Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website,[3] and in six print issues annually.

Foreign Policy magazine and ForeignPolicy.com are published by The FP Group,[4] a division of Graham Holdings Company (formerly The Washington Post Company). The FP Group also produces FP Events, Foreign Policy's events division, launched in 2012.

Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy logo 2014
May June 2014 Cover of Foreign Policy Magazine
May/June 2014 Issue of Foreign Policy magazine
EditorJonathan Tepperman [1]
CategoriesNews magazine news site
FrequencySix issues annually
Total circulation
(December 2012)
101,054[2]
FounderSamuel P. Huntington and Warren Demian Manshel
Year foundedDecember 1970
CompanyThe FP Group
CountryUnited States of America
Based inWashington, D.C.
LanguageEnglish
WebsiteForeign Policy's website
Online archive
ISSN0015-7228

History

Foreign Policy was founded in the winter of 1970-71 by Samuel P. Huntington, professor of Harvard University, and his friend Warren Demian Manshel to give a voice to alternative views about American foreign policy at the time of the Vietnam War.[5][6] Huntington hoped it would be "serious but not scholarly, lively but not glib".[7] In the spring of 1978, after six years of close partnership, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace acquired full ownership of Foreign Policy. In 2000, a format change was implemented from a slim quarterly academic journal to a bimonthly magazine. Also, it launched international editions in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Latin America.

In September 2008, Foreign Policy was bought by The Washington Post Company (now Graham Holdings Company).[8] In 2012, Foreign Policy grew to become the FP Group – an expansion of Foreign Policy magazine to include ForeignPolicy.com and FP Events.[9]

Style

According to its submissions guidelines, Foreign Policy articles "strike the balance" between informed specialist research and general readability, and tend to be written in plain - rather than "wonky" - language.[10]

Editorial stance

The Foreign Policy endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U.S. presidential election.[11]

Awards

Since 2003, Foreign Policy has been nominated for eight National Magazine Awards, winning six - three for its print publication, and three for its digital publication at ForeignPolicy.com. FP is the only independent magazine that has won consecutive digital national magazine awards every year from being established in 2009.

2016

  • Foreign Policy contributors received two Overseas Press Club awards for excellence in international reporting. Honorees included Tristian McConnell for his 2015 piece called "Close Your Eyes and Pretend to be Dead," detailing the deadly attack on Nairobi's Westgate Mall in 2013. Christina Larson also received the award for her profile of the entrepreneur Zhao Bowen entitled "The Zhao Method" and featured FP's September/October 2015 print edition.[12]
  • Foreign Policy and photographer Andrew Quilty received the George Polk Award in photography for the three part photo series titled "The Man on the Operating Table," showing the destruction following airstrikes on Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) hospital in Kunduz, Afghanistan in October 2015. [13]

2014

Oliver Munday Illustration for Foreign Policy magazine article by William T. Vollmann
"Surveillance State" Illustration
  • Foreign Policy received its first design recognition for "The Surveillance State", appearing in its annual Global Thinkers issue in December 2013. The illustration by Oliver Munday accompanied the marquee story by novelist William T. Vollmann, who discussed “the surveillance state” we knowingly living in after the revelations of wide-reaching surveillance by the NSA. Munday’s illustration for FP appeared in the American Illustration annual award book (#33.)[14]
  • Foreign Policy writers won multiple awards from the United Nations Correspondents Association. Senior diplomatic reporter Colum Lynch received the silver medal for the Elizabeth Neuffer Memorial Prize for his three-part series on the UNAMID peacekeeping mission in Darfur. FP contributor James Reinl won the gold medal in The United Nations Foundation Prize for print for his reporting on Somalia and Kenya, including his story in Foreign Policy titled "Crazy Town" about PTSD in Somalia.[15]


2012

  • Foreign Policy won an Overseas Press Club award for General Excellence for the best overall international coverage on a website.[16]
  • FP’s “Qaddafi Files” won the National Magazine Award for Multimedia[17]

2011

  • Foreign Policy Magazine and former Editor-in-Chief Susan Glasser were presented with a special citation for the Edward Weintal Prize for Diplomatic Reporting.[18]
  • “Turtle Bay,” the reported blog by journalist Colum Lynch, won the Digital National Magazine Award for best reporting for a series of hard-hitting investigative articles about the United Nations.[19]

