A foreign policy doctrine is a general statement of foreign policy and belief system through a doctrine. In some cases, the statement is made by a political leader, typically a nation’s chief executive or chief diplomat, and comes to be named after that leader. Richard Nixon’s justification for the phased withdrawal of the United States from the Vietnam War, for example, came to be called the Nixon Doctrine. This pattern of naming is not universal, however; Chinese doctrines, for example, are often referred to by number.
The purpose of a foreign policy doctrine is to provide general rules for the conduct of foreign policy through decisions on international relations. These rules allow the political leadership of a nation to deal with a situation and to explain the actions of a nation to other nations. “Doctrine” is usually not meant to have any negative connotations; it is especially not to be confused with “dogma.”
America First refers to a foreign policy in the United States that emphasizes American nationalism and unilateralism. It first gained prominence in the interwar period and was advocated by the America First Committee, a non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II. Since 2016, an identically-named foreign policy that emphasizes similar objectives has been pursued by the administration of U.S. President Donald Trump.American University speech
The American University speech, titled "A Strategy of Peace", was a commencement address delivered by United States President John F. Kennedy at the American University in Washington, D.C., on Monday, June 10, 1963. Delivered at the height of his rhetorical powers and widely considered one of his most powerful speeches, Kennedy not only outlined a plan to curb nuclear arms, but also "laid out a hopeful, yet realistic route for world peace at a time when the U.S. and Soviet Union faced the potential for an escalating nuclear arms race." In the speech, Kennedy announced his agreement to negotiations "toward early agreement on a comprehensive test ban treaty" (which resulted in the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty) and also announced, for the purpose of showing "good faith and solemn convictions", his decision to unilaterally suspend all U.S. atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons as long as all other nations would do the same. Noteworthy are his comments that the United States was seeking a goal of "complete disarmament" of nuclear weapons and his vow that America "will never start a war". The speech was unusual in its peaceful outreach to the Soviet Union at the height of the Cold War, and is remembered as one of Kennedy's finest and most important speeches.Assassination
Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons.An assassination may be prompted by religious, political or military motives. It is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military, security, insurgent or secret police group's command to carry out the homicide. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times.Calvo (disambiguation)
Calvo is a Spanish or Italian surname.
Calvo may also refer to:
Calvo, Cumbria, in England
Luis Calvo, a Bolivian province
Porto Calvo, a Brazilian municipality
Calvo Doctrine, a foreign policy doctrine
Grupo Calvo, a group of Spanish companies dedicated to fishing, processing, and distribution of canned goodsCalvo Doctrine
The Calvo Doctrine is a foreign policy doctrine which holds that jurisdiction in international investment disputes lies with the country in which the investment is located. The Calvo Doctrine thus proposed to prohibit diplomatic protection or (armed) intervention before local resources were exhausted. An investor, under this doctrine, has no recourse but to use the local courts, rather than those of their home country. As a policy prescription, the Calvo Doctrine is an expression of legal nationalism. The principle, named after Carlos Calvo, an Argentine jurist, has been applied throughout Latin America and other areas of the world.
The doctrine arose from Calvos's ideas, expressed in his Derecho internacional teórico y práctico de Europa y América (Paris, 1868; greatly expanded in subsequent editions, which were published in French). Calvo justified his doctrine as necessary to prevent the abuse of the jurisdiction of weak nations by more powerful nations. It has since been incorporated as a part of several Latin American constitutions, as well as many other treaties, statutes, and contracts. The doctrine is used chiefly in concession contracts, the clause attempting to give local courts final jurisdiction and to obviate any appeal to diplomatic intervention.
