Quarter, and at the Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials. The university's Graduate School of Management maintains a presence on the main campus in Winston-Salem and in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Wake Forest has produced 15 Rhodes Scholars, including 13 since 1986, four Marshall Scholars, 15 Truman Scholars and 92 Fulbright recipients since 1993. Notable people of Wake Forest University include author Maya Angelou, mathematician Phillip Griffiths, psychologist Linda Nielsen, Senators Richard Burr and Kay Hagan, athletes Chris Paul, Tim Duncan, Muggsy Bogues, Brian Piccolo and Arnold Palmer, and CEO Charlie Ergen.

Wildfire

A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation occurring in rural areas. Depending on the type of vegetation present, a wildfire can also be classified more specifically as a brush fire, bushfire, desert fire, forest fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire.Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants 420 million years ago. Wildfire's occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna. Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet owing to its cover of carbon-rich vegetation, seasonally dry climates, atmospheric oxygen, and widespread lightning and volcanic ignitions.Wildfires can be characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties, the combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire. Wildfires can cause damage to property and human life, although naturally occurring wildfires may have beneficial effects on native vegetation, animals, and ecosystems that have evolved with fire.High-severity wildfire creates complex early seral forest habitat (also called "snag forest habitat"), which often has higher species richness and diversity than unburned old forest. Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for growth and reproduction. Wildfires in ecosystems where wildfire is uncommon or where non-native vegetation has encroached may have strongly negative ecological effects.Wildfire behavior and severity result from a combination of factors such as available fuels, physical setting, and weather. Analyses of historical meteorological data and national fire records in western North America show the primacy of climate in driving large regional fires via wet periods that create substantial fuels, or drought and warming that extend conducive fire weather.Strategies for wildfire prevention, detection, and suppression have varied over the years. One common and inexpensive technique is controlled burning: intentionally igniting smaller fires to minimize the amount of flammable material available for a potential wildfire. Vegetation may be burned periodically to maintain high species diversity and limit the accumulation of plants and other debris that may serve as fuel. Wildland fire use is the cheapest and most ecologically appropriate policy for many forests. Fuels may also be removed by logging, but fuels treatments and thinning have no effect on severe fire behavior when under extreme weather conditions. Wildfire itself is reportedly "the most effective treatment for reducing a fire's rate of spread, fireline intensity, flame length, and heat per unit of area", according to Jan Van Wagtendonk, a biologist at the Yellowstone Field Station. Building codes in fire-prone areas typically require that structures be built of flame-resistant materials and a defensible space be maintained by clearing flammable materials within a prescribed distance from the structure.

Types
Ecology and
management
Environmental
topics
Industries
Occupations
Air
Energy
Land
Life
Water
Related
Physiognomy
Latitude
Climatic
regime
Altitude
Leaves
Substrate
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.