Foreign relations of the United States

The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all U.N. member states except for Bhutan, Iran, North Korea, and Syria. Additionally, the U.S. has diplomatic relations with the European Union, the Holy See and Kosovo. The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code.

Diplomatic relations of the United States
Diplomatic relations of the United States
  United States
  Countries that have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Countries that do not have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Disputed territories
  Antarctica

North and South America

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1823[1] See Argentina–United States relations

Argentina was integrated into the British international economy in the late 19th century; there was minimal trade with the United States. When the United States began promoting the Pan American Union, some Argentines were suspicious that it was indeed a device to lure the country into the US economic orbit, but most businessmen responded favorably and bilateral trade grew briskly. The United States has a positive bilateral relationship with Argentina based on many common strategic interests, including non-proliferation, counternarcotics, counter-terrorism, the fight against human trafficking, and issues of regional stability, as well as the strength of commercial ties. Argentina is a participant in the Three-Plus-One regional mechanism (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and the U.S.), which focuses on coordination of counter-terrorism policies in the tri-border region. Argentina has endorsed the Proliferation Security Initiative, and has implemented the Container Security Initiative and the Trade Transparency Unit, both of which are programs administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security/Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

 Belize 1981[2] See Belize–United States relations
 Bolivia 1849[3] See Bolivia–United States relations

Although President Evo Morales has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Bolivia had a tradition of cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s, and the U.S. remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the U.S. Government forgave all of the $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia's multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.

 Brazil 1824[4] See Brazil–United States relations

The United States was the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil, doing so in 1808. Brazil-United States relations have a long history, characterized by some moments of remarkable convergence of interests but also by sporadic and critical divergences on sensitive international issues.[5] The United States has increasingly regarded Brazil as a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America.[6] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States.[7]

 Canada 1926[8] See Canada–United States relations

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties. The current bilateral relationship between Canada and the United States is of notable importance to both countries. About 75–85% of Canadian trade is with the United States, and Canada is the United States' largest trading partner and chief supplier of oil. While there are disputed issues between the two nations, relations are close and the two countries share the "world's longest undefended border."[9] The border was demilitarized after the War of 1812 and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. A high volume of trade and migration between the United States and Canada since the 1850s has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being culturally overwhelmed by its neighbor, which is nine times larger in terms of population and eleven times larger in terms of economy.[10][11] The two economies have increasingly merged since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994, which also includes Mexico. This economic merger of these two countries will be shifted when the Trump era United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement USMCA is ratified.

 Chile 1824[12] See Chile–United States relations

Relations between Chile and the United States have been better in the period 1988 to 2008 than any other time in history. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the United States government applauded the rebirth of democratic practices in Chile, despite having facilitated the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the build-up to which included destabilizing the country's economy and politics. Regarded as one of the least corrupt and most vibrant democracies in South America, with a healthy economy, Chile is noted as being a valuable ally of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere. A prime example of cooperation includes the landmark 2003 Chile–United States Free Trade Agreement.

 Colombia 1822[13] See Colombia–United States relations

Relations between Colombia and the United States have evolved from mutual cordiality during most of the 19th and early 20th centuries to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues, including fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and especially since 9/11, the threat of terrorism. During the last fifty years, different American governments and their representatives have become involved in Colombian affairs through the implementation of policies concerned with the above issues. Some critics of current U.S. policies in Colombia, such as Law Professor John Barry, consider that U.S. influences have catalyzed internal conflicts and substantially expanded the scope and nature of human rights abuses in Colombia.[14] Supporters, such as Under Secretary of State Marc Grossman, consider that the U.S. has promoted respect for human rights and the rule of law in Colombia, in addition to the fight against drugs and terrorism.[15]

 Costa Rica 1851[16] See Costa Rica–United States relations
 Ecuador 1832[17] See Ecuador–United States relations
 El Salvador 1824; 1849[18] See El Salvador–United States relations
 Guatemala 1824; 1844[19] See Guatemala–United States relations
 Guyana 1966[20] See Guyana–United States relations
 Honduras 1824; 1853[21] See Honduras–United States relations
 Mexico 1822[22] See Mexico–United States relations

The United States of America shares a unique and often complex relationship with the United Mexican States. A history of armed conflict goes back to the Texas Revolution in the 1830s, the Mexican–American War in the 1840s, and an American invasion in the 1910s. Important treaties include the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally with Canada, the North American Free Trade Agreement which was changed in the Trump era to the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement. The two countries have close economic ties, being each other's first and third largest trading partners. They are also closely connected demographically, with over one million U.S. citizens living in Mexico and Mexico being the largest source of immigrants to the United States. Illegal immigration and illegal trade in drugs and firearms have been causes of differences but also of cooperation.[23][24]

 Nicaragua 1824; 1849[25] See Nicaragua–United States relations

Nicaragua and the United States have had diplomatic relations since 1824. Between 1912-1933, the United States occupied Nicaragua (see United States occupation of Nicaragua). Following the United States occupation of Nicaragua, in 1933 the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster on July 19, 1979 during the Nicaraguan Revolution. The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by rising inequality and political corruption, strong US support for the government and its military, as well as a reliance on US-based multinational corporations. This led to international condemnation of the regime and in 1977 the Carter Administration in the U.S. cut off aid to the Somoza regime due to its human rights violations.

Then during the Reagan Administration the diplomatic relations escalated during the Iran-Contra affair and the United States embargo against Nicaragua. Then in 1990 after Violeta Chamorro won the Nicaraguan general election, 1990 the diplomatic relations began to improve greatly. The United States has promoted national reconciliation, encouraging Nicaraguans to resolve their problems through dialogue and compromise. In the Summer 2003 Nicaragua sent around 370 soldiers to the Iraq War as part of the U.S. coalition of countries that were engaging in war in this country. Immediately after April 2004 these troops were withdrawn by President Enrique Bolanos. Although President Daniel Ortega has been publicly critical of U.S. policies, the United States and Nicaragua have normal diplomatic relations.

 Panama 1903[26] See Panama–United States relations

Panama gained its independence in 1901 due in part to American interest in building the Panama Canal. Relations have been generally strong, with 25,000 U.S. citizens present in Panama and a mutual healthcare program. The U.S. invaded Panama in 1989 to remove then Panamanian leader Manual Noriega.