2010

  • Foreign Policy's "The Best Defense" column authored by Tom Ricks received the Digital National Magazine Award for best blog.[20]

2009

  • Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence in the 100,000 to 250,000 circulation category.[21]
  • Forbes RealClearWorld designated ForeignPolicy.com as a top international news site.[22]

2008

  • Folio Magazine Gold Editorial Excellence (Eddie) Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest (single article), "What America Must Do" by Kenneth Rogoff, Jan/Feb 2008.[23]
  • FP's "What America Must Do" feature received the Eddie Award as a Gold Winner for the Consumer News/Commentary/General Interest category for a Single Article.[23]
  • Folio Magazine Silver Editorial Excellence (Eddie) Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest (single article), "A World Enslaved" by Benjamin Skinner, Mar/Apr 2008.[23]
  • Folio Magazine Silver Editorial Excellence (Eddie) Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest (full issue), May/June 2008.[23]
  • Media Industry Newsletter's (min) "Best of the Web" Award in the blog category for Passport a blog by the editors of Foreign Policy.[24]

2007

  • Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence in the 100,000 to 250,000 circulation category.[25]
  • Foreign Policy was presented as a Gold Winner by the Eddie Awards for “Who Wins in Iraq,” in the Consumer News/Commentary/General Interest category.[26]

2003

  • Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for Outstanding Achievement and General Excellence in the under 100,000 circulation category.[27]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Meet the Staff: Jonathan Tepperman, Editor in Chief". Foreign Policy. September 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  2. ^ "Foreign Policy Business Publication Circulation Statement". BPA Worldwide. December 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  3. ^ foreignpolicy.com
  4. ^ fpgroup.foreignpolicy.com
  5. ^ "Samuel Huntington, 1927-2008". Foreign Policy. 16 February 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  6. ^ "100 Years of Impact: A Timeline of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  7. ^ Yester, Katherine (16 February 2009). "Samuel Huntington, 1927-2008". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  8. ^ Ahrens, Frank (30 September 2008). "Post Co. Buys Foreign Policy Magazine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  9. ^ "Foreign Policy Group History". Foreign Policy Group. 22 April 2015.
  10. ^ "Submissions". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  11. ^ "Hillary Clinton for President of the United States". October 9, 2016.
  12. ^ Foreign Policy Group. "Foreign Policy Receives Two Overseas Press Club Awards for Excellence in International Reporting". Foreign Policy Group. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  13. ^ George Polk Awards. "Past George Polk Award Winners 2016". Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  14. ^ American Illustration American Photography. "American Illustration 33 Winners". American Illustration American Photography. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  15. ^ United Nations Correspondents Association. "2014 UNCA Award Winners". United Nations Correspondents Association. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  16. ^ Overseas Press Club of America. "GENERAL EXCELLENCE ONLINE AWARD 2011". Overseas Press Club of America. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  17. ^ American Society of Magazine Editors. "2012 National Magazine Awards for Digital Media". American Society of Magazine Editors. Retrieved 27 May 2014.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. "Weinthal Prize for Diplomatic Reporting". Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  19. ^ The Association of Magazine Media. "Foreign Policy The Association of Magazine Media". The Association of Magazine Media. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  20. ^ Archive of Military Reporters and Editors Association. "MRE 2010 contest winners announced". Military Reporters and Editors Association. Archived from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  21. ^ The Association of Magazine Media. "The Association of Magazine Media". The Association of Magazine Media. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  22. ^ RealClearWorld. "Top International News Sites 2009". RealClearWorld. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d "2008 Eddie Awards Winners". Folio. 23 September 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  24. ^ Min Online. "Min's 2008 Best of the Web Winners". Min Online. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  25. ^ American Society of Magazine Editors. "National Magazine Awards 2007 Winners Announced". American Society of Magazine Editors. Retrieved 27 May 2014.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  26. ^ "A Good Year for FP". Foreign Policy blog. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  27. ^ American Society of Magazine Editors. "Winners & Finalists". American Society of Magazine Editors. Retrieved 27 May 2014.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links

Big Stick ideology

Big stick ideology, big stick diplomacy, or big stick policy refers to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy: "speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far." Roosevelt described his style of foreign policy as "the exercise of intelligent forethought and of decisive action sufficiently far in advance of any likely crisis."The idea is negotiating peacefully but also having strength in case things go wrong. Simultaneously threatening with the "big stick", or the military, ties in heavily with the idea of Realpolitik, which implies a pursuit of political power that resembles Machiavellian ideals. It is comparable to gunboat diplomacy, as used in international politics by imperial powers.

