Ford Frick

Ford Christopher Frick (December 19, 1894 – April 8, 1978) was an American sportswriter and baseball executive. After working as a teacher and as a sportswriter for the New York American, he served as public relations director of the National League (NL), then as the league's president from 1934 to 1951. He was the third Commissioner of Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1951 to 1965.

While Frick was NL president, he had a major role in the establishment of the Baseball Hall of Fame as a museum that honors the best players in baseball history. He extinguished threats of a player strike in response to the racial integration of the major leagues. During Frick's term as commissioner, expansion occurred and MLB faced the threat of having its antitrust exemption revoked by Congress. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1970. The Ford C. Frick Award recognizes outstanding MLB broadcasters.

Ford Frick
Ford Frick at 1937 All-Star Game (cropped and adjusted)
Ford Frick at the 1937 All Star Game
3rd Commissioner of Baseball
In office
September 20, 1951 – November 16, 1965
Preceded byHappy Chandler
Succeeded byWilliam Eckert
11th President of the National League
In office
Preceded byJohn Heydler
Succeeded byWarren Giles
Personal details
Ford Christopher Frick

December 19, 1894
Wawaka, Indiana, U.S.
DiedApril 8, 1978 (aged 83)
Bronxville, New York, U.S.
Alma materDePauw University

Baseball career
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Election MethodVeterans Committee

Early life

Frick was born on a farm in Wawaka, Indiana, and went to high school in Rome City, Indiana.[1] He took classes at International Business College in Fort Wayne, then worked for a company that made engines for windmills.[1][2] He attended DePauw University, where he played first base for the DePauw baseball team and ran track.[1] He graduated in 1915.[3] He had been a member of Phi Kappa Psi fraternity.[4] Frick came to Colorado to play semipro baseball in Walsenburg.[5]

After his stint as a baseball player, Frick lived in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He taught English at Colorado Springs High School and at Colorado College. Frick moonlighted for The Gazette, covering sports and news until he left to work for the War Department near the conclusion of World War I. When the war was over, Frick worked in Denver for the Rocky Mountain News. Frick returned to Colorado Springs to take a job with the Evening Telegraph, which later merged with The Gazette.[5] Around this time, he had given some thought to starting his own advertising agency.[6]

In 1921, a flood devastated much of Pueblo, Colorado. When other reporters had flown in to cover the flood, their airplanes had become stuck in muddy conditions and they had been stranded in Pueblo. Frick had a pilot fly him there, but instead of landing, they circled low over Pueblo while Frick took notes and photographs. He was able to file his story a day earlier than other reporters. The recognition from the Pueblo flood helped Frick get a position with the New York American in 1922.[5]

Frick was also a broadcaster for WOR in New York. At WOR, he worked with Stan Lomax, who went on to a long career broadcasting sports in New York.[7]

NL President

In 1934, he became the NL's public relations director, and then became president of the league later that year.

In June 1937, Cardinals pitcher Dizzy Dean began to publicly criticize the NL and Frick. In response, Frick said that he was suspending Dean until the pitcher issued a written apology. Dean indicated that he would not apologize and that he would boycott the 1937 All-Star Game, suspended or not. The Cardinals made peace with Frick so that Dean could return to play. He appeared in the All-Star Game, but he sustained a toe injury in the game. The injury altered his delivery and he later injured his arm, never returning to All-Star form.[8]

An American Communist Party newspaper known as the Daily Worker asked Frick in 1937 about the feasibility of racially integrating baseball. Frick said that there was no rule discriminating against players on the basis of race. He said that professional baseball required ability, good habits and strong character. He asserted that he was not aware of a case in which race had played a role in the selection of a major league player.[9]

In the late 1930s, Frick played a central role in establishing the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York.[10] He gathered a team of representatives from the major news wire services, including Davis Walsh of the International News Service, Alan J. Gould of the Associated Press, and Henry L. Farrell of United Press International. They took the idea to the Baseball Writers' Association of America and that organization became the voting body for Hall of Fame elections.[11]

Later, during his tenure as NL president, when several members of the St. Louis Cardinals planned to protest Jackie Robinson's breaking of baseball's color barrier, Frick threatened any players involved with suspension.[12] While president of the NL, Frick served on DePauw University's board of trustees.[13] He was also president of the school's alumni association, helping to create the DePauw Alumni Fund.[14]

In 1951, some baseball owners had become displeased with Happy Chandler's service as commissioner and did not want to renew his contract. In September, the owners elected Frick to replace Chandler in a twelve-hour meeting that the Chicago Tribune called "their all-time peak in dilly-dallying".[15] The owners were able to quickly narrow the candidates down from five unnamed candidates to two frontrunners, Frick and Warren Giles. The owners deadlocked until Giles decided to remove his name from consideration.[15] Giles, who had been president and general manager of the Cincinnati Reds, succeeded Frick as NL president.[16]