 Paraguay 1852[27] See Paraguay–United States relations
 Peru 1826[28] See Peru–United States relations
 Suriname 1975[29] See Suriname–United States relations
 Uruguay 1836[30] See Uruguay - United States relations

In 2002, Uruguay and the U.S. created a Joint Commission on Trade and Investment (JCTI) to exchange ideas on a variety of economic topics. In March 2003, the JCTI identified six areas of concentration until the eventual signing of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA): customs issues, intellectual property protection, investment, labor, environment, and trade in goods. In late 2004, Uruguay and the U.S. signed an Open Skies Agreement, which was ratified in May 2006. In November 2005, they signed a Bilateral investment treaty (BIT), which entered into force on November 1, 2006. A Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed in January 2007. More than 80 U.S.-owned companies operate in Uruguay, and many more market U.S. goods and services.

 Venezuela 1835[31] See Venezuela - United States relations

Both countries maintained mutual diplomatic relationships since the early-19th century traditionally been characterized by an important trade and investment relationship and cooperation in controlling the production and transit of illegal drugs. After the election of Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and George W. Bush of the United States and particularly after the Venezuelan failed coup attempt in 2002 against Chavez, tensions between the countries escalated, reaching a high in September 2008 when Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with the U.S. Relations showed signs of improvement in 2009 with the election of the new U.S. President Barack Obama, including the re-establishment of diplomatic relations in June 2009. In January 2019, after U.S. President Donald Trump recognized Juan Guaidó as the Interim President of Venezuela, President Nicolás Maduro cut all diplomatic ties to the United States (2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis) and ordered all U.S. diplomats to leave the country.[32] On the 26th of January the Maduro government suspended its deadline to U.S. diplomats to leave the country.[33]

Caribbean

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981[34] See Antigua and Barbuda–United States relations
 Aruba See Aruba–United States relations
 Bahamas 1973[35] See Bahamas–United States relations
 Barbados 1966[36] See Barbados–United States relations
 Bermuda See Bermuda–United States relations
 Cayman Islands See Cayman Islands–United States relations
 Cuba 1902; 2015[37] See Cuba–United States relations

Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959 relations had deteriorated substantially, and until recently have been marked by tension and confrontation. The United States has initiated an embargo due to the Cuban regime refusal to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights,[38] hoping to see democratization that took place in Eastern Europe. Diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba were formally re-established on July 20, 2015 with the opening of embassies in both Havana and Washington, D.C.[39]

 Dominican Republic 1866[40] See Dominican Republic–United States relations
 Dominica 1978[41] See Dominica–United States relations
 Grenada 1974[42] See Grenada–United States relations
 Haiti 1862[43] See Haiti–United States relations
 Jamaica 1962[44] See Jamaica–United States relations
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983[45] See Saint Kitts and Nevis–United States relations
 Saint Lucia 1979[46] See Saint Lucia–United States relations
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1981[47] See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–United States relations
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962[48] See Trinidad and Tobago–United States relations

Europe

American relations with Eastern Europe are influenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have gradually transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have also joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union See United States–European Union relations
 Albania 1922[49] See Albania–United States relations
 Andorra 1995[50] See Andorra–United States relations
 Armenia 1920; 1991[51] See Armenia–United States relations
 Austria 1921[52] See Austria–United States relations
 Azerbaijan 1918-1928, 1991[53] See Azerbaijan–United States relations
 Belarus 1991[54] See Belarus–United States relations
The United States has tense relations with Belarus relating to Belarus' human rights record and election irregularities.
 Belgium 1832[55] See Belgium–United States relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992[56] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–United States relations
 Bulgaria 1903[57] See Bulgaria–United States relations
 Croatia 1992[58] See Croatia–United States relations
 Cyprus 1960[59] See Cyprus–United States relations
 Czech Republic 1993[60] See Czech Republic–United States relations
 Denmark 1801[61] See Denmark–United States relations
 Estonia 1922; 1991[62] See Estonia–United States relations
 Finland 1919[63] See Finland–United States relations
 France 1778[64] See France–United States relations
 Georgia 1992[65] See Georgia–United States relations
 Germany 1797[66] See Germany–United States relations
 Greece 1868[67] See Greece–United States relations
 Holy See 1984[68] See Holy See–United States relations
 Hungary 1921[69] See Hungary–United States relations
 Iceland 1944[70] See Iceland–United States relations
 Ireland 1924[71] See Ireland–United States relations
 Italy 1861[72] See Italy–United States relations
 Kosovo 2008[73] See Kosovo–United States relations
The United States was one of the first countries to recognize Kosovo. The UN Security Council divided on the question of Kosovo's declaration of independence. Kosovo declared its independence on February 17, 2008, whilst Serbia objected that Kosovo is part of its territory. Of the five members with veto power in the UN Security Council, the US, UK, and France recognized the declaration of independence, and China has expressed concern, while Russia considers it illegal. "In its declaration of independence, Kosovo committed itself to the highest standards of democracy, including freedom and tolerance and justice for citizens of all ethnic backgrounds", President George W. Bush said on February 19, 2008.[74][75]
 Latvia 1922; 1991[76] See Latvia–United States relations
 Liechtenstein 1997[77] See Liechtenstein–United States relations
 Lithuania 1922; 1991[78] See Lithuania–United States relations
 Luxembourg 1903[79] See Luxembourg–United States relations
 Malta 1964[80] See Malta–United States relations
 Moldova 1992[81] See Moldova–United States relations
 Monaco 2006[82] See Monaco–United States relations
 Montenegro 1905; 2006[83] See Montenegro–United States relations
 Netherlands 1781[84] See Netherlands–United States relations
The Dutch colony of Sint Eustatius was the first foreign state to recognize the independence of the United States, doing so in 1776. However, the Dutch Republic neither authorized the recognition nor ratified it, therefore Morocco remains the first sovereign nation to officially recognize the United States.
 North Macedonia 1995[85] See North Macedonia–United States relations
 Norway 1905[86] See Norway–United States relations
 Poland 1919[87] See Poland–United States relations
 Portugal 1791[88] See Portugal–United States relations
 Romania 1880[89] See Romania–United States relations
 Russia 1809; 1991[90] See Russia–United States relations
 San Marino 1861[91] See San Marino–United States relations
 Serbia 1882; 2000[92] See Serbia–United States relations
 Slovakia 1993[93] See Slovakia–United States relations
 Slovenia 1992[94] See Slovenia–United States relations
 Spain 1783[95] See Spain–United States relations
 Sweden 1818[96] See Sweden–United States relations
  Switzerland 1853[97] See Switzerland–United States relations
 Ukraine 1991[98] See Ukraine–United States relations
 United Kingdom 1783[99] See United Kingdom–United States relations