Brezhnev Doctrine

The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by Sergei Kovalev in a September 26, 1968 Pravda article entitled Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries. Leonid Brezhnev reiterated it in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party on November 13, 1968, which stated:

When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries.

This doctrine was announced to retroactively justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 that ended the Prague Spring, along with earlier Soviet military interventions, such as the invasion of Hungary in 1956. These interventions were meant to put an end to liberalization efforts and uprisings that had the potential to compromise Soviet hegemony inside the Eastern Bloc, which was considered by the Soviet Union to be an essential defensive and strategic buffer in case hostilities with NATO were to break out.

In practice, the policy meant that only limited independence of the satellite states' communist parties was allowed and that no socialist country would be allowed to compromise the cohesiveness of the Eastern Bloc in any way. That is, no country could leave the Warsaw Pact or disturb a ruling communist party's monopoly on power. Implicit in this doctrine was that the leadership of the Soviet Union reserved, for itself, the power to define "socialism" and "capitalism". Following the announcement of the Brezhnev Doctrine, numerous treaties were signed between the Soviet Union and its satellite states to reassert these points and to further ensure inter-state cooperation. The principles of the doctrine were so broad that the Soviets even used it to justify their military intervention in the non-Warsaw Pact nation of Afghanistan in 1979. The Brezhnev Doctrine stayed in effect until it was ended with the Soviet reaction to the Polish crisis of 1980–1981. Mikhail Gorbachev refused to use military force when Poland held free elections in 1989 and Solidarity defeated the Polish United Workers' Party. It was superseded by the facetiously named Sinatra Doctrine in 1989, alluding to the Frank Sinatra song "My Way".

Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is an American research group founded in 1916 on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development. Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous, and cooperative international system."Brookings has five research programs at its Washington, D.C. campus (Economic Studies, Foreign Policy, Governance Studies, Global Economy and Development, and Metropolitan Policy) and three international centers based in Doha, Qatar (Brookings Doha Center); Beijing, China (Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy); and New Delhi, India (Brookings India).The University of Pennsylvania's Global Go To Think Tank Index Report has named Brookings "Think Tank of the Year" and "Top Think Tank in the World" every year since 2008. The Economist describes Brookings as "perhaps America’s most prestigious think-tank".Brookings states that its staff "represent diverse points of view" and describes itself as non-partisan, and various media outlets have alternately described Brookings as "conservative", "centrist" or "liberal". An academic analysis of Congressional records from 1993 to 2002 found that Brookings was referred to by conservative politicians almost as frequently as liberal politicians, earning a score of 53 on a 1–100 scale with 100 representing the most liberal score. The same study found Brookings to be the most frequently cited think tank by the U.S. media and politicians.

Common Foreign and Security Policy

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions. CFSP deals only with a specific part of the EU's external relations, which domains include mainly Trade and Commercial Policy and other areas such as funding to third countries, etc. Decisions require unanimity among member states in the Council of the European Union, but once agreed, certain aspects can be further decided by qualified majority voting. Foreign policy is chaired and represented by the EU's High Representative, currently Federica Mogherini.

The CFSP sees the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) as responsible for the territorial defence of Europe and reconciliation. However, since 1999, the European Union is responsible for implementing missions such as peacekeeping and policing of treaties. A phrase often used to describe the relationship between the EU forces and NATO is "separable, but not separate". The same forces and capabilities form the basis of both EU and NATO efforts, but portions can be allocated to the European Union if necessary.

Containment

Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy. It is best known as a Cold War foreign policy of the United States and its allies to prevent the spread of communism. As a component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to increase communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, Africa, Vietnam, and Latin America. Containment represented a middle-ground position between detente and rollback.