The Drago Doctrine is a narrower application of Calvo's wider principle.Cultural depictions of John F. Kennedy
Cultural depictions of John F. Kennedy, the 35th American president, include films, songs, games, toys, stamps, coins, artwork, and other portrayals.Executive Orders
Executive Orders is a techno-thriller novel, written by Tom Clancy and released on July 1, 1996. It picks up immediately where the final events of Debt of Honor (1994) left off, and features now-U.S. President Jack Ryan as he tries to deal with foreign and domestic threats. The book is dedicated to former U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who had been responsible for Clancy's worldwide success as a novelist. The book debuted at number one on the New York Times bestseller list.Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948
The Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, also known as the YYA Treaty from the Finnish Ystävyys-, yhteistyö- ja avunantosopimus (YYA-sopimus) (Swedish: Vänskaps-, samarbets- och biståndsavtalet (VSB-avtalet)), was the basis for Finno–Soviet relations from 1948 to 1992. It was the main instrument in implementing the Finnish policy called Paasikivi–Kekkonen doctrine.
Under the treaty, which was signed on April 6, 1948, the Soviets sought to deter Western or Allied Powers from attacking the Soviet Union through Finnish territory, and the Finns sought to increase Finland's political independence from the Soviet Union. It thus ensured Finland's survival as a liberal democracy in close proximity to strategic Soviet regions, such as the Kola Peninsula and the old capital Leningrad.
Under the pact, Finland was obliged to resist armed attacks by "Germany or its allies" (in reality interpreted as the United States and allies) against Finland, or against the Soviet Union through Finland. If necessary, Finland was to ask for Soviet military aid to do so. However the pact in itself did not provide any provisions for the Soviet military to enter Finland and stipulated that all such actions would have to be agreed separately should Finland choose to request aid. Furthermore, the pact did not place any requirements for Finland to act should the Soviet Union be attacked (if the attack would not take place through Finland). The agreement also recognized Finland's desire to remain outside great-power conflicts, allowing the country to adopt a policy of neutrality in the Cold War.
Due to the uncertain status of Finno–Soviet relations in the years after the Continuation War, and the precise interpretation of the treaty's wording, Finland followed the Warsaw Pact countries' decision and did not participate in the Marshall Plan. As a result, Finland's post-war period of economic hardship was prolonged, compared to other European capitalist countries, and it thus became considerably more economically dependent on the Soviet Union. In general, Finland kept its relations towards western military powers officially distant (including the proposed Scandinavian Defense Union) and NATO in particular. By avoiding supporting the West, it attempted to fend off Soviet pressure for affiliation with the Warsaw Pact. No joint military exercises were ever held, and other military cooperation was minimal, despite occasional Soviet advances.
The YYA Treaty was a cornerstone in Paasikivi's foreign policy. It was also a central policy under the presidency of Urho Kekkonen (1956–1981), who dubbed his foreign policy doctrine the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line. The treaty was an instrumental tool for the Soviet Union to gain political leverage in the internal affairs of Finland in post-war era, in confrontations such as the note crisis. This influence was commonly referred to as Finlandisation. It is hotly debated to what degree President Kekkonen (President 1956–1981) intentionally used it to further his own influence and damage his opponents.
Despite the official policy, there was some secret co-operation with the West. This ranged from Finnish organizations such as the Social Democratic Party accepting U.S. Central Intelligence Agency funding to sharing of seismic data on nuclear tests. Likewise, Eastern Bloc countries conducted espionage in Finland, e.g., the East German Stasi had agents there.
The Soviet Union had similar agreements with many nations that were not directly allied with it but depended heavily on Soviet support, such as North Korea since 1961, with India since 1971, and Vietnam since 1978. The first such agreement, however, was with Free France in 1943.
The treaty came to an end in 1992 with the signing of a new treaty (Naapuruussopimus).Hubert Védrine
Hubert Védrine (born 31 July 1947 in Saint-Silvain-Bellegarde, Creuse) is a French Socialist politician. He is an advisor at Moelis & Company.Interventionism (politics)
Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society. The most common applications of the term are for economic interventionism (a state's intervention in its own economy), and foreign interventionism (a state's intervention in the affairs of another nation as part of its foreign policy).Kennedy Doctrine
The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his administration between 1961 and 1963. Kennedy voiced support for the containment of communism as well as the reversal of communist progress in the Western Hemisphere.Liberal internationalism
Liberal internationalism is a foreign policy doctrine that argues that liberal states should intervene in other sovereign states in order to pursue liberal objectives. Such intervention can include both military invasion and humanitarian aid. This view is contrasted to isolationist, realist, or non-interventionist foreign policy doctrines; these critics characterize it as liberal interventionism.MB Doctrine
MB Doctrine is the foreign policy doctrine of South Korean president Lee Myung-bak. The policy advocates engagement with North Korea and strong South Korea-United States relations.Mohammad Hatta
Mohammad Hatta (listen ;12 August 1902 – 14 March 1980) was Indonesia's first vice president, later also serving as the country's prime minister. Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, fought for the independence of Indonesia from the Dutch. Hatta was born in Fort De Kock, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). After his early education, he studied in Dutch schools in the Dutch East Indies and studied in the Netherlands from 1921 until 1932.