Baseball Commissioner

1962 Baseball Guide p2
As commissioner, 1962

Frick agreed to a seven-year contract worth $65,000 each year. When he assumed the office, Frick said that he was surprised to be elected even though he knew he was a candidate for the position. Just before his announcement, the major league team owners voted that the commissioner's office should be located in a city with two major league teams. Frick decided to relocate the office from Cincinnati to New York.[17]

In 1957, Frick addressed an organized campaign of ballot stuffing for that year's All-Star Game in which most of the ballots originated from Cincinnati and had stacked the NL team with Reds. In response, Frick overruled the fan vote, removed two Reds from the starting lineup and appointed two replacements from other teams, and then took the vote away from the fans and kept it that way for the remainder of his tenure.[18]

Frick presided over the expansion of the American and National Leagues from eight to ten teams. Faced with a Congress threatening to revoke baseball's antitrust exemption, Frick had initially favored the development of a third major league within organized baseball, but relented when the established league owners objected and pursued their own expansion plans. Following expansion, the regular season was extended to 162 games from 154 in order to maintain a balanced schedule.

Inaction was sometimes cited by Frick's critics as one of his weaknesses. Writers often derided Frick for his hands-off approach to baseball matters.[2] Writer Jerome Holtzman described Frick's term as commissioner by saying that he "sailed a smooth course and seldom descended from his throne. When asked why he absented himself from the many battles below, he often said, 'It's a league matter.'... In retrospect, he understood his role. He was a caretaker, not a czar."[19] Frick's critics also accused him of favoring the NL in his rulings, such as how the 1960s expansion teams would be stocked.

Frick's most highly criticized decision as commissioner was to request baseball record-keepers to list the single-season home run records of Babe Ruth and Roger Maris separately in 1961, based on the length of the season played. Frick called a press conference to issue a ruling that a player must hit more than 60 home runs in his first 154 games in order to be considered the record holder. Writer Allen Barra points out that MLB had no direct control over any record books until many years later, and within a few years, all listed Maris as the single-season record holder. He writes that Frick and Ruth had been friends and that Frick was with Ruth on the player's deathbed.[20]

In 1960, Frick said that he would probably retire when his contract expired in 1965. He said that his remaining goals for his term as commissioner were to complete the expansion process and to convince Congress to allow each baseball league to set its own television policies.[21]


Frick married Eleanor Cowing in 1916.[22] His son Fred attended Fordham Preparatory School with future baseball executive Buzzie Bavasi. Bavasi was planning to attend law school, but Ford Frick introduced him to Larry MacPhail of the Brooklyn Dodgers and Bavasi was given a job in minor league baseball, where he began to work his way up the organization.[23]

Later life

Near the end of Frick's term as commissioner, he purchased a second home in Broadmoor, Colorado, though he maintained his primary residence in New York.[5] He maintained involvement with the Baseball Hall of Fame, serving as chairman of the board in 1966 and serving on the Veterans Committee from 1966 to 1969.[24] Frick himself was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1970. He was said to have chastised Hall of Fame voters at a meeting of the Baseball Writers' Association of America after they elected no major league candidates in the 1971 Hall of Fame balloting.[25]

Frick died on April 8, 1978 at a hospital in Bronxville, New York. He had suffered a series of strokes in his later years. Upon his death, commissioner Bowie Kuhn said Frick "brought the game integrity, dedication and a happy tranquility far removed from the turbulence of today."[12] He is interred in Christ Church Columbarium in Bronxville.


The Baseball Hall of Fame created the Ford C. Frick Award in 1978, and presents the award annually to a baseball broadcaster for major contributions to the game. Frick was posthumously inducted into the DePauw University Athletic Hall of Fame.[14]