13 U.S. States declared independence from the United Kingdom in 1776. Since World War II, the two countries have shared a Special Relationship as part of the Anglosphere. While both the United States and the United Kingdom maintain close relationships with many other nations around the world, the level of cooperation in military planning, execution of military operations, nuclear weapons technology, and intelligence sharing with each other has been described as "unparalleled" among major powers throughout the 20th and early 21st century.[100] The United States and Britain share the world's largest foreign direct investment partnership. American investment in the United Kingdom reached $255.4 billion in 2002, while British direct investment in the United States totaled $283.3 billion.[101]

Africa

North Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1962[102] See Algeria–United States relations

The official U.S. presence in Algeria is expanding following over a decade of limited staffing, reflecting the general improvement in the security environment. During the past three years, the U.S. Embassy has moved toward more normal operations and now provides most embassy services to the American and Algerian communities.

 Arab League See Arab–American relations

The Arab League has an embassy, and several offices in the U.S.

 Egypt 1922[103] See Egypt–United States relations

After the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from President Gamal Abdel-Nasser to Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance U.S.-Egyptian relations to foster a peace process with Israel.

 Libya 1951[104] See Libya–United States relations

In 2011, the United States cut diplomatic relations with the Gaddafi regime. The United States recognized the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya on July 15, 2011.[105]

 Morocco 1777[106] See Morocco–United States relations

Morocco was the first sovereign nation to recognize the United States of America in 1776. American-Moroccan relations were formalized in a 1787 treaty, which is still in force and is the oldest unbroken bilateral treaty in American history.

 Sudan 1956[107] See Sudan–United States relations
 Tunisia 1795[108] See Tunisia–United States relations

Sub-Saharan Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Angola 1994[109] See Angola–United States relations

Relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the U.S. government backed UNITA rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Marxism in 1992.

 Benin 1960[110] See Benin–United States relations

The two nations have had an excellent history of relations in the years since Benin embraced democracy. The U.S. Government continues to assist Benin with the improvement of living standards that are key to the ultimate success of Benin's experiment with democratic government and economic liberalization, and are consistent with U.S. values and national interest in reducing poverty and promoting growth. The bulk of the U.S. effort in support of consolidating democracy in Benin is focused on long-term human resource development through U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.[111]

 Botswana 1966[112] See Botswana–United States relations
 Burkina Faso 1960[113] See Burkina Faso–United States relations
 Burundi 1962[114] See Burundi–United States relations
 Cameroon 1960[115] See Cameroon–United States relations
 Cape Verde 1975[116] See Cape Verde–United States relations
 Central African Republic 1960[117] See Central African Republic–United States relations
 Chad 1960[118] See Chad–United States relations
 Comoros 1977[119] See Comoros–United States relations
 Côte d'Ivoire 1960[120] See Côte d'Ivoire–United States relations
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960[121] See Democratic Republic of the Congo–United States relations
 Djibouti 1977[122] See Djibouti–United States relations
 Equatorial Guinea 1968[123] See Equatorial Guinea–United States relations
 Eritrea 1993[124] See Eritrea–United States relations
 Ethiopia 1903[125] See Ethiopia–United States relations
 Gabon 1960[126] See Gabon–United States relations
 Ghana 1957[127] See Ghana–United States relations
 Guinea 1959[128] See Guinea–United States relations
 Guinea-Bissau 1975[129] See Guinea-Bissau–United States relations
 Kenya 1964[130] See Kenya–United States relations
 Lesotho 1966[131] See Lesotho–United States relations
 Liberia 1864[132] See Liberia–United States relations
 Madagascar 1874[133] See Madagascar–United States relations
 Malawi 1964[134] See Malawi–United States relations
 Mali 1960[135] See Mali–United States relations
 Mauritania 1960[136] See Mauritania–United States relations
 Mauritius 1968[137] See Mauritius–United States relations
 Mozambique 1975[138] See Mozambique–United States relations
 Namibia 1990[139] See Namibia–United States relations
 Niger 1960[140] See Niger–United States relations
 Nigeria 1960[141] See Nigeria–United States relations
 Republic of the Congo 1960[142] See Republic of the Congo–United States relations
 Rwanda 1962[143] See Rwanda–United States relations
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1976[144] See São Tomé and Príncipe–United States relations
 Senegal 1960[145] See Senegal–United States relations
 Seychelles 1976[146] See Seychelles–United States relations
 Sierra Leone 1961[147] See Sierra Leone–United States relations
 Somalia 1960[148] See Somalia–United States relations
 South Africa 1929[149] See South Africa–United States relations
 South Sudan 2011[150] See South Sudan–United States relations
 Swaziland 1968[151] See Swaziland–United States relations
 Tanzania 1961[152] See Tanzania–United States relations
 The Gambia 1965[153] See The Gambia–United States relations
 Togo 1960[154] See Togo–United States relations
 Uganda 1962[155] See Uganda–United States relations

Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Yoweri Museveni assumed power, and the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror. The United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance. At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism.

 Zambia 1964[156] See United States–Zambia relations

The diplomatic relationship between the United States and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. The United States works closely with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic that is ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, and to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government. The United States is also supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The U.S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support that is managed by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Treasury, U.S. Department of Defense, and Peace Corps. The majority of U.S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.

 Zimbabwe 1980[157] See United States–Zimbabwe relations

After Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe's rival and leader of the Movement for Democratic Change, became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe under a power-sharing agreement, the Barack Obama administration extended its congratulations to Tsvangirai, but said that the U.S. would wait for evidence of Mugabe's cooperation with the MDC before it would consider lifting its sanctions.[158] In early March 2009, Obama proclaimed that U.S. sanctions would be protracted provisionally for another year, because Zimbabwe's political crisis is as yet unresolved.[159]

Asia

West Asia & Middle East

The United States has many important allies in the Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Jordan, Afghanistan, Israel, Egypt, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion[160] and 1.75 billion[161] in 2010. Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies.

