The Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States (FCSC) is a quasi-judicial, independent agency within the U.S. Department of Justice which adjudicates claims of U.S. nationals against foreign governments, either under specific jurisdiction conferred by Congress or pursuant to international claims settlement agreements. Funds for payment of the Commission's awards are derived from congressional appropriations, international claims settlements, or liquidation of foreign assets in the United States by the Departments of Justice and the U.S. treasury.
The Commission is headed by Chairman Timothy J. Feighery. Messrs. Stephen C. King and Rafael E. Martinez serve as a part-time members of the Commission. The Commission also employs a small staff of professional and administrative personnel.
The FCSC's regulations may be found at Part 500 of Title 45, Code of Federal Regulations.
The FCSC was established in 1954 (Reorganization Plan No. 1 (5 U.S.C. App.)), when it assumed the functions of two predecessor agencies: the War Claims Commission and the International Claims Commission. The FCSC and its predecessor agencies have successfully completed 43 claims programs to resolve claims against various countries including the Federal Republic of Germany, Iran, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Italy, Cuba, China, East Germany, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Egypt, Panama, and Albania. In all, more than 660,000 claims have been adjudicated, with awards totaling in the billions of dollars.
Pursuant to the U.S.-Albanian Claims Settlement Agreement of March 1995, the FCSC retains authority to adjudicate claims of U.S. nationals for expropriation, confiscation and other loss of property suffered at the hands of the Communist regime that seized power in Albania at the end of the Second World War. A fund of $2 million was provided by Albania under the 1995 agreement from which to pay the Commission's awards, and over $1 million remains available in this fund.
The United States and Germany signed an agreement on September 19, 1995, providing for reparations for certain U.S.-citizen survivors of the Holocaust, with compensation to be paid in two stages. The first stage provided for compensation for Hugo Princz and a small group of other known concentration camp survivors, through a lump-sum payment to the United States of 3 million Deutsche Mark (about $2.1 million). The second stage was to provide for compensation for additional, similarly-situated claimants. Legislation passed in early 1996 authorized the Commission to receive and adjudicate cases of additional claimants, a process which it completed in March 1998. Following further negotiations, the German Government paid to the United States in June 1999 an additional lump sum of 34.5 million Deutsche Mark (about $18 million) in final settlement of any and all claims of United States citizens against Germany for Nazi persecution in concentration camps, whether or not they were adjudicated by the Commission. In the ensuing months, the Department of the Treasury completed the process of distributing the settlement fund to the claimants previously found eligible for awards.
The Commission has administered two programs for adjudication of claims against the Government of Cuba. In its First Cuban Claims Program, completed on July 6, 1972, the Commission certified 5,911 claims to the U.S. Department of State as valid claims. In August 2006 the Commission completed the administration of a second Cuban claims program, evaluating previously unadjudicated claims of U.S. citizens or corporations against the Government of Cuba for losses of real and personal property taken after May 1, 1967. The first program was conducted under the authority of Title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, as amended (22 U.S.C. § 1643 et seq.), while the second program was conducted pursuant to the Commission's authority under 22 U.S.C. § 1623(a)(1)(C) to evaluate categories of claims referred to it by the Secretary of State. The second program began on August 10, 2005, and the filing deadline was February 13, 2006.
In its Second Cuban Claims Program, the Commission received a total of five claims, and certified two of those claims as valid: the Claim of Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide, Inc., Claim No. CU-2-001, Decision No. CU-2-001, in the total principal amount of $51,128,926.95 (plus 6 percent simple annual interest); and the Claim of Iraida R. Mendez, Claim No. CU-2-002, Decision No. CU-2-004, in the principal amount of $16,000.00 (plus 6 percent simple annual interest). These will be added to the claims already certified in the previous program. Although there are no funds currently available to make payment on any American claims, the purpose of the Commission’s certifications will be to serve as a basis for future negotiation of a claims settlement with the Government of Cuba.
The Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996, Public Law 104-114, known as the "Helms-Burton Act," includes as Title III a provision authorizing U.S. nationals whose Cuban property was confiscated by the Castro regime to bring federal court actions against foreign entities "trafficking" in those properties. The legislation contemplates that, with limited exceptions, the courts hearing these cases will adopt the valuations determined in awards issued by the Commission in its Cuban Claims Program, which it conducted from 1965 to 1972 under Title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, as amended (22 U.S.C. 1643 et seq.). In the course of that program the Commission certified 5,911 claims as valid, with an aggregate principal value (i.e., not including interest) of over $1.8 billion.
In cases where plaintiffs were not eligible to file claims in the Commission's Cuban Claims Program, the Helms-Burton Act authorized the United States District Courts, beginning in March 1998, to receive those claims and to appoint the Commission as Special Master to make determinations concerning ownership and valuation of the property at issue in the claims. Since the statute's enactment, however, Presidents Clinton, Bush and Obama have continually waived the implementation of the right to file Title III actions, citing the need to seek agreement with U.S. trading partners on policy toward Cuba; it remains suspended as of 2014.
