Foreign relations of Iraq

Since 1980, the foreign relations of Iraq were influenced by a number of controversial decisions by the Saddam Hussein administration. Hussein had good relations with the Soviet Union and a number of western countries such as France and Germany, who provided him with advanced weapons systems. He also developed a tenuous relation with the United States, who supported him during the Iran–Iraq War. However, the Invasion of Kuwait that triggered the Gulf War brutally changed Iraq's relations with the Arab World and the West. Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria and others were among the countries that supported Kuwait in the UN coalition. After the Hussein administration was toppled by the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the governments that succeeded it have now tried to establish relations with various nations.

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria
  • Algeria has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Algiers.
 Egypt

Iraq's relations with the Arab world have been extremely varied. Relations between Iraq and Egypt violently ruptured in 1977, when the two nations broke relations with each other following Iraq's criticism of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's peace initiatives with Israel.[1] In 1978, Baghdad hosted an Arab League summit that condemned and ostracized Egypt for accepting the Camp David accords.[1] However, Egypt's strong material and diplomatic support for Iraq in the war with Iran led to warmer relations and numerous contacts between senior officials, despite the continued absence of ambassadorial-level representation.[1] Since 1983, Iraq has repeatedly called for restoration of Egypt's "natural role" among Arab countries.[1] In January 1984, Iraq successfully led Arab efforts within the OIC to restore Egypt's membership.[1] However, Iraqi-Egyptian relations were broken in 1990 after Egypt joined the UN coalition that forced Iraq out of Kuwait.[1] Relations have steadily improved in recent years, and Egypt is now one of Iraq's main trade partners (formerly under the Oil-for-Food Programme).[1]

 Libya
 Nigeria
  • Iraq has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Baghdad.
 Sudan

Sudan has an embassy in Baghdad, and Iraq's embassy is in Khartoum. Sudanese–Iraqi relations were and still are very close, Sudan supported Iraq during the Gulf War, and following the war, Baghdad established Khartoum as a major center for Iraqi intelligence.[2]

 Tunisia
  • Iraq has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Baghdad.

Americas

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 2000
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in the year 2000.
  • Armenia has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Yerevan.
 China See China–Iraq relations
  • China has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Beijing.
 India 1947 See India–Iraq relations
  • Diplomatic relations started in 1947.

India and Iraq maintained strong relationships since Indian independence.

 Indonesia See Indonesia–Iraq relations

Indonesia and Iraq shared similarity as the Muslim majority countries. Both nations share their experiences in rebuilding and development. Indonesia has an embassy in Baghdad, while Iraq has an embassy in Jakarta. Both nations are partners in multilateral organizations, such as World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

After World War II, Iraq had been one of the first countries to recognize Indonesia's independence in 1945. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1950 and have signed around 15 agreements to boost bilateral ties. Indonesia has maintained its embassy in Baghdad during various crises, such as the Iran–Iraq war in the 1980s. However, at the height of the Iraq War, Indonesia was forced to temporarily closed its embassy in Baghdad in 2003, and reopen it in June 2011.[8]

In 2003, Indonesian Government and people protested against a U.S.-led military campaign against Baghdad. Over 50,000 Indonesian people crowded the streets of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta on Sunday, 9 February 2003, to protest the United States' threat of military action against Iraq.[9] After the war ended and Indonesia reopen its embassy in 2011, relations between the two countries have developed at a fast pace. Iraq invited Indonesia's companies to participate in the reconstruction of Iraq.[10] Traditionally Indonesia sees Iraq as the source of energy, such as oil and gas. On the other hand, Iraqi people are familiar with Indonesian exported products such as tires, soaps, spices, furniture, coal, clothing, palm oil, shoes, paper, automobiles, rubber and electronic goods.