The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[162] Turkey is host to approximately 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base.[163] Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 U.S. troops are based,[164] and Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bahrain 1971[165] See Bahrain–United States relations
 Iran 1883 (ended 1980)[166] See Iran–United States relations

The United States and the Kingdom of Persia recognized each other in 1850. Diplomatic relations were established in 1883 and severed in 1980.

 Iraq 1931; 1984; 2004[167] See Iraq–United States relations
 Israel 1949[168] See Israel–United States relations
 Jordan 1949[169] See Jordan–United States relations
 Kuwait 1961[170] See Kuwait–United States relations
 Lebanon 1944[171] See Lebanon–United States relations
 Oman 1972[172] See Oman–United States relations
 Qatar 1972[173] See Qatar–United States relations
 Saudi Arabia 1940[174] See Saudi Arabia–United States relations
 Syria 1944 (ended 2012)[175] The Syrian Arab Republic cut off relations with United States in 2012 in response to American support of the Syrian rebels. See Syria–United States relations
 Turkey 1831[176] See Turkey–United States relations
 United Arab Emirates 1972[177] See United Arab Emirates–United States relations

The United States was the third country to establish formal diplomatic relations with the UAE and has had an ambassador resident in the UAE since 1974. The two countries have enjoyed friendly relations with each other and have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. UAE and U.S. had enjoyed private commercial ties, especially in petroleum. The quality of U.S.-UAE relations increased dramatically as a result of the U.S.-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. UAE ports host more U.S. Navy ships than any port outside the U.S.

 Yemen 1946[178] See United States–Yemen relations

Traditionally, United States – Yemen relations have been tepid, as the lack of strong military-to-military ties, commercial relations, and support of Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh has hindered the development of strong bilateral ties. During the early years of the George W. Bush administration, relations improved under the rubric of the War on Terror, though Yemen's lack of policies toward wanted terrorists has stalled additional U.S. support.[179]

Central Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Kazakhstan 1991[180] See Kazakhstan–United States relations
 Kyrgyzstan 1993[181] See Kyrgyzstan–United States relations
 Tajikistan 1991[182] See Tajikistan–United States relations
 Turkmenistan 1991[183] See Turkmenistan–United States relations

The U.S. Embassy, USAID, and the Peace Corps are located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The United States and Turkmenistan continue to disagree about the country's path toward democratic and economic reform. The United States has publicly advocated industrial privatization, market liberalization, and fiscal reform, as well as legal and regulatory reforms to open up the economy to foreign trade and investment, as the best way to achieve prosperity and true independence and sovereignty.

 Uzbekistan 1991[184] See United States–Uzbekistan relations

Relations improved slightly in the latter half of 2007, but the U.S. continues to call for Uzbekistan to meet all of its commitments under the March 2002 Declaration of Strategic Partnership between the two countries. The declaration covers not only security and economic relations but political reform, economic reform, and human rights. Uzbekistan has Central Asia's largest population and is vital to U.S., regional, and international efforts to promote stability and security.

South Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1935[185] See Afghanistan–United States relations
 Bangladesh 1972[186] See Bangladesh–United States relations

Today the relationship between the two countries is based on what is described by American diplomats as the "three Ds", meaning Democracy, Development and Denial of space for terrorism. The United States is closely working with Bangladesh in combating Islamic extremism and terrorism and is providing hundreds of millions of dollars every year in economic assistance.

 Bhutan Never had formal, only informal relations[187] See Bhutan–United States relations

While the U.S. has no formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan, it maintains informal contact through its embassy in New Delhi, India. The U.S. has offered to resettle 60,000 of the 107,000 Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese origin now living in seven U.N. refugee camps in southeastern Nepal.

 India 1947[188] See India–United States relations

The relationships between India in the days of the British Raj and the US were thin.[189] Swami Vivekananda promoted Yoga and Vedanta in America at the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago, during the World's Fair in 1893. Mark Twain visited India in 1896[190] and described it in his travelogue Following the Equator with both revulsion and attraction before concluding that India was the only foreign land he dreamed about or longed to see again.[191] Regarding India, Americans learned more from English writer Rudyard Kipling.[192] Mahatma Gandhi had an important influence on the philosophy of non-violence promoted by Martin Luther King, Jr. in the 1950s.

At present, India and the US share an extensive and expanding cultural, strategic, military, and economic relationship[193][194][195][196][197] which is in the phase of implementing confidence building measures (CBM) to overcome the legacy of trust deficit – brought about by adversarial US foreign policies [198][199][200][201] and multiple instances of technology denial [202][203][204][205][206] – which have plagued the relationship over several decades.[207][208] Unrealistic expectations after the conclusion of the 2008 U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement (which underestimated negative public opinion regarding the long-term viability of nuclear power generation and civil-society endorsement for contractual guarantees on safeguards and liability) has given way to pragmatic realism and refocus on areas of cooperation which enjoy favourable political and electoral consensus.

 Maldives 1965[209] See Maldives–United States relations
   Nepal 1947[210] See Nepal–United States relations
 Pakistan 1947[211] See Pakistan–United States relations
 Sri Lanka 1947[212] See Sri Lanka–United States relations

East Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 People's Republic of China 1844 (Qing)[213]
1979 (PRC)
See China–United States relations

American relations with the People's Republic of China are quite strong, yet complex. A great amount of trade between the two countries necessitates positive political relations, although occasional disagreements over tariffs, currency exchange rates and the Political status of Taiwan do occur. Nevertheless, the United States and China have an extremely extensive partnership. The U.S. criticizes China on human rights issues and in recent years,for example, the mass detaining of Uyghurs and Kazakhs in Xinjiang or the cultural assimilation of Mongols and Tibetan. China has criticized the United States on human rights in return also. The United States acknowledges the People's Republic's One-China policy.