Mohammad Hatta is often remembered as Bung Hatta (according to author Pramoedya Ananta Toer, "bung" is an affectionate title meaning "friend", used to be a way of addressing a person in a familiar way, as an alternative to the old-form "tuan", "mas" or "bang").National Security Strategy (United States)
The National Security Strategy (NSS) is a document prepared periodically by the executive branch of the government of the United States for Congress. It outlines the major national security concerns of the United States and how the administration plans to deal with them. The legal foundation for the document is spelled out in the Goldwater-Nichols Act. The document is purposely general in content, and its implementation relies on elaborating guidance provided in supporting documents such as the National Military Strategy.New security concept
The new security concept is a security policy enunciated by the People's Republic of China in the late 1990s. The concept is that in the post-Cold War period, nations are able to increase their security through diplomatic and economic interaction, and that the Cold war mentality of competing and antagonistic blocs is outdated. Around 2002 and 2003, this security policy seemed to merge with the foreign policy doctrine known as China's peaceful rise.
The new security concept has influenced a number of Chinese foreign policies in the 1990s and early 21st century, including better relations with ASEAN, the formation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation with Russia, as well as joint efforts with the United States to control nuclear proliferation in North Korea.Paasikivi–Kekkonen doctrine
The Paasikivi-Kekkonen doctrine refers to a foreign policy doctrine established by Finnish President Juho Kusti Paasikivi and continued by his successor Urho Kekkonen, aimed at Finland's survival as an independent sovereign, democratic, and capitalist country in the immediate proximity of the Soviet Union.
The principal architect of Finland's postwar foreign policy of neutrality was Juho Kusti Paasikivi, who was president from 1946 to 1956. Urho Kekkonen, president from 1956 until 1981, further developed this policy, stressing that Finland should be an active rather than a passive neutral.Syrian Crisis of 1957
The Syrian Crisis of 1957 was a period of severe diplomatic confrontations during the Cold War that involved Syria and the Soviet Union on one hand, and the United States and its allies, including Turkey and the Baghdad Pact, on the other.
The tensions began in August 18, when the Syrian government presided by Shukri al-Quwatli made a series of provocative institutional changes, such as the appointment of Col. Afif al-Bizri as chief-of-staff of the Syrian Army, who was alleged by Western governments of being a Soviet sympathizer. Suspicion that a communist takeover had occurred in Damascus grew larger, prompting neighboring Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon to consider supporting an Arab or Western military intervention to overthrow the Syrian government. Turkey was the only country to step in by deploying thousands of troops along the Syrian-Turkish border. Nikita Khrushchev threatened that he would launch missiles at Turkey if it attacked Syria, while the United States said that it could attack the Soviet Union in response to an assault on Turkey. The crisis ended in late October, when Turkey agreed to cease its border operations following pressure by the United States, and when Khrushchev made an unexpected visit to the Turkish embassy in Moscow.The events are widely seen as a major failure of the Eisenhower Doctrine, which stressed that the United States could intervene militarily on behalf of a Middle Eastern ally to fight "international communism".Yoshida Doctrine
The Yoshida Doctrine was a strategy adopted by Japan after World War II under Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida, the country's first post-war prime minister, in which economics was to be concentrated upon reconstructing Japan's domestic economy while the security alliance with the United States would be the guarantor of Japanese security. The Yoshida Doctrine shaped Japanese foreign policy throughout the Cold War era and beyond.