 Iran See Iran–Iraq relations

In 1988 Iraq's main foreign policy issue was the war with Iran. This war had begun in September 1980, when Saddam Hussein sent Iraqi forces across the Shatt al Arab into southwestern Iran. Although the reasons for Saddam Husayn's decision to invade Iran were complicated, the leaders of the Baath Party had long resented Iranian hegemony in the Persian Gulf region and had especially resented the perceived Iranian interference in Iraq's internal affairs both before and after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Their objectives were to halt any potential foreign assistance to the Shias and to the Kurdish opponents of the regime and to end Iranian domination of the area. The Baathists believed a weakened Iran would be incapable of posing a security threat and could not undermine Iraq's efforts to exercise the regional influence that had been blocked by non-Arab Iran since the mid-1960s. By early 1982, the Iraqi occupation forces were on the defensive and were being forced to retreat from some of their forward lines. In June 1982, Saddam Hussein ordered most of the Iraqi units to withdraw from Iranian territory; after that time, the Ba'athist government tried to obtain a cease-fire based on a return of all armed personnel to the international borders that prevailed as of 21 September 1979.

Iran did not accept Iraq's offer to negotiate an end to the war. Similarly, it rejected a July 1982 United Nations (UN) Security Council resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire. Subsequently, Iranian forces invaded Iraq by crossing the Shatt al Arab in the south and by capturing some mountain passes in the north. To discourage Iran's offensive, the Iraqi air force initiated bombing raids over several Iranian cities and towns. The air raids brought Iranian retaliation, which included the aerial bombing of Baghdad. Although Iraq eventually pushed back and contained the Iranian advances, it was not able to force Iranian troops completely out of Iraqi territory. The perceived threat to Iraq in the summer of 1982 thus was serious enough to force Saddam Hussein to request the Nonaligned Movement to change the venue of its scheduled September meeting from Baghdad to India; nevertheless, since the fall of 1982, the ground conflict has generally been a stalemated war of attrition—although Iran made small but demoralizing territorial advances as a result of its massive offensives in the reed marshes north of Basra in 1984 and in 1985, in Al Faw Peninsula in early 1986, and in the outskirts of Basra during January and February 1987. In addition, as of early 1988 the government had lost control of several mountainous districts in Kurdistan where, since 1983, dissident Kurds have cooperated militarily with Iran.

Saddam Hussein's government has maintained consistently since the summer of 1982 that Iraq wants a negotiated end to the war based upon the status quo ante. Iran's stated conditions for ceasing hostilities, namely the removal of Saddam Hussein and the Baath from power, however, have been unacceptable. The main objective of the regime became the extrication of the country from the war with as little additional damage as possible. To further this goal, Iraq has used various diplomatic, economic, and military strategies; none of these had been successful in bringing about a cease-fire as of early 1988.

Although the war was a heavy burden on Iran and Iraq politically, economically, and socially, the most profound consequence of the war's prolongation on Iraq, was its impact on the patterns of Iraq's foreign relations. Whereas trends toward a moderation of the Baath Party's ideological approach to foreign affairs were evident before 1980, the war helped to accelerate these trends. Two of the most dramatic changes were in Iraq's relationships with the Soviet Union and with the United States. During the course of the war Iraq moved away from the close friendship with the Soviet Union that had persisted throughout the 1970s, and it initiated a rapprochement with the United States. Iraq also sought to ally itself with Kuwait and with Saudi Arabia, two neighboring countries with which there had been considerable friction during much of the 1970s. The alignment with these countries was accompanied by a more moderate Iraqi approach to other Arab countries, such as Egypt and Jordan, which previously Iraq had perceived as hostile.

Iraqi–Iranian relations have remained cool since the end of the Iran–Iraq War in 1988. Outstanding issues from that war, including prisoner of war exchanges and support of armed opposition parties operating in each other's territory, remain to be solved.

Relations appear to have improved since March 2008, when Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad made a two-day visit to Iraq.

