Foreign aid to China

Foreign aid to the People's Republic of China since 1949 has taken the form of both bilateral and multilateral official development assistance and official aid to individual recipients.

In 1978, China and Japan normalized their diplomatic relations. Deng Xiaoping had visited to Japan to sign a treaty and to look at its development. As a result, China decided to borrow 220 million dollars in soft loans from Japan when the amount of foreign currency preparation was 167 million dollars. China poured that money into social infrastructures.

In 2001 it received US$1.4 billion in foreign aid, or about US$1.10 per capita. This total was down from the 1999 figure of US$2.4 billion, or US$1.90 per capita. In 2003 China received US$1.3 billion in aid, or about US$1 per capita. Like other countries in recent years, the United States has rapidly lowered foreign aid to China, reaching about $12 million from USAID for 2011.[1] The aid goes to Tibetan communities, rule of law initiatives, and climate change policy.[1] In 2011, an aid package amounting to $3.95 million and designated for climate change was the subject of a critical Congressional panel hearing titled "Feeding the Dragon: Reevaluating U.S. Development Assistance to China".

Some of this aid comes to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the form of socioeconomic development assistance through the United Nations (UN) system. The PRC received US$112 million in such UN assistance annually in 2001 and 2002, the largest portion coming from the UN Development Programme (UNDP).

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "FEEDING THE DRAGON: REEVALUATING U.S. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO CHINA" (PDF). Archives.republicans.foreignaffairs.house.gov. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
China International Development Cooperation Agency

The China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA; Chinese: 国家国际发展合作署) is a sub-ministry-level executive agency directly under the State Council of the People's Republic of China. It was formerly the Department of Foreign Aid of the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM). It aims to coordinate policies for foreign aid.

Chinese foreign aid

Foreign aid from China is development assistance provided by the Chinese government to other countries in the form of infrastructure projects given as gifts; concessional loans to fund projects; disaster relief; student scholarships; and other forms of assistance.

Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle. Some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. It is known as the War of Resistance (Chinese: 中国抗日战争; pinyin: Zhōngguó Kàngrì Zhànzhēng; lit. "Chinese War of Resistance Against Japan") in China.

China fought Japan with aid from the Soviet Union and the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the war merged with other conflicts of World War II as a major sector known as the China Burma India Theater. Some scholars consider the start of the full-scale Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to have been the beginning of World War II. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. It accounted for the majority of civilian and military casualties in the Pacific War, with between 10 and 25 million Chinese civilians and over 4 million Chinese and Japanese military personnel dying from war-related violence, famine, and other causes.

The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and militarily in order to secure access to raw material reserves, food, and labor. The period after World War I brought about increasing stress on the Japanese polity. Leftists sought universal suffrage and greater rights for workers. Increasing textile production from Chinese mills was adversely affecting Japanese production. The Great Depression brought about a large slowdown in exports. All of this contributed to militant nationalism, culminating in the rise to power of a militarist fascist faction. This faction was led at its height by the Hideki Tojo cabinet of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association under edict from Emperor Hirohito. In 1931, the Mukden Incident helped spark the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. The Chinese were defeated and Japan created a new puppet state, Manchukuo; many historians cite 1931 as the beginning of the war. This view has been adopted by the PRC government. From 1931 to 1937, China and Japan continued to skirmish in small, localized engagements, so-called "incidents".

Initially the Japanese scored major victories, capturing both Shanghai and the Chinese capital of Nanjing in 1937. After failing to stop the Japanese in the Battle of Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing (Chungking) in the Chinese interior. By 1939, after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi, and with Japan's lines of communications stretched deep into the Chinese interior, the war reached a stalemate. The Japanese were also unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, which waged a campaign of sabotage and guerrilla warfare against the invaders. While Japan ruled the large cities, they lacked sufficient manpower to control China's vast countryside. During this time, Chinese communist forces launched a counter offensive in Central China while Chinese nationalist forces launched a large scale winter offensive.

On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the following day the United States declared war on Japan. The United States began to aid China by airlifting material over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road. In 1944 Japan launched the invasion, Operation Ichi-Go, that conquered Henan and Changsha. However, this failed to bring about the surrender of Chinese forces. In 1945, the Chinese Expeditionary Force resumed its advance in Burma and completed the Ledo Road linking India to China. At the same time, China launched large counteroffensives in South China and retook West Hunan and Guangxi.

Despite continuing to occupy part of China's territory, Japan eventually surrendered on September 2, 1945, to Allied forces following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria. The remaining Japanese occupation forces (excluding Manchuria) formally surrendered on September 9, 1945, with the following International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened on April 29, 1946. At the outcome of the Cairo Conference of November 22–26, 1943, the Allies of World War II decided to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan by restoring all the territories that Japan annexed from China, including Manchuria, Taiwan/Formosa, and the Pescadores, to China, and to expel Japan from the Korean Peninsula. China was recognized as one of the Big Four of the Allies during the war and became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.

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