The basis of the doctrine was articulated in a 1946 cable by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan during the post-World War II administration of U.S. President Harry S. Truman. As a description of U.S. foreign policy, the word originated in a report Kennan submitted to U.S. Defense Secretary James Forrestal in 1947, which was later used in a magazine article. It is a translation of the French term cordon sanitaire, which was used to describe Western policy toward the Soviet Union in the 1920s.

Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Its membership, which numbers 4,900, has included senior politicians, more than a dozen secretaries of state, CIA directors, bankers, lawyers, professors, and senior media figures.

The CFR meetings convene government officials, global business leaders and prominent members of the intelligence and foreign-policy community to discuss international issues. CFR publishes the bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs, and runs the David Rockefeller Studies Program, which influences foreign policy by making recommendations to the presidential administration and diplomatic community, testifying before Congress, interacting with the media, and publishing on foreign policy issues.

Criticism of the United States government

Criticism of the United States government encompasses a wide range of sentiments about the actions and policies of the United States.

Diplomat

A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state; initiation and facilitation of strategic agreements; treaties and conventions; promotion of information; trade and commerce; technology; and friendly relations. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations (for example, the United Nations, the world's largest international diplomatic organization) as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are members of foreign services and diplomatic corps of various nations of the world.

Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices. They usually have diplomatic immunity.

Foreign policy of Japan

The primary responsibility for the Japanese foreign policy, as determined by the 1947 constitution, is exercised by the cabinet and subject to the overall supervision of the National Diet. The prime minister is required to make periodic reports on foreign relations to the Diet, whose upper and lower houses each have a foreign affairs committee. Each committee reports on its deliberations to plenary sessions of the chamber to which it belongs. Special committees are formed occasionally to consider special questions. Diet members have the right to raise pertinent policy questions—officially termed interpellations—to the minister of foreign affairs and the prime minister. Treaties with foreign countries require ratification by the Diet. As head of state, the emperor performs the ceremonial function of receiving foreign envoys and attesting to foreign treaties ratified by the Diet.

Constitutionally the dominant figure in the political system, the prime minister has the final word in major foreign policy decisions. The minister of foreign affairs, a senior member of the cabinet, acts as the prime minister's chief adviser in matters of planning and implementation. The minister is assisted by two vice ministers: one in charge of administration, who was at the apex of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs structure as its senior career official, and the other in charge of political liaison with the Diet. Other key positions in the ministry include members of the ministry's Secretariat, which has divisions handling consular, emigration, communications, and cultural exchange functions, and the directors of the various regional and functional bureaus in the ministry.

Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration

The foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 2009 to 2017 while Barack Obama was president. The term Obama Doctrine is frequently used to describe the various principles of the administration's foreign policy. Obama's main foreign policy advisors were Secretaries of State Hillary Clinton, and John Kerry. Substantial geopolitical developments that occurred during Obama's presidency include:

The aftermath of the "Great Recession" of 2008 and the ensuing Eurozone Crisis.

The widespread Arab Spring protests.

The growing and controversial role of drone aircraft.

Attempts to negotiate free trade agreements in the Trans-Pacific and Transatlantic areas.

Edward Snowden's revelations of extensive government surveillance.

Russia′s annexation of Crimea in 2014 and intervention in eastern Ukraine.Supporters of Obama's foreign policy applaud cooperation with allies and his efforts to end the Iraq War, the administration's attempts at destroying al-Qaeda's core leadership, the killing of Osama bin Laden; the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, brokering a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalizing U.S. relations with Cuba. Comparatively, the Obama administration's foreign policy received criticism across the political spectrum. Conservatives such as Obama's 2008 Republican challenger John McCain and South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham have accused the President of being timid and ineffectual in wielding American influence. On the other hand, liberals including Jimmy Carter and Dennis Kucinich accused him of cynicism and heavy-handedness. More specifically, some critics charged that he had pursued similarly imperialistic policies to those of his predecessor, George W. Bush, of whom Obama was deeply critical during his tenure in the Senate and his 2008 presidential campaign.

Foreign policy of the United States

The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States.