  1. ^ a b c "Baseball Hall of Famer Ford Frick '15 to be honored tomorrow night". DePauw University. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  2. ^ a b Boyle, Robert (April 9, 1962). "Perfect man for the job". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  3. ^ "Ford Christopher Frick". Major League Baseball. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  4. ^ "Phi Kappa Psi". University of California, Riverside. Archived from the original on December 19, 2014. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d Summers, Danny. "Baseball, kangaroos and Ford Frick". Pikes Peak Courier. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  6. ^ "Owners elect Ford Frick as commissioner of baseball". Montreal Gazette. September 21, 1951. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  7. ^ "Sportscaster Stan Lomax dies". The Morning Call. June 27, 1987. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  8. ^ "The apology that ruined Dizzy Dean's career". Belleville News-Democrat. August 17, 2012. Archived from the original on November 20, 2014. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  9. ^ Roger A. Bruns (2012). Negro Leagues Baseball. ABC-CLIO. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-313-38648-0. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  10. ^ "Frick, Ford". Baseball Hall of Fame. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  11. ^ Holtzman, Jerome (January 11, 1996). "Hall Electorate Long On Numbers, Short On Expertise". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  12. ^ a b "Baseball world mourns death of Ford Frick". St. Petersburg Times. April 10, 1978. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  13. ^ "National League President Ford Frick '15 receives Slocum Award". DePauw University. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  14. ^ a b "Ford C. Frick". DePauw University. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  15. ^ a b "Frick heads baseball after 12 hour vote". Chicago Tribune. September 21, 1951. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  16. ^ "Giles, Warren". Baseball Hall of Fame. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  17. ^ Miller, Norman (September 21, 1951). "Top baseball post goes to Frick, major loop chief". Times-News. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  18. ^ Cronin, Brian (July 10, 2012). "All-Star Game: Did Ford Frick stop two Cincinnati Reds from starting?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  19. ^ Holtzman, Jerome (July 26, 1992). "To survive, Fay should sit this one out". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  20. ^ Barra, Allen (October 3, 2001). "The myth of Maris' asterisk". Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  21. ^ Daniel, Dan (August 27, 1960). "Ford Frick awaits majors' expansion, then retirement". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  22. ^ David L. Porter (1 January 2000). Biographical Dictionary of American Sports: A-F. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 516. ISBN 978-0-313-31174-1.
  23. ^ Henson, Steve (May 2, 2008). "G.M. helped put together Dodgers champions". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  24. ^ Corcoran, Dennis (2010). Induction Day at Cooperstown: A History of the Baseball Hall of Fame Ceremony. McFarland. p. 100. ISBN 0786491477. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
  25. ^ Holtzman, Jerome (January 3, 1999). "This class will help Frick rest in peace". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 19, 2014.

External links

1947 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1947 followed yet another round of reform. The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) continued to vote by mail but the Hall of Fame Committee had revised the procedures for that election and reduced its historical jurisdiction relative to the Old-Timers Committee.

The BBWAA now considered major league players retired no more than 25 years. The reform seemed to work, for it elected four: Mickey Cochrane, Frank Frisch, Lefty Grove, and Carl Hubbell.

In the wake of the successful BBWAA election, and perhaps in deference to those critics who believed that the 21 selections by the Old-Timers Committee in the previous two years had been too many in such a short time, the Hall of Fame Committee did not meet in 1947 to make further selections from among the players of the era before 1922, or to add names to the Roll of Honor. It was believed, with some optimism, that further revisions in the election process were currently unnecessary.

The new members of the Hall were formally inducted in Cooperstown on July 21, along with the previous year's 11 selections by the Old-Timers Committee, with National League president Ford Frick presiding. All four new electees were still living, as were four of the earlier choices; however, of the eight living inductees, only Ed Walsh attended the ceremonies.

1949 Little League World Series

The 1949 Little League World Series was held from August 24 to August 27 in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. The Hammonton All Stars of Hammonton, New Jersey, defeated the Pensacola All Stars of Pensacola, Florida, in the championship game of the 3rd Little League World Series.This was the first tournament to be called the "Little League World Series". Attendees at the championship game included Ford Frick, president of the National League (and later Commissioner of Baseball).

1950 Little League World Series

The 1950 Little League World Series was held from August 23 to August 26 in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. The Houston Little League of Houston, Texas, defeated Bridgeport Little League of Bridgeport, Connecticut, in the championship game of the 4th Little League World Series.Attendees at the championship game included James H. Duff, Governor of Pennsylvania, and Ford Frick, president of the National League (and later Commissioner of Baseball). The Houston Little League team was managed by former MLB player Jeff Cross.

1957 Caribbean Series

The ninth edition of the Caribbean Series (Serie del Caribe) was played in 1957. It was held from February 9 through February 14, featuring the champion baseball teams of Cuba, Tigres de Marianao; Panama, Cerveza Balboa; Puerto Rico, Indios de Mayagüez, and Venezuela, Leones del Caracas. The format consisted of 12 games, each team facing the other teams twice. The games were played at Estadio del Cerro in Havana, the Cuban capital. The first pitch was thrown by Ford Frick, by then the Commissioner of Major League Baseball.