The Commission continues to have authority under the War Claims Act of 1948, as amended, to receive, determine, and provide for the payment of any further claims that may be filed for maltreatment of U.S. servicemen and civilians held as prisoners of war or interned by a hostile force in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. In addition, the Commission is frequently called upon to provide advice and assistance to the Department of State and Congressional offices on policy issues involving international claims and proposals for legislation to resolve classes of still-outstanding U.S. citizens' claims.
Because of the institutional knowledge and expertise of the FCSC staff, the Department of the Interior asked for the FCSC's assistance with the Guam War Claims Review Commission, which was established in September 2003 pursuant to Public Law 107-333, approved December 16, 2002. The purpose of the Review Commission was to evaluate the treatment accorded by the U.S. Navy to claims of residents of Guam for death, physical injury, and property loss and destruction during and after the occupation of Guam by Imperial Japanese Forces during World War II, and to determine whether the compensation provided to the people of Guam was comparable to that provided under other claims statutes covering World War II losses.
The Review Commission, composed of five individuals, designated the FCSC's Chairman as its Chairman, and the FCSC staff members conducted investigative research in support of the Review Commission's work. However, it is important to emphasize that this work was totally independent, and that it was carried out solely for the edification of and at the direction of the members of the Review Commission and was in no way identified with or sponsored by either the FCSC or the Department of Justice.
The Review Commission held hearings on Guam in December 2003 to take testimony of survivors of the Japanese occupation concerning their wartime and post-war experiences, and in February 2004 it held a conference in Washington, DC, to hear opinions and insights of legal experts on a variety of war claims-related issues. These efforts eventually culminated in an 82-page written report, with numerous appendices, which the Review Commission submitted on June 9, 2004, to the Secretary of the Interior, the House Committees on Resources and the Judiciary, and the Senate Committees on Energy and Natural Resources and the Judiciary. As provided by law, the Review Commission then went out of existence on July 10, 2004. It is the FCSC's understanding that the Administration has not taken a position on any of the findings and recommendations contained in the Review Commission's report.
An unprecedented 270 million dollars was allocated in the 2018 budget for witness protection for the FCSC.
An Assistant United States Attorney (also known as AUSA) is an attorney employed by the federal government of the United States and working under the supervision of a United States Attorney. In 2008, there were approximately 5,300 Assistant United States Attorneys employed by the U.S. Government. As of 2014 they earned a starting salary of $50,287.Community Oriented Policing Services
The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) is a component within the United States Department of Justice. The COPS Office was established through a provision in the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act.
Since 1994, the COPS Office has provided $14 billion in assistance to state and local law enforcement agencies to help hire community policing officers. The COPS Office also funds the research and development of guides, tools and training, and provides technical assistance to police departments implementing community policing principles.Community Relations Service
The Community Relations Service (CRS) is part of the United States Department of Justice. The office is intended to act as a peacemaker "for community conflicts and tensions arising from differences of race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion and disability." It was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964., and its mission was broadened by the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act. Originally under the Department of Commerce, it was moved to the Department of Justice by order of President Johnson.It is "the only Federal agency dedicated to assist State and local units of government, private and public organizations, and community groups with preventing and resolving racial and ethnic tensions, incidents, and civil disorders, and in restoring racial stability and harmony" by employing conciliators. The current acting director is Gerri Ratliff.Daisy Richards Bisz
Daisy Richards Bisz was born Daisy Gammage in 1909 in Missouri and lived in Coral Gables, Florida. She died of heart failure May 8, 2007 in Miami, Florida. Bisz was a prominent Florida attorney. A survivor of infantile polio (which briefly paralyzed her from the neck down), she was one of three sisters, an avid fisher, and played church piano music when she wasn't busy with her job. Bisz went on to become one of the Florida's first female lawyers.Del Junco
del Junco is a Spanish surname meaning “from the reeds”. The most notable family with this name is the Rodrigo del Junco family which originally came from Asturias, Spain. In the 16th century they immigrated to St. Augustine, Florida and then in the mid 17th century to Matanzas, Cuba. Their home in Matanzas was the Palacio de Junco and is now a museum. They also owned the Palmar de Junco where in 1874, the first game of baseball was played in Cuba. The Matanzas del Junco family have a large crypt in the Necropolis de San Carlos Borromeo.FCSC
FCSC may refer to:
Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, a United States quasi-judicial agency that adjudicates claims of U.S. nationals against foreign governments
Federal Civil Service Commission (Nigeria), an executive agency responsible for managing civil servants in NigeriaHotel Capri
The Hotel NH Capri La Habana is a historic high rise hotel located in central Havana.Mauricio J. Tamargo
Mauricio J. Tamargo (born Mauricio J. Tamargo-del Portillo in 1957 in Havana, Cuba) was the 14th Chairman of the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission. He was nominated by President George W. Bush in July 2001. He left the Justice Department in February 2010.