 Israel See Iraq–Israel relations

Iraq participated in the Arab–Israeli wars of 1948, 1967 and 1973, and traditionally has opposed all attempts to reach a peaceful settlement between Israel and the Arab States. Israel attacked Iraq's nuclear research reactor under construction near Baghdad in July 1981. During the Iran–Iraq war, Iraq moderated its anti-Israel stance considerably. In August 1982 President Hussein stated to a visiting U.S. Congressman that "a secure state is necessary for both Israel and the Palestinians." Iraq did not oppose then President Reagan's 1 September 1982 Arab-Israeli peace initiative, and it supported the moderate Arab position at the Fez summit that same month. Iraq repeatedly stated that it would support whatever settlement is found acceptable by the Palestinians.

 Jordan See Iraq–Jordan relations

Iraq's relations with Jordan have improved significantly since 1980, when Jordan declared its support for Iraq at the outset of the Iran–Iraq War. Jordan's support for Iraq during the Persian Gulf War resulted in a further improvement of ties. Relations have cooled since the current King of Jordan took office in 2000, but remain good. King Abdullah of Jordan has become the first Arab leader to visit Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003, a landmark step towards reducing Baghdad's isolation among its Arab neighbours. Jordan is one of a small number of Arab countries to have named ambassadors to Iraq.[11]

 Kuwait See Iraq–Kuwait relations

Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 resulted in its government-in-exile, the US, Saudi Arabia, and most Persian Gulf states to sever relations with Baghdad and joining the United Nations coalition that drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War. Iraq's refusal to implement United Nations Security Council resolutions and continued threats toward Kuwait have resulted in relations remaining cool.

 Lebanon See Iraq–Lebanon relations

Iraq and Lebanon have maintained diplomatic relations with each other since 1943. Both countries have refused to recognize Israel and have supported the Palestinians.

Throughout history, Iraq's relations with Lebanon have been relatively close, both politically and culturally. During the regime of Saddam Hussein, the leader of the Ba'ath Party had strong relations with Bachir, and Amine Gemayel; relations grew even stronger when Iraqi officials verbally lashed out against Israel's actions in the 2006 War. However, relations have diminished due to ongoing sectarian clashes between Iraq's Sunni and Shia Muslim branches.

 North Korea 9 July 1968

Diplomatic relations started on 9 July 1968, but were cut on 10 October 1980 after Iran–Iraq War. DPRK and Iraq re-established relations on 29 September 2008.

Iraq had an embassy in Pyongyang and DPRK had an embassy in Baghdad between 1970 and 1980.[12]

 Oman 1976

Iraq and Oman relations date back to the Sumerians, who used to call the eastern edge of the Arabian Peninsula region as Magan.[13] Oman closed its embassy in Iraq after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990. On May 12, 2019, Oman announced to reopen its embassy in Baghdad.[14]

 Pakistan 1947 See Iraq–Pakistan relations

Diplomatic relations started in 1947. Iraq and Pakistan have had close, friendly, and cooperative relations since the latter's independence in 1947. Issues such as Iraqi support for Pakistan in its 1971 war with India (Indo-Iraqi relations), and Pakistani support for Iraq against Iran in the Iran-Iraq War have forged relations between the two. Relations soured during the Gulf War when Pakistan contributed troops for the UN Coalition, seeing it as a betrayal due to Iraq's constant support for Pakistan in their previous wars with India. In 2002, Saddam Hussein visited India and said he gave his unwavering support to India over the Kashmir dispute. In 2003, Pakistan rejected US's request to send troops for the invasion which have helped soothed relations between the two.

 Saudi Arabia See Iraq–Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi leaders were relieved when Iraq was defeated, but they recognized that relations with Baghdad had been damaged. Consequently, postwar Saudi policy focused on ways to contain potential Iraqi threats to the kingdom and the region. One element of Riyadh's containment policy included support for Iraqi opposition forces that advocated the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's government. In the past, backing for such groups had been discreet, but in early 1992 the Saudis invited several Iraqi opposition leaders to Riyadh to attend a well-publicised conference. To further demonstrate Saudi dissatisfaction with the regime in Baghdad, Crown Prince Abdallah permitted the media to videotape his meeting with some of the opponents of Saddam Hussein.