 Republic of China 1844 (Qing)[213]
1911 (ended 1979)
1979 (Taiwan Relations Act - unofficial)
See Taiwan–United States relations

The U.S. recognized the Nationalist Government as the legitimate government of all of China throughout the Chinese Civil War. The U.S. continued to recognize the Republic of China until 1979, when it shifted its recognition to the People's Republic of China in accordance with the One China policy. The U.S. continued to provide Taiwan with military aid after 1979, and continued informal relations through the American Institute in Taiwan, and is considered to be a strong Asian ally and supporter of the United States.[214]

 Hong Kong
 Macau
1992[215]
1999[216]
See Hong Kong–United States relations and Macau–United States relations
See United States–Hong Kong Policy Act and United States–Macau Policy Act
 Japan 1854, 1952[217]
See Japan–United States relations

The relationship began in the 1850s as the U.S. was a major factor in forcing Japan to resume contacts with the outer world beyond a very restricted role. In the late 19th century the Japanese sent many delegations to Europe, and some to the U.S., to discover and copy the latest technology and thereby modernize Japan very rapidly and allow it to build its own empire. There was some friction over control of Hawaii and the Philippines, but Japan stood aside as the U.S. annexed those lands in 1898. Likewise the U.S. did not object when Japan took control of Korea. The two nations cooperated with the European powers in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, but the U.S. was increasingly troubled about Japan's denial of the Open Door Policy that would ensure that all nations could do business with China on an equal basis.[218]

President Theodore Roosevelt admired Japan's strength as it defeated a major European power, Russia. He brokered an end to the war between Russia and Japan in 1905–6. Anti-Japanese sentiment (especially on the West Coast) soured relations in the 1907–24 era. In the 1930s the U.S. protested vehemently against Japan's seizure of Manchuria (1931), its war against China (1937–45), and its seizure of Indochina (Vietnam) 1940–41. American sympathies were with China and Japan rejected increasingly angry American demands that Japan pull out of China. The two nations fought an all-out war 1941–45; the U.S. won a total victory, with heavy bombing (including two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki) that devastated Japan's 50 largest industrial cities. The American army under Douglas MacArthur occupied and ruled Japan, 1945–51, with the successful goal of sponsoring a peaceful, prosperous and democratic nation.[219]

In 1951, the U.S. and Japan signed Treaty of San Francisco and Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, subsequently revised as Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan in 1960, relations since then have been excellent. The United States considers Japan to be one of its closest allies, and it is both a Major Non-NATO ally and NATO contact country. The United States has several military bases in Japan including Yokosuka, which harbors the U.S. 7th Fleet. The JSDF, or Japanese Self Defense Force, cross train with the U.S. Military, often providing auxiliary security and conducting war games.

 Mongolia 1987[220] See Mongolia–United States relations
 North Korea Only Informal Relations[221] See North Korea–United States relations
The United States and North Korea do not have diplomatic relations.[222]
 South Korea 1882 (Joseon);[223] 1949 (Republic)[224] See South Korea–United States relations

South Korea–United States relations have been most extensive since 1945, when the United States helped establish capitalism in South Korea and led the UN-sponsored Korean War against North Korea and China (1950–53).[225] South Korea's rapid economic growth, democratization and modernization greatly reduced its U.S. dependency. Large numbers of U.S. forces remain in Korea. On September 24, 2018 President Donald Trump signed the United States-South Korea Trade Deal with South Korean President Moon Jae-in.[226]

Southeast Asia

Many countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are important partners for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, and the alliances and partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confidence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability.[227] Trade flows are robust and increasing between America and the ASEAN region.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Brunei 1984[228] See Brunei–United States relations

The U.S. welcomed Brunei Darussalam's full independence from the United Kingdom on January 1, 1984, and opened an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan on that date. Brunei opened its embassy in Washington, D.C. in March 1984. Brunei's armed forces engage in joint exercises, training programs, and other military cooperation with the U.S. A memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation was signed on November 29, 1994. The Sultan of Brunei visited Washington in December 2002.

 Cambodia 1950[229] See Cambodia–United States relations
 East Timor 2002[230] See East Timor–United States relations
 Indonesia 1949[231] See Indonesia–United States relations

As the largest ASEAN member, Indonesia has played an active and prominent role in developing the organization.[232] For United States, Indonesia is important for dealing with certain issues; such as terrorism,[233] democracy, and how United States project its relations with Islamic world, since Indonesia has the world's largest Islamic population, and one that honors and respects religious diversity.[234] The U.S. eyes Indonesia as a potential strategic ally in Southeast Asia.[235] During his stately visit to Indonesia, U.S. President Barack Obama has held up Indonesia as an example of how a developing nation can embrace democracy and diversity.[236][237]

 Laos 1950[238] See Laos–United States relations
 Malaysia 1957[238] See Malaysia–United States relations

Despite increasingly strained relations under the Mahathir Mohamad government, ties have been thawed under Najib Razak's administration. Economic ties are particularly robust, with the United States being Malaysia's largest trading partner and Malaysia is the tenth-largest trading partner of the U.S. Annual two-way trade amounts to $50 billion. The United States and Malaysia launched negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) in June 2006.

The United States and Malaysia enjoy strong security cooperation. Malaysia hosts the Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (SEARCCT), where over 2000 officials from various countries have received training. The United States is among the foreign countries that has collaborated with the center in conducting capacity building programmes. The U.S. and Malaysia share a strong military-to-military relationship with numerous exchanges, training, joint exercises, and visits.

 Myanmar 1948[239] See Myanmar–United States relations
Bilateral ties have generally been strained but are slowly improving. The United States has placed broad sanctions on Burma because of the military crackdown in 1988 and the military regime's refusal to honour the election results of the 1990 People's Assembly election. Similarly, the European Union has placed embargoes on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid.[240]

US and European government sanctions against the military government, alongside boycotts and other types direct pressure on corporations by western supporters of the Burmese democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from Burma of most U.S. and many European companies. However, several Western companies remain due to loopholes in the sanctions.[241] Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in Myanmar and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction.

Ongoing reforms have improved relations between Burma and the United States. However the Rohingya Crisis has been deteriorating ties[242].

 Philippines 1946[243] See Philippines–United States relations

The Philippines and the United States have an extremely strong relationship with each other due to their long standing alliance. The Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish–American War. The Philippines was a U.S. colony from 1898-1946. The United States finally recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946 in the Treaty of Manila.[244] July 4 was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until August 4, 1964 when, upon the advice of historians and the urging of nationalists, President Diosdado Macapagal signed into law Republic Act No. 4166 designating June 12 as the country's Independence Day.[245]

The U.S. and the Philippines have fought together in many conflicts such as World War I, World War II, the Korean War, Vietnam War, Islamic insurgency in the Philippines, Gulf War and the War on Terror.