1957 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1957 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 24th playing of the midseason exhibition baseball game between the all-stars of the American League (AL) and National League (NL), the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was held on July 9, 1957, at Busch Stadium in St. Louis, Missouri, the home of the St. Louis Cardinals of the National League. The game was marked by controversy surrounding Cincinnati Redlegs fans stuffing the ballot box and electing all but one of their starting position players to the game. The game resulted in the American League defeating the National League 6–5.

1970 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1970 followed the system of annual elections in place since 1968.

The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and

elected Lou Boudreau.

The Veterans Committee met in closed sessions to consider executives, managers, umpires, and earlier major league players.

It selected three people: Earle Combs, Ford Frick, and Jesse Haines.


61* is a 2001 American sports drama film written by Hank Steinberg and directed by Billy Crystal. It stars Barry Pepper as Roger Maris and Thomas Jane as Mickey Mantle on their quest to break Babe Ruth's 1927 single-season home run record of 60 during the 1961 season of the New York Yankees. The film first aired on HBO on April 28, 2001.

Commissioner of Baseball

The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the associated Minor League Baseball (MiLB) – a constellation of leagues and clubs known as organized baseball. Under the direction of the Commissioner, the Office of the Commissioner of Baseball hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, and television contracts. The commissioner is chosen by a vote of the owners of the teams. The current commissioner is Rob Manfred, who assumed office on January 25, 2015.

Cy Young Award

The Cy Young Award is given annually to the best pitchers in Major League Baseball (MLB), one each for the American League (AL) and National League (NL). The award was first introduced in 1956 by Baseball Commissioner Ford Frick in honor of Hall of Fame pitcher Cy Young, who died in 1955. The award was originally given to the single best pitcher in the major leagues, but in 1967, after the retirement of Frick, the award was given to one pitcher in each league.Each league's award is voted on by members of the Baseball Writers' Association of America, with one representative from each team. As of the 2010 season, each voter places a vote for first, second, third, fourth and fifth place among the pitchers of each league. The formula used to calculate the final scores is a weighted sum of the votes. The pitcher with the highest score in each league wins the award. If two pitchers receive the same number of votes, the award is shared. The current formula started in the 2010 season. Before that, dating back to 1970, writers voted for three pitchers, with the formula of 5 points for a first place vote, 3 for a second place vote and 1 for a third place vote. Prior to 1970, writers only voted for the best pitcher and used a formula of one point per vote.

Ford C. Frick Award

The Ford C. Frick Award is presented annually by the National Baseball Hall of Fame in the United States to a broadcaster for "major contributions to baseball". It is named for Ford C. Frick, former Commissioner of Major League Baseball. Before his career as an executive, Frick was a baseball writer; he gained fame as the ghostwriter for Babe Ruth in the 1920s. The award was created in 1978, and named in tribute to Frick following his death that year.

Though they are sometimes erroneously referred to as "Hall of Famers", honorees are not inducted into the Hall of Fame. Honorees (if living) give a speech at the Hall of Fame during induction weekend, and their names are added to a plaque in the Hall's library. For several years in the early 2000s, Frick Award honorees also became life members of the Veterans Committee, which considers candidates for Hall of Fame induction who are not eligible for the regular voting by the Baseball Writers' Association of America – specifically, players no longer on the BBWAA ballot and all non-players. However, starting with the 2008 elections, voting for players on the main Veterans Committee ballot was restricted to Hall of Fame members. After further changes announced for the 2011 elections, Frick Award winners are eligible to serve on the voting bodies that replaced the Veterans Committee (currently four) that consider candidates from different eras of baseball.

From 2004 to 2016, fans were allowed to vote for three of the award's ten annual nominees; in the final years of fan voting, it was conducted on the Hall's Facebook page. Through 2013, seven candidates were selected by a committee consisting of previous Frick Award winners and broadcast historians and columnists, which also determined the final recipient. Beginning with the 2014 award, the final election committee no longer selects any of the finalists; that role is now handled by a Hall of Fame research committee.Other changes in the selection process were also announced for the 2014 award; these changes were similar to those instituted in 2010 for Veterans Committee balloting. From 2014 to 2016, candidates were considered every third year, based on the era in which they made their most significant contributions:

"High Tide Era": Mid-1980s to present, including the rise of regional cable networks. Individuals from this era were considered for the 2014 award.

"Living Room Era": Mid-1950s to early 1980s, reflecting the rise of television. Individuals from this era were considered for the 2015 award.

"Broadcasting Dawn Era": Origin of broadcasting to early 1950s. Individuals from this era were first considered for the 2016 award.More recently, the Hall announced further changes to the selection process in 2016 that took effect immediately, with the first award affected by these changes being that for 2017. Fan voting was eliminated, and the final ballot was cut from 10 to 8. Candidates are still considered every third year, but now in mostly different categories:

"Current Major League Markets": Broadcasters who made their mark with one or more specific MLB teams. These individuals were first considered for the 2017 award.