 Singapore 27 December 1977

Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 27 December 1977.[15] The Embassy of Iraq in Indonesia also handles Singapore.[16]

 South Korea
  • Iraq has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Baghdad.
 Sri Lanka See Sri Lanka–Iraq relations

Iraq was the largest buyer of Sri Lankan tea during the reign of Saddam Hussein. Ties between Sri Lanka and Iraq were disrupted during the Iraq War. However in 2018 Iraq re-emerged as the largest buyer of Sri Lankan Tea[19].

 Syria See Iraq–Syria relations

The political states of Iraq and Syria were formed by the United Kingdom and France following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. Iraq and Syria are united by historical, social, political, cultural and economic relations, but share a long foreign drawn border. The land known as Mesopotamia is Iraq and eastern Syria and is called such by its inhabitants. Political relations between Iraq and Syria have in the past seen difficulties, however, new diplomatic relations described by both sides as "Historic" were established in November 2006, beginning an era of close cooperation and political friendship between Iraq and Syria.[20]

 Turkey 1932 See Iraq–Turkey relations

In 1988 Iraq maintained cordial relations with Turkey, its non-Arab neighbor to the north. Turkey served as an important transshipment point for both Iraqi oil exports and its commodity imports. A pipeline transported oil from the northern oil fields of Iraq through Turkey to the Mediterranean Sea. Trucks carrying a variety of European manufactured goods used Turkish highways to bring imports into Iraq. There was also trade between Turkey and Iraq, the former selling Iraq small arms, produce, and textiles. In addition, Iraq and Turkey have cooperated in suppressing Kurdish guerrilla activities in their common border area.[21]

 United Arab Emirates See Iraq–United Arab Emirates relations

In June 2008, the Iraqi government announced that the United Arab Emirates would send an ambassador to Baghdad within a few days. This would become the first Arab ambassador in Iraq since the kidnapping and murder of Ihab el-Sherif in July 2005. This announcement was made during a surprise visit by the United Arab Emirates' Foreign Minister Abdullah Bin Zayed Al Nahyan to Baghdad on 5 June 2008. This marked the first time a high-ranking official from a Gulf state visited Iraq since March 2003.[22][23]

Europe

In September 2005, a joint political declaration between the European Union and Iraq was signed which forms the basis of regular political dialogue. A Trade and Cooperation Agreement between the EU and Iraq is in the process of being negotiated and will probably be concluded during 2008.

July 2005 saw the introduction of EUJUST LEX, the European Union's rule of law operation intended to train Iraqi police and legal officials in human rights along with other issues. Over 1,400 Iraqis have already taken part in training courses.[24]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Bulgaria See Bulgaria–Iraq relations
 Czech Republic 1993
 Denmark See Denmark–Iraq relations

Denmark has an embassy in Baghdad and a trade office in Basra, Iraq has an embassy in Copenhagen.

On 21 March 2003, the Danish Parliament made a fateful decision to support U.S. military action in Iraq and, in fact, contribute naval assets to the war. In 2006, the Iraqi Transport Minister Salam al-Malki announced freezing all economic relations with Danish and Norwegian companies in protest against insulting cartoons published in the countries' newspapers.[27] With a total Iraqi population in Denmark numbering around 12,000, there are organizations such as the Iraqi-Danish Culture Days, which is currently organized in the capital of Copenhagen.[28]

 France See France–Iraq relations

Before Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1991, France enjoyed friendly relations with former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein, however the relationship turned sour once Iraq entered Kuwaiti soil and soon France cut off ties with Iraq. Following thirteen years, France resumed relations with Iraq in 2003. Iraq has an embassy in Paris and France has an embassy and a representative office in Baghdad.