The Philippines and the United States still maintain close, friendly, diplomatic, political and military relations with 100,000+ U.S. citizens and nationals living in the Philippines and more than 4 million Filipinos living in the United States. Both countries actively cooperate in the trade, investment and financial sectors. The U.S. is also the largest investor in the Philippine economy with an estimated total worth of $63 billion.

The United States and the Philippines conduct joint military exercises called the Balikatan that take place once a year to boost relations between the two countries. The U.S. military also conduct humanitarian and aid missions in the Philippines. The Philippines is one out of two major U.S. allies in South East Asia.

Since 2003 the U.S. has designated the Philippines as a Major Non-NATO Ally. However, relations between the United States and the Philippines began to deteriorate in 2016, under President Rodrigo Duterte, wanting to form an alliance with China and Russia and separating the country from all connections and ties with the United States, both economically and socially.

 Singapore 1965[246] See Singapore–United States relations
 Thailand 1833[247] See Thailand–United States relations
Thailand and the U.S. are both former Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) members, being close partners throughout the Cold War, and are still close allies. Since 2003, the U.S. has designated Thailand as a Major Non-NATO Ally.
 Vietnam 1995[248] See United States–Vietnam relations

After a 20-year hiatus of severed ties, President Bill Clinton announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995. Subsequent to President Clinton's normalization announcement, in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opened a consulate in San Francisco. Today, the U.S. eyes Vietnam as a potential strategic ally in Southeast Asia.[235]

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1940[249] See Australia–United States relations

Australia and the United States have long been close and strategic allies and have traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations. The two countries have a shared history, both have previously been British Colonies and many Americans flocked to the Australian goldfields in the 19th century. At the strategic level, the relationship really came to prominence in the Second World War, when the two nations worked extremely closely in the Pacific War against Japan, with General Douglas MacArthur undertaking his role as Supreme Allied Commander based in Australia, effectively having Australian troops and resources under his command. During this period, the cultural interaction between Australia and the U.S. were elevated to a higher level as over 1 million U.S. military personnel moved through Australia during the course of the war. The relationship continued to evolve throughout the second half of the 20th Century, and today now involves strong relationships at the executive and mid levels of government and the military, leading Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Kurt M. Campbell to declare that "in the last ten years, [Australia] has ascended to one of the closest one or two allies [of the U.S.] on the planet".[250] It was also strengthened its relationship with the United States as Britain's influence in Asia declined. At the governmental level, United States-Australia relations are formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement.

 Fiji 1971[251] See Fiji–United States relations

Relations are currently poor, due to the United States' opposition to Fiji's unelected government, which came to power through a military coup in December 2006. The United States suspended $2.5 million in aid money pending a review of the situation, following the 2006 coup.[252]

 Kiribati 1980[253] See Kiribati–United States relations

Relations between Kiribati and the United States are excellent. Kiribati signed a treaty of friendship with the United States after independence in 1979. The United States has no consular or diplomatic facilities in the country. Officers of the American Embassy in Suva, Fiji, are concurrently accredited to Kiribati and make periodic visits. The U.S. Peace Corps maintained a program in Kiribati from 1974 to 2008.

 Marshall Islands 1986 See Marshall Islands–United States relations

The Marshall Islands is a sovereign nation in "free association" with the United States. The Marshall Islands and the United States maintain excellent relations. After more than a decade of negotiation, the Marshall Islands and the United States signed the Compact of Free Association on June 25, 1983. The Compact gives the U.S. full authority and responsibility over defense of the Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands and the United States both lay claim to Wake Island. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the Marshall Islands is the same one that binds the United States and the Federated States of Micronesia and Palau

 Federated States of Micronesia 1986[254] See Federated States of Micronesia–United States relations

Reflecting a strong legacy of Trusteeship cooperation, over 25 U.S. federal agencies continue to maintain programs in the FSM. The United States and the FSM share very strong relations. Under the Amended Compact, the U.S. has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement. The Compact that binds the U.S. and the FSM is the same one that binds the United States to the Marshall Islands and to Palau.

 Nauru 1976[255] See Nauru–United States relations

Relations between Nauru and the United States are complicated. While the new U.S. Ambassador to Fiji has promised Nauru assistance in economic development, there have been disagreements about Cuba and Foreign policy of the United States, and the United States does not have an embassy in Nauru; instead, the U.S. Embassy staff in Suva, Fiji make periodical visits

 New Zealand 1942[256] See New Zealand–United States relations

United States-New Zealand relations are strong, but complex. The United States was historically assisted New Zealand in times of turmoil; for instance, during the World War II, U.S. bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and with the September 2010 Canterbury earthquake. New Zealand has reciprocated; for example, by participating in between Korean and Vietnam War. However, the United States suspended its mutual defense obligations to New Zealand because of that state's non-nuclear policies. Despite disagreements between the two countries, the bilateral trade and cultural relationship continued to flourish. New Zealand was continued to play a supportive role in international conflicts in Somalia, Bosnia, and the Persian Gulf. Following the 9/11 attacks on the United States since 2001, New Zealand supported international counter-terrorism efforts and assisted the United States throughout the war in Afghanistan. Throughout the 2000s, the United States was remained New Zealand’s fourth-largest trading partner and third-largest source of visitors.

 Palau 1996[257] See Palau–United States relations

On October 1, 1994, after five decades of U.S. administration, the country of Palau became the last component of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to gain its independence. In 1978, Palau decided not to join the Federated States of Micronesia, due to culture and language differences, and instead sought independence. In 1986, the Compact of Free Association agreement between Palau and the United States was approved, paving the way for Palau's independence.

 Papua New Guinea 1975[258] See Papua New Guinea–United States relations
 Samoa 1962[259] See Samoa–United States relations
 Solomon Islands 1978[260] See Solomon Islands–United States relations

After independence in 1978, the United States kept its close relations with the Solomon Islands. Both cooperate within regional organizations in the Pacific, and the United States has an embassy at Port Moresby.

 Tonga 1886; 1972[261] See Tonga–United States relations
 Tuvalu 1978[261] See Tuvalu–United States relations

Relations between the two countries are generally amicable, or neutral, but there have been notable disagreements regarding the issues of climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.

 Vanuatu 1986[262] See United States–Vanuatu relations

The United States and Vanuatu established diplomatic relations on September 30, 1986 - three months to the day after Vanuatu had established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.[263] Relations were often tense in the 1980s, under the prime ministership of Father Walter Lini in Vanuatu, but eased after that. At present, bilateral relations consist primarily in U.S. aid to Vanuatu.