The officially stated goals of the foreign policy of the United States, including all the Bureaus and Offices in the United States Department of State, as mentioned in the Foreign Policy Agenda of the Department of State, are "to build and sustain a more democratic, secure, and prosperous world for the benefit of the American people and the international community." In addition, the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs states as some of its jurisdictional goals: "export controls, including nonproliferation of nuclear technology and nuclear hardware; measures to foster commercial interaction with foreign nations and to safeguard American business abroad; international commodity agreements; international education; and protection of American citizens abroad and expatriation." U.S. foreign policy and foreign aid have been the subject of much debate, praise and criticism, both domestically and abroad.

Foreign relations of Pakistan

Islamic Republic of Pakistan maintains an extensive and large diplomatic network across the world. Pakistan, being the second largest Muslim-majority country in terms of population (after Indonesia) and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Muslim majority nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role.

Pakistan has a independent foreign policy when it comes to issues that are vital to its national interests. On the other hand, Pakistan's economy is rather integrated into the world with strong ties to the EU and economic alliances and agreements with many other Asian nations. Pakistan has a strategic geo-political location at the corridor of world major maritime oil supply lines, and has close proximity to the resource and oil rich central Asian countries. Pakistan has been maintaining a tensed relationship with neighbouring Republic of India and close relationships with People's Republic of China and Arab nations. Pakistan is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), is ranked by the US as a major non-NATO ally in the war against terrorism and one of founding members of IMCTC.

Henry Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger (; German: [ˈkɪsɪŋɐ]; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger; May 27, 1923) is an American elder statesman, political scientist, diplomat, and geopolitical consultant who served as United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. A Jewish refugee who fled Nazi Germany with his family in 1938, he became National Security Advisor in 1969 and U.S. Secretary of State in 1973. For his actions negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam, Kissinger received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize under controversial circumstances, with two members of the committee resigning in protest. Kissinger later sought, unsuccessfully, to return the prize after the ceasefire failed.A practitioner of Realpolitik, Kissinger played a prominent role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. During this period, he pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, orchestrated the opening of relations with the People's Republic of China, engaged in what became known as shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East to end the Yom Kippur War, and negotiated the Paris Peace Accords, ending American involvement in the Vietnam War. Kissinger has also been associated with such controversial policies as U.S. involvement in the 1973 Chilean military coup, a "green light" to Argentina's military junta for their Dirty War, and U.S. support for Pakistan during the Bangladesh War despite the genocide being perpetrated by his allies. After leaving government, he formed Kissinger Associates, an international geopolitical consulting firm. Kissinger has written over one dozen books on diplomatic history and international relations.

Kissinger remains widely regarded as a controversial figure in American politics, and has been condemned as a war criminal by journalists, political activists, and human rights lawyers. According to a 2014 survey by Foreign Policy magazine 32.21% of "America's top International Relations scholars" considered Henry Kissinger the most effective U.S. Secretary of State since 1965.

Isolationism

Isolationism is a category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that their nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible motivation for limiting international involvement is to avoid being drawn into dangerous and otherwise undesirable conflicts. There may also be a perceived benefit from avoiding international trade agreements or other mutual assistance pacts.

Neoconservatism

Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon when labelling its adherents) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among liberal hawks who became disenchanted with the increasingly pacifist foreign policy of the Democratic Party, and the growing New Left and counterculture, in particular the Vietnam protests. Some also began to question their liberal beliefs regarding domestic policies such as the Great Society.

Neoconservatives typically advocate the promotion of democracy and American national interest in international affairs, including peace through strength (by means of military force), and are known for espousing disdain for communism and for political radicalism.Many of its adherents became politically famous during the Republican presidential administrations of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s as neoconservatives peaked in influence during the administration of George W. Bush, when they played a major role in promoting and planning the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Prominent neoconservatives in the George W. Bush administration included Paul Wolfowitz, Elliott Abrams, Richard Perle, and Paul Bremer. While not identifying as neoconservatives, senior officials Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld listened closely to neoconservative advisers regarding foreign policy, especially the defense of Israel and the promotion of American influence in the Middle East.