"National Voices": Broadcasters who made their contributions with national media. These individuals were first considered for the 2018 award.

"Broadcasting Beginnings": Pioneers of baseball broadcasting, roughly covering the time span of the previous "Broadcasting Beginnings Era". These individuals will be first considered for the 2019 award.

Gene Elston

Robert Gene Elston (March 26, 1922 – September 5, 2015) was a Major League Baseball (MLB) broadcaster, primarily with the Houston Astros.

Gerald Nugent

Gerald Paul Nugent, Sr. was the owner of the Philadelphia Phillies baseball team of the National League from 1931 through 1942.

A leather goods and shoe merchant, Nugent married longtime Phillies secretary Mae Mallen in 1925. Longtime Phillies owner William Baker died in 1930, leaving half of his estate to Mallen and half to his wife. With the support of Baker's widow, Nugent became team president. Baker's widow died in 1932, leaving Nugent in full control.

Unlike Baker, Nugent cared more about winning than saving money. However, even with his income from his other businesses, he didn't have the financial means to get the Phillies out of the National League basement. He was forced to trade what little talent the team had to make ends meet and had to use some creative financial methods to be able even to field a team at all. The one highlight of his ownership was a 78-76 record in 1932, the only time that the Phillies finished with a winning record between 1918 and 1948.

One notable step Nugent took, in mid-season 1938, was to abandon Baker Bowl, the club's 52 year old home which had become severely run down. The Phillies moved five blocks west to become tenants at Shibe Park, home of the Athletics.

Nugent finally reached the end of his rope in 1942. A year after posting a 43-111 record, the worst in franchise history, the Phillies needed an advance from the league just to be able to take part in spring training. Realizing that there was no way he could operate the team in 1943, he reached an agreement in principle that February to sell the team to Bill Veeck, who planned to bring in Negro League stars in an effort to turn the moribund franchise around. However, when Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis, an intractable opponent of integration, got wind of it, he pressured National League President Ford Frick to quash the deal and take over the team. A week later, the league sold the Phillies to lumber broker William D. Cox.

This story was initially refuted by a 1998 article in the Society for American Baseball Research's The National Pastime, which argued that Philadelphia's black press made no mention of a sale to Veeck. However, new evidence has surfaced that suggested Nugent did indeed plan to sell the Phillies to Veeck.

Lanny Frattare

Lanny Lawrence Frattare (born March 23, 1948) is an American former sportscaster. For 33 years he was a play-by-play announcer for Major League Baseball's Pittsburgh Pirates, the longest such tenure in the team's history. In 2008, he was nominated for the Ford Frick Award, which is given by the Baseball Hall of Fame for broadcasting excellence.Frattare attended Ithaca College, graduating in 1970. He started his career in his home town as a radio disk jockey at the city's top rated station, WBBF (AM). During his time in Rochester radio he expanded his on-air role to include work as a sportscaster and lead play-by-play broadcaster for the American Hockey League's Rochester Americans. As the radio broadcaster for the Pirates' AAA affiliate Charleston Charlies in 1974 and 1975, Frattare was mentored by then-Pirates broadcaster Bob Prince, who invited Frattare to Pittsburgh after the Charlies' seasons concluded and allowed Frattare to take over the microphone on occasion.He moved to Pittsburgh and joined the Pirates major league broadcasting crew on radio (KDKA) and cable television in 1976. He started as Milo Hamilton's junior partner, calling just two innings of most games and serving as Hamilton's color man. His role began to increase after Hamilton left following the 1979 season. The Pirates gave Frattare a new contract late in the 2006 season that was to keep him on the air through 2009. In August 2008, Frattare announced his 5000th Pirates game. He began sharing primary announcing duties with Greg Brown, as the Pirates evolved toward a transition that will come with Frattare's retirement. On October 1, 2008, Frattare announced he was retiring from the Pirate broadcast booth and would not return for the 2009 season.

Frattare was lead announcer on the ESPN broadcast of the February 23, 1985 college basketball game between Indiana University and Purdue University during which Indiana coach Bob Knight threw a chair across the court, a moment which is frequently replayed on television to this day.Frattare has two children and two grandchildren from his first marriage. He remarried a few years ago to the former choir director of Upper St. Clair High School, but the couple separated in late 2007. Over the past twenty years, he has hosted the Family Links Golf Classic which has raised over $1.6 million in support of mentally challenged individuals and their families.As of March 18, 2009, Frattare joined Waynesburg University as an assistant professor in Communications in the Department