Countries with visa services suspended

[264]

Countries with no U.S. embassy

[264]

  •  Andorra (the U.S. Ambassador to Spain is also accredited to Andorra; the U.S. Consul General in Barcelona is responsible for day-to-day relations.)[265]
  •  Antigua and Barbuda (U.S. Embassy and consulates for Antigua and Barbuda are located in Barbados)
  •  Bhutan (Contact is made via the Government of India at the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi, and Bhutan consulates in New York City)
  •  Comoros (the U.S. Ambassador to Madagascar is also accredited to Comoros.)[266]
  •  Dominica (U.S. Embassy and consulates for Dominica are located in Barbados)
  •  Grenada (U.S. Embassy and consulates for Grenada are located in Barbados)
  •  Guinea-Bissau (Contact is made at the U.S. Embassy in Senegal and there is also a presence of the U.S. in Guinea-Bissau through a Liaison Office in Bissau and a virtual presence post online, there are currently no Guinea-Bissauan consulates for the U.S., except for a Permanent mission to the UN in New York)
  •  Iran (inactive, U.S. Interests Section at the Swiss Embassy acts as a de facto embassy. Since December 2011, the United States has also maintained a virtual embassy online.)
  •  Kiribati (the U.S. Ambassador to Fiji is also accredited to Kiribati.)[267]
  •  Liechtenstein (the U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein.)[268]
  •  Maldives (the U.S. Ambassador to Sri Lanka is also accredited to Maldives.)[269]
  •  Monaco (the U.S. Ambassador to France is also accredited to Monaco; the U.S. Consul General in Marseilles is responsible for day-to-day relations.)[270]
  •  Nauru (the U.S. Ambassador to Fiji is also accredited to Nauru.)[271]
  •  North Korea (Contact is made via the Government of Sweden through its embassy in Pyongyang)
  •  Palestine (UN observer state) (US was formerly represented through a consulate in Jerusalem accredited to the Palestinian Authority, which was merged with its Jerusalem embassy to Israel. The State of Palestine is not formally recognized by the US government)
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis (U.S. Embassy and consulates for Saint Kitts and Nevis are located in Barbados)
  •  Saint Lucia (U.S. Embassy and consulates for Saint Lucia are located in Barbados)
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (U.S. Embassy and consulates for Saint Vincent and the Grenadines are located in Barbados)
  •  Samoa (the U.S. Ambassador to New Zealand is also accredited to Samoa.)[272]
  •  San Marino (the U.S. Ambassador to Italy is also accredited to San Marino; the U.S. Consul General in Florence is responsible for day-to-day relations.)[273]
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe (the U.S. Ambassador to Gabon is also accredited to São Tomé and Príncipe.)[274]
  •  Seychelles (the U.S. Ambassador to Mauritius is also accredited to Seychelles.)[275]
  •  Solomon Islands (the U.S. Ambassador to Papua New Guinea is also accredited to the Solomon Islands.)[276]
  •  Tonga (the U.S. Ambassador to Fiji is also accredited to Tonga.)[277]
  •  Tuvalu (the U.S. Ambassador to Fiji is also accredited to Tuvalu.)[278]
  •  Vanuatu (the U.S. Ambassador to Papua New Guinea is also accredited to Vanuatu.)[279]

Unrecognized countries with no relations with the United States

See also

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External links

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets).

Baker rules

The Baker rules refer to a set of negotiation process principles identifying who the parties to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict are. The Republic of Armenia and Republic of Azerbaijan are identified as the principal parties and Armenian community and Azerbaijani community of Karabakh are identified as interested parties.The Baker rules were named after the 61st US Secretary of State James Baker III, who was appointed US top negotiator within CSCE mediation efforts to end Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The rules on how the parties to the conflict were going to be represented during CSCE sponsored negotiations were agreed by foreign ministers of Azerbaijan and Armenia. Since the inception, Baker rules has been the core basis within the negotiation process mediated by OSCE Minsk Group.

Clinton Doctrine

The Clinton Doctrine is not a clear statement in the way that many other United States Presidential doctrines were. However, in a February 26, 1999, speech, President Bill Clinton said the following, which was generally considered to summarize the Clinton Doctrine:

It's easy ... to say that we really have no interests in who lives in this or that valley in Bosnia, or who owns a strip of brushland in the Horn of Africa, or some piece of parched earth by the Jordan River. But the true measure of our interests lies not in how small or distant these places are, or in whether we have trouble pronouncing their names. The question we must ask is, what are the consequences to our security of letting conflicts fester and spread. We cannot, indeed, we should not, do everything or be everywhere. But where our values and our interests are at stake, and where we can make a difference, we must be prepared to do so.Clinton later made statements that augmented the doctrine of interventionism:

"Genocide is in and of itself a national interest where we should act" and "we can say to the people of the world, whether you live in Africa, or Central Europe, or any other place, if somebody comes after innocent civilians and tries to kill them en masse because of their race, their ethnic background or their religion, and it's within our power to stop it, we will stop it."The Clinton Doctrine was used to justify the American involvement in the Yugoslav Wars. President Clinton was criticized for not intervening to stop the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. Other observers viewed Operation Gothic Serpent in Somalia as a mistake.

Constructive engagement

Constructive engagement was the name given to the policy of the Reagan administration towards the apartheid regime in South Africa in the early 1980s. It was promoted as an alternative to the economic sanctions and divestment from South Africa demanded by the UN General Assembly and the international anti-apartheid movement.

Dawes Plan

The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was a plan in 1924 to resolve the World War I reparations that Germany had to pay, that had strained diplomacy following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.

The occupation of the Ruhr industrial area by France and Belgium contributed to the hyperinflation crisis in Germany, partially because of its disabling effect on the German economy. The plan provided for an end to the Allied occupation, and a staggered payment plan for Germany's payment of war reparations. Because the Plan resolved a serious international crisis, Dawes shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925 for his work.

It was an interim measure and proved unworkable. The Young Plan was adopted in 1929 to replace it.

Domino theory

The domino theory was a theory prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s that posited that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino theory was used by successive United States administrations during the Cold War to justify the need for American intervention around the world.

U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described the theory during an April 7, 1954, news conference, when referring to communism in Indochina:

Finally, you have broader considerations that might follow what you would call the "falling domino" principle. You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly. So you could have a beginning of a disintegration that would have the most profound influences.