Tamargo is the 2nd son and 3rd child of 8 children born to Jorge Tamargo and Martha del Portillo. He arrived with his family in 1961 and lived in Wisconsin and later in Florida. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in history from the University of Miami and a JD from Cumberland School of Law at Samford University. He married his wife, Tara, in 1985 and they have two children. They presently live in Virginia.
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His grandfathers, Miguel Angel Tamargo-Vidal and Alonso del Portillo Marcano, were prominent Attorney-Notaries in Cuba, as was his great-grandfather, Miguel Luis Tamargo-Bautista. His 11th great grandfather was Rodrigo del Junco the Spanish Governor of Florida in 1592 and he is 2nd-great-grand-nephew of General Luis Marcano-Alvarez who fought in the Cuban War of Independence.National Institute of Corrections
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Kabel currently serves on the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS and its International Committee. He has also been involved with the Whitman-Walker Clinic, where he was a fundraiser.
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Kabel was the chairman of the Log Cabin Republicans from 1993 to 1999. As of 1999 he served as chairman of the Liberty Education Forum, which is the think-tank arm of the Log Cabin Republicans. From 2000 to 2004, Kabel was vice chairman of the District of Columbia Republican Committee. He led the party to write its first platform, which explicitly opposed a federal constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage, the only state-level Republican Party to do so. In December 2004 he was voted the chairman, becoming the first openly gay chair of a state-level Republican Committee.Settlement Commission
Settlement Commission may refer to
the Royal Prussian Settlement Commission in the provinces of Posen and West Prussia
the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission
Income Tax Settlement Commission, India
the Tidelands Settlement Commission (see Bill Dodd);
the Greek Refugee Settlement Commission (see Henry Morgenthau, Sr.);
the Soldier Settlement Commission in (see Wollert, Victoria (Australia))U.S. Department of Justice Office of Legislative Affairs
The Office of Legislative Affairs is a division within the United States Department of Justice. Its responsibility is for the development and implementation of strategies to advance the department's legislative initiatives and other interests relating to Congress. Stephen Boyd is the current Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legislative Affairs.United States Associate Attorney General
The Associate Attorney General of the United States is the third-ranking official in the U.S. Department of Justice. The Associate Attorney General advises and assists the Attorney General and the Deputy Attorney General in policies relating to civil justice, federal and local law enforcement, and public safety matters. The Associate Attorney General is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.The Office of the Associate Attorney General oversees the Antitrust Division, the Civil Division, the Environment and Natural Resources Division, the Tax Division, the Office of Justice Programs, the Community Oriented Policing Services, the Community Relations Service, the Office of Dispute Resolution, the Office of Violence Against Women, the Office of Information and Privacy, the Executive Office for United States Trustees, and the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission.The Office of the Associate Attorney General was created on March 10, 1977 by Attorney General Order No. 699-77.United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration.
The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994.The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is William Barr.United States Department of Justice Justice Management Division
The Justice Management Division (JMD) is a division of the United States Department of Justice. It is the administrative arm of the Department of Justice. Its mission is to support the some 40 senior management offices (SMOs), offices, bureaus, and divisions (collectively called components) of the DOJ. It was formerly called the Office of Management and Finance.United States Department of Justice National Security Division
The United States Department of Justice National Security Division (NSD) is the division of the DOJ that handles all national security functions of the department. Created by the 2005 USA PATRIOT Act reauthorization, the division consolidated all of the department's national security and intelligence functions into a single division. The division is headed by the Assistant Attorney General for National Security.United States Deputy Attorney General
The United States Deputy Attorney General is the second highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice and oversees the day-to-day operation of the Department. The deputy attorney general acts as attorney general during the absence of the attorney general.
The deputy attorney general is a political appointee of the President of the United States and takes office after confirmation by the United States Senate. The position was created in 1950. Since April 26, 2017, Rod Rosenstein has been deputy attorney general.United States Parole Commission
The United States Parole Commission is the parole board responsible to grant or deny parole and to supervise those released on parole to incarcerated individuals who come under its jurisdiction. It is part of the United States Department of Justice.
The commission has jurisdiction over:
Persons who committed a federal offense before November 1, 1987
Persons who committed a D.C. Code offense before August 5, 2000
Persons who committed a Uniform Code of Military Justice offense and are parole-eligible
Persons who are serving prison terms imposed by foreign countries and have been transferred to the United States to serve their sentenceAdditionally, the Commission has the responsibility to supervise two additional groups for whom they do not have parole jurisdiction:
Persons who committed a D.C. Code offense after August 4, 2000
Persons who have been placed on probation or paroled by a state that have also been placed in the United States Federal Witness Protection Program.