Historically speaking, the term "neoconservative" refers to those who made the ideological journey from the anti-Stalinist left to the camp of American conservatism during the 1960s and 1970s. The movement had its intellectual roots in the Jewish monthly review magazine Commentary, edited by Norman Podhoretz and published by the American Jewish Committee. They spoke out against the New Left and in that way helped define the movement.

Project for the New American Century

The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) was a neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. that focused on United States foreign policy. It was established as a non-profit educational organization in 1997, and founded by William Kristol and Robert Kagan. PNAC's stated goal was "to promote American global leadership." The organization stated that "American leadership is good both for America and for the world," and sought to build support for "a Reaganite policy of military strength and moral clarity."Of the twenty-five people who signed PNAC's founding statement of principles, ten went on to serve in the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush, including Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, and Paul Wolfowitz. Observers such as Irwin Stelzer and Dave Grondin have suggested that the PNAC played a key role in shaping the foreign policy of the Bush Administration, particularly in building support for the Iraq War. Academics such as Inderjeet Parmar, Phillip Hammond, and Donald E. Abelson have said PNAC's influence on the George W. Bush administration has been exaggerated.The Project for the New American Century ceased to function in 2006; it was replaced by a new think-tank named the Foreign Policy Initiative, co-founded by Kristol and Kagan in 2009. The Foreign Policy Initiative was dissolved in 2017.

Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U.S. territories. The party originally subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; under his leadership and the leadership of a Republican Congress, slavery was banned in the United States in 1865. The Party was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, and the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right.The liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic. White voters increasingly identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism. The Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North.The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing. The GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, free enterprise, a strong national defense, gun rights, deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative and seeks to uphold traditional values based largely on Judeo-Christian ethics. The GOP was strongly committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. Unlike other conservative political parties in Western nations, the GOP denies the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change.

As of 2019, there have been a total of 19 Republican Presidents (the most from any one party in American history), and Republicans have won 24 of the last 40 presidential elections. Following the results of the 2018 midterm elections, the Republican Party controls the bulk of the power in the United States as of 2019, holding the presidency (Donald Trump), a majority in the United States Senate, and a majority of governorships (27) and state legislatures (full control of 30/50 legislatures, split control of two).

Truman Doctrine

The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, and further developed on July 12, 1948, when he pledged to contain threats in Greece and Turkey. Direct American military force was usually not involved, but Congress appropriated financial aid to support the economies and militaries of Greece and Turkey. More generally, the Truman Doctrine implied American support for other nations allegedly threatened by Soviet communism. The Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy, and led, in 1949, to the formation of NATO, a military alliance that is still in effect. Historians often use Truman's speech to date the start of the Cold War.

Truman told Congress that "it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Truman contended that because totalitarian regimes coerced free peoples, they automatically represented a threat to international peace and the national security of the United States. Truman made the plea in the midst of the Greek Civil War (1946–49). He argued that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid, they would inevitably fall to communism with grave consequences throughout the region. Because Turkey and Greece were historic rivals, it was considered necessary to help both equally even though the crisis in Greece was far more intense.

Critics of the policy have observed that the governments of Greece and Turkey were themselves far from democratic at this time, and neither were facing Soviet subversion in the spring of 1949. Historian Eric Foner writes that the Doctrine "set a precedent for American assistance to anticommunist regimes throughout the world, no matter how undemocratic, and for the creation of a set of global military alliances directed against the Soviet Union."For years, the United Kingdom had supported Greece, but was now near bankruptcy and was forced to radically reduce its involvement. In February 1947, Britain formally requested for the United States to take over its role in supporting the royalist Greek government. The policy won the support of Republicans who controlled Congress and involved sending $400 million in American money but no military forces to the region. The effect was to end the Greek revolt, and in 1952, both Greece and Turkey joined NATO, a military alliance, to guarantee their stability.

The Truman Doctrine was informally extended to become the basis of American Cold War policy throughout Europe and around the world. It shifted American foreign policy toward the Soviet Union from anti-fascism ally to a policy of containment of Soviet expansion as advocated by diplomat George Kennan. It was distinguished from rollback by implicitly tolerating the previous Soviet takeovers in Eastern Europe.

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