 Germany See Germany–Iraq relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Berlin.
 Greece See Greece-Iraq relations

Relations of the Greek and Iraqi peoples are deeply rooted in history, both have developed cultures that have influenced the course of humanity. They date as far back as when Alexander the Great ruled Mesopotamia (which name is of Greek origin, meaning "the land between two rivers") and eventually died in Babylon, Iraq. Greece firmly and consistently supports the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq. Greece traditionally maintained good and friendly relations with Iraq due to strong historical and cultural bonds, dating back to ancient times.

  • Greece has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Athens.
 Holy See
  • Holy See has a nunciature in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Rome to the Holy See.
 Hungary See Hungary–Iraq relations
 Italy See Iraq–Italy relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate-general in Basra.
 Romania
 Russia 9 September 1944 See Iraq–Russia relations
 Serbia
 Slovenia 2005,[33]
  • In 2005, Slovenian and Iraqi ambassadors to the United Nations, Roman Kirn and Samir Sumaidaie, signed an agreement at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
  • Slovenia is the first European country to establish diplomatic relations with Iraq since the appointment of the new Iraqi government.[33]
  • Prior to this agreement, Slovenia was already assisting Iraq through NATO and other international organizations.
  • Slovenia did not make efforts to establish relations during the reign of former Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein.
 Spain
  • Iraq has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Baghdad.
 Sweden See Iraq–Sweden relations
  Switzerland 1936 In November 2000 Switzerland opened a diplomatic liaison office in Baghdad to safeguard its interests. Bilateral relations became closer after the Iraq war in 2003. Today Iraq has an embassy in Bern and Switzerland has a representative office in Baghdad.
 Ukraine 16 December 1992 See Iraq–Ukraine relations
  • In May 2001 in Baghdad the Embassy of Ukraine in Iraq re-opened.[34]
 United Kingdom 1920 See Iraq–United Kingdom relations

Ties between London and Baghdad are slowly progressing, but relations between the two nations are somewhat uncertain seeing as many Iraqis remember the colonial oppression either they or their ancestors faced at the hands of the British Empire. In other words, relations between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Iraq are close, the two countries aim to increase economic relations through trade and renewing Iraq's infrastructure. In 2013 Stephen Green, Baron Green of Hurstpierpoint, British Minister for Trade and Investment visited Iraq. Iraqi Airways resumed flights to London in 2013, this comes after a 23-year hiatus.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia
  • Australia has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
 New Zealand
  • Iraq is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Baghdad.

Member of international organizations

Iraq belongs to the following international organizations: Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, Arab League, Arab Monetary Fund, Council of Arab Economic Unity, Customs Cooperation Council, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, G-77, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Monetary Fund, International Maritime Organization, Interpol, International Organization for Standardization, International Telecommunication Union, Non-Aligned Movement, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, United Nations, Universal Postal Union, World Health Organization and World Bank.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Iraq's relations with other countries and with international organizations are supervised by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 1988 the minister of foreign affairs was Tariq Aziz, who was an influential leader of the Ba'ath Party and had served in that post since 1983.[35] Aziz, Saddam Hussein, and the other members of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) formulated Iraq's foreign policy, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs bureaucracy implemented RCC directives. The Baath maintained control over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and over all Iraqi diplomatic missions abroad.

Since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in 2003, Hoshyar Zebari was first appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Iraqi Governing Council in Baghdad on 3 September 2003. On 28 June 2004, he was reappointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs by the Iraqi Interim Government, under Prime Minister Ayad Allawi. On 3 May 2005 he was sworn in as Minister of Foreign Affairs by the Iraqi Transitional Government, under Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari. On 20 May 2006, he was delegated in for the fourth consecutive time as Foreign Minister in the government of Nouri Al-Maliki.