Foreign Relations of the United States (book series)

Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) is a book series published by the Office of the Historian in the United States Department of State. The series presents the official documentary historical record of major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity. The series began in 1861 and now comprises more than 450 individual volumes. The volumes published over the last two decades increasingly contain declassified records from all the foreign affairs agencies.

Foreign Service Officer

A Foreign Service Officer (FSO) is a commissioned member of the United States Foreign Service. Foreign Service Officers formulate and implement the foreign policy of the United States. FSOs spend most of their careers overseas as members of U.S. embassies, consulates, and other diplomatic missions, though some receive assignments to serve at combatant commands, Congress, and educational institutions such as the various U.S. War Colleges.

Foreign Service Officers are one of five categories of Foreign Service employees. Other categories include Chiefs of mission, Ambassadors at large, Foreign Service Personnel, and Foreign Service Nationals.

As of 2017, there were over 8,000 FSOs.

International rankings of the United States

The following are links to international rankings of the United States

World Economic Forum 2018–2019 Global Competitiveness Report, ranked 1 out of 144 countries

Economist Intelligence Unit 2013 Where to be born Index, ranked 16 out of 80 countries

World Economic Forum 2016 Global Enabling Trade Report ranked 22

The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal 2018 Index of Economic Freedom ranked 18 out of 178 economies

Fraser Institute Economic Freedom of the World 2013 Annual Report (Economic Freedom Ratings for 2011) ranked 16 out of 152 countries and territories

Iroquois passport

The Iroquois passport or Haudenosaunee passport is a form of identification and an "expression of sovereignty" used by the nationals of the Iroquois League (Iroquois: Haudenosaunee).

Kennedy Doctrine

The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his administration between 1961 and 1963. Kennedy voiced support for the containment of communism as well as the reversal of communist progress in the Western Hemisphere.

Liberal internationalism

Liberal internationalism is a foreign policy doctrine that argues that liberal states should intervene in other sovereign states in order to pursue liberal objectives. Such intervention can include both military invasion and humanitarian aid. This view is contrasted to isolationist, realist, or non-interventionist foreign policy doctrines; these critics characterize it as liberal interventionism.

Lodge Corollary

The Lodge Corollary was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind from acquiring sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in "practical power of control". As Lodge argued, the corollary reaffirmed the basic right of nations to provide for their safety, extending the principles behind the Monroe Doctrine beyond colonialism to include corporate territorial acquisitions as well.

The proposal was a reaction to negotiations between a Japanese syndicate and Mexico for the purchase of a considerable portion of Baja California including a harbor considered to be of strategic value, Magdalena Bay. After the ratification of the Lodge Corollary, Japan disavowed any connection to the syndicate and the deal was never completed.

Nixon Doctrine

The Nixon Doctrine, also known as the Guam Doctrine, was put forth during a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by President of the United States Richard Nixon and later formalized in his speech on Vietnamization of the Vietnam War on November 3, 1969. According to Gregg Brazinsky, author of "Nation Building in South Korea: Koreans, Americans, and the Making of a Democracy", Nixon stated that "the United States would assist in the defense and developments of allies and friends", but would not "undertake all the defense of the free nations of the world." This doctrine meant that each ally nation was in charge of its own security in general, but the United States would act as a nuclear umbrella when requested. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies.

Office of the Historian

The Office of the Historian is an office of the United States Department of State within the Bureau of Public Affairs. The Office is responsible, under law, for the preparation and publication of the official historical documentary record of U.S. foreign policy in the Foreign Relations of the United States series. It researches and writes historical studies on aspects of U.S. diplomacy for use by policymakers in the Department and in other agencies as well for the public.

The office also makes recommendations to other bureaus regarding the identification, maintenance, and long-term preservation of important historical diplomatic records. Its outreach activities include participating in the planning and installation of the historical components of the planned United States Center for Diplomacy in the Department, counseling private scholars and journalists on historical research issues, and responding to government and public inquiries on diplomatic history questions.

The current Historian is Stephen Randolph. Past Historians include Marc J. Susser, John Campbell, and Edward P. Brynn.

Taiwan Relations Act

The Taiwan Relations Act (TRA; Pub.L. 96–8, 93 Stat. 14, enacted April 10, 1979; H.R. 2479) is an act of the United States Congress. Since the recognition of the People's Republic of China, the Act has defined the officially substantial but non-diplomatic relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan.

Tar Baby Option

"Tar Baby" was the name given by the United States State Department to Richard Nixon's policy during the late 1960s and 1970s of strengthening contacts with the white-minority governments in southern Africa — Portugal (in relation to Angola and Mozambique), Rhodesia and apartheid-era South Africa. The allusion was to the Uncle Remus story in which Brer Fox tries to capture Brer Rabbit by making a tar baby. Brer Rabbit strikes the tar "baby" with his hands, feet, and head and eventually becomes completely adhered to it. The policy option, described as a partial relaxation of economic action against Rhodesia, South Africa and Portugal, and derived from NSSM: 39, was based on the presumption that apartheid and colonial rule were an unpleasant but undeniable reality and that Washington should accommodate itself pragmatically to the status quo. According to Nixon, if the United States was to be an influence for enlightened change it must do so by offering the "carrot" and eschewing the "stick". This policy would have to be pursued ad infinitum to get it to work.

Teller Amendment

The Teller Amendment was an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 20, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message. It placed a condition on the United States military's presence in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people." In short, the U.S. would help Cuba gain independence and then withdraw all its troops from the country.

U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets

The U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets, also known as the Background Notes, are a series of works by the United States Department of State. These publications include facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations of independent states, some dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. The series is available online through the State Department's website.

United States and the United Nations

The United States of America is a charter member of the United Nations and one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council.

The United States is the host of the headquarters of the United Nations, which includes the usual meeting place of the General Assembly in New York City, the seat of the Security Council and several bodies of the United Nations. The United States is the largest provider of financial contributions to the United Nations, providing 22 percent of the entire UN budget in 2017 (in comparison the next biggest contributor is Japan with almost 10 percent, while EU countries pay a total of above 30 percent). From July 2016 to June 2017, 28.6 percent of the budget used for peacekeeping operations was provided by the United States. The United States had a pivotal role in establishing the UN.

United States Foreign relations of the United States
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