International disputes

Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations in 1990 but are still trying to work out written agreements settling outstanding disputes from their eight-year war concerning border demarcation, prisoners-of-war, and freedom of navigation and sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway; in November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the United Nations-demarcated border with Kuwait which had been spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 687 (1991), 773 (1992), and 883 (1993); this formally ends earlier claims to Kuwait and to Bubiyan and Warbah islands although the government continues periodic rhetorical challenges; dispute over water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Ruysdael, Salomon (2004). Speeches of Deception: Selected Speeches of Saddam Hussein. iUniverse. p. 328. ISBN 0595270395.
  2. ^ https://fas.org/news/iraq/1998/08/980824-in.htm Sudanese-Iraq Relations
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ "Brazil to reopen embassy in Iraq". People's Daily. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
  5. ^ a b "The Encephalitis Outbreak, Hussein And Castro: A Cia /Cdc Cover-Up?". cubanet.org. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  6. ^ Embassy of Iraq in Mexico City
  7. ^ Embassy of Mexico in the United Arab Emirates
  8. ^ "RI embassy in Baghdad resumes activity". The Jakarta Post. 2 July 2011. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  9. ^ "Indonesians protest against Iraq war". CNN. 9 February 2003. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  10. ^ Heru (4 July 2012). "Indonesia invited to participate in reconstruction of Iraq". Antara News. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  11. ^ "Jordan's Abdullah first Arab leader to visit Iraq". ABC News. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  12. ^ Iraq Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  13. ^ "Envoy speak: Oman-Iraq relations flourish in new era". Times of Oman. 13 April 2014.
  14. ^ "Oman Says It Will Reopen Its Embassy in Iraq". The New York Times. 12 May 2019.
  15. ^ [2] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore: Embassy of the Republic of Iraq
  16. ^ "Embassy of Iraq, Singapore". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  17. ^ http://www.slembirq.org
  18. ^ http://mofamission.gov.iq/en/SriLank
  19. ^ https://www.historyofceylontea.com/ceylon-publications/ceylon-tea-articles/iraq-emerges-to-be-the-no-1-buyer-of-sri-lankan-tea-in-2018.html
  20. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6167968.stm Iraq and Syria restore relations
  21. ^ [3]
  22. ^ "Emirates to send envoy to Baghdad". BBC News. 5 June 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
  23. ^ "UAE to name ambassador to Baghdad". Gulf News. 5 June 2008. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
  24. ^ a b [4]
  25. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Baghdad
  26. ^ Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Iraqi embassy in Sofia
  27. ^ "Default Parallels Plesk Panel Page". Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  28. ^ Iraqi-Danish Culture Days Festival in Copenhagen Archived 4 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ Hungarian embassy in Amman (also accredited to Iraq
  30. ^ "Ministerul Afacerilor Externe". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  31. ^ "Ministerul Afacerilor Externe". Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  32. ^ Российско-иракские отношения (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. 26 May 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  33. ^ a b "Slovenia Iraq Relations". ukom.gov.si. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  34. ^ "Ukraine NATO: Ukraine-Iraq Relations". ukraine-nato.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
  35. ^ "Iraq – Foreign Policy". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 12 February 2009.

External links

2005 Al Hillah bombing

The Al Hillah bombing killed 127 people, chiefly men lining up to join the Iraqi police forces, at the recruiting centre on February 28, 2005 in Al Hillah, Iraq.

The bombing caused a worsening of Iraqi-Jordanian diplomatic relations after it was learnt that suicide bomber, Raed Mansour al-Banna, had come from Jordan. Banna's family in Jordan gave him a heroic funeral, angering many Iraqi Shia. Thousands protested outside the Jordanian embassy in Baghdad and demanded it close, and the dispute led to both countries recalling their respective ambassadors.Al-Banna had earlier tried to enter the United States in July 2003, although he was turned away at O'Hare Airport as he possessed "multiple terrorist risk factors".

Arab Liberation Front

Arab Liberation Front (Arabic: جبهة التحرير العربية‎ Jabhet Al-Tahrir Al-'Arabiyah) is a minor Palestinian political party, previously controlled by the Iraqi-led Ba'ath Party, formed in 1969 by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr and then headed by Saddam Hussein. ALF is a member of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

Foreign aid to Iraq

Foreign aid to Iraq has increased to handle reconstruction efforts.

In 2004 the U.S. Agency for International Development was responsible for awarding contracts totaling US$900 million for capital construction, seaport renovation, personnel support, public education, public health, government administration, and airport management. The World Bank committed US$3 billion to US$5 billion for reconstruction over a five-year period, and smaller commitments came from Japan, the European Union, Britain, and Spain. Russia canceled 65 percent of Iraq’s debt of US$8 billion, and Saudi Arabia offered an aid package totaling US$1 billion. Also, Iran has been accused of giving some monetary support to individual political parties. Some US$20 billion of U.S. 2004 appropriations for Iraq were earmarked for reconstruction. Effective application of such funds, however, depends on substantial improvement in infrastructural and institutional resources. Because Iraq’s international debt situation had not been elaborated in 2005, for the foreseeable future U.S. funds are expected to pay for capital investments in rebuilding.

International Compact with Iraq

The International Compact with Iraq is (was?) a joint initiative of the Government of Iraq and the United Nations launched in 2007 for a new partnership between Iraq and the international community.

The Compact, jointly chaired by the Government of the Republic of Iraq and the United Nations, with the support of the World Bank, established a vision that, "five years from now, Iraq shall be a united, federal and democratic country, at peace with its neighbours and itself, well on its way to sustainable economic self-sufficiency and prosperity and well integrated in its region and the world." Guided by the Millennium Development Goals, the Government planned to work to meet basic needs, protect the rights of all citizens and ensure the optimal use of the country's resources for the common good and "bring together the international community and multilateral organizations to help Iraq achieve its national vision." The Compact intended to establish benchmarks and mutual commitments for Iraq and the international community regarding normalizing the security environment, reconciling the political environment, and revitalizing the economic environment.The Compact was announced July 27, 2006, was formally introduced at the United Nations on March 16, 2007, and was officially launched May 3, 2007.

The first annual review conference for the Compact was held in Stockholm on May 29, 2008. In August, 2008, a cooperation agreement between the United Nations and Iraq’s Government was reached defining a strategy to support Iraq’s reconstruction, development and humanitarian needs for the period 2008-2010

Iraq War documents leak

The Iraq War documents leak is the disclosure to WikiLeaks of 391,832 United States Army field reports, also called the Iraq War Logs, of the Iraq War from 2004 to 2009 and published on the Internet on 22 October 2010. The files record 66,081 civilian deaths out of 109,000 recorded deaths. The leak resulted in the Iraq Body Count project adding 15,000 civilian deaths to their count, bringing their total to over 150,000, with roughly 80% of those civilians. It is the biggest leak in the military history of the United States, surpassing the Afghan War documents leak of 25 July 2010.

Iraqi Democrats Against Occupation

Iraqi Democrats Against Occupation (formerly Iraqi Democrats Against War and Sanctions) is an Iraqi political organisation founded to oppose United States-sponsored economic sanctions. It has now turned its focus to the current occupation of Iraq, calling for the immediate withdrawal of all foreign troops and the institution of a democratic government.

Iraqi Perspectives Project

The Iraqi Perspectives Project is a research effort conducted by United States Joint Forces Command, focusing on Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Its first major product was A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam's Senior Leadership, a comprehensive study of the inner workings of the government of Saddam Hussein based on certain documents seized in Iraq in 2003 known as the Operation Iraqi Freedom Documents and on interviews with various Iraqi personnel.

Its second product, entitled Saddam and Terrorism, was completed November 2007 and scheduled for release in March, 2008. In 2008, news outlets reported that contrary to usual practice, this report would not be released on the internet or by email, but only as a CD that would have to be requested. Later, however, a redacted version of the report was made available online through the Defense Technical Information Center.

Iraq–European Union relations

Iraq – European Union (EU) relations refers to the international relations between Iraq and the EU. Relations have been strained from the early 1990s but are now gradually progressing. Should Turkey's accession to the EU take place, Iraq will border the European Union.

Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group

The Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group or also known as the Japan Self-Defense Forces Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group (自衛隊イラク復興支援群, Jietai Iraku Fukkou Shiengun) refers to a battalion-sized, largely humanitarian contingent of the Japan Self-Defense Forces that was sent to Samawah, Southern Iraq in early January 2004 and withdrawn by late July 2006. However, the last JASDF forces left Kuwait on December 18, 2008. Approximately 5,500 Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force members were present in Samawah between 2004 and 2006.Their duties had included tasks such as water purification, reconstruction and reestablishment of public facilities for the Iraqi people. While legally required to remain within noncombat zones, GSDF records revealed that Japanese troops were present in areas of active hostilities.

Jeremy Greenstock

Sir Jeremy Quentin Greenstock, GCMG (born 27 July 1943) is a retired British diplomat, active from 1969 to 2004.

List of international foreign trips made by Barham Salih

The following is an ongoing list of international foreign trips made by Barham Salih, who currently holds the office of President of Iraq. Assuming this post in October 2018, he has conducted many state visits to different foreign countries, mainly in the Middle East.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iraq)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Iraq is a cabinet ministry of Iraq, responsible for conducting foreign relations of the country.

Ministry of Youth and Sports (Iraq)

The Ministry of Youth and Sports (Arabic: وزارة الشباب والرياضة العراقية‎)is one of the ministries of the Iraqi government, specialized in youth affairs and sports. It is currently headed by Abdul-Hussein Abtaan.

Mubarak Al Kabeer Port

Mubarak Al Kabeer Port is a controversial project under construction in the largest island in the Kuwaiti coastal island chain, Bubiyan Island. The port is intended to overlook the Persian Gulf. The port was scheduled to be done and completely operational by 2016.

Operation Iraqi Freedom documents

Operation Iraqi Freedom documents are some 48,000 boxes of documents, audiotapes and videotapes that were discovered by the U.S. military during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The documents date from the 1980s through the post-Saddam period. In March 2006, the U.S. government, at the urging of members of Congress, made them available online at its Foreign Military Studies Office website, requesting Arabic translators around the world to help in the translation.

In early November 2006, the entire set of documents was removed. Media reports stated that the website was taken offline because of security concerns regarding the posting of sophisticated diagrams and other information regarding nuclear weapon design prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf war.

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries

The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) is a multi-governmental organization headquartered in Kuwait which coordinates energy policies among oil-producing Arab nations. OAPEC's primary objective is safeguarding the cooperation of numerous members in various aspects of economic activity within the oil industry as well as maintaining strong relations among themselves; to provide legitimate means to preserve the members' individual and collective efforts within the industry; unite on-going efforts for the procurement of oil; provide access to consumer markets on fair and reasonable terms; and provide conditions, adequate capital, and experience of investors in the oil industry.

Outline of Iraq

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Iraq:

Iraq – sovereign country located in Western Asia. Iraq spans most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert. It shares borders with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the west, Syria to the northwest, Turkey to the north, and Iran to the east. It has a very narrow section of coastline at Umm Qasr on the Persian Gulf. There are two major flowing rivers: the Tigris and the Euphrates. These provide Iraq with agriculturally capable land and contrast with the desert landscape that covers most of Western Asia.

Visa policy of Iraq

In accordance with the Iraqi law, citizens of all countries require a visa to visit Iraq. However, certain countries are given a visa on arrival in certain airports.

Visa requirements for Iraqi citizens

Visa requirements for Iraqi citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Iraq. As of 26 March 2019, Iraqi citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 30 countries and territories, ranking the Iraqi passport joint 104th in the world (worst rating alongside the Afghan passport) in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.

History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Society
Iraq Foreign relations of Iraq
Africa
Americas
Asia
Europe
Disputes
Related topics
Foreign relations of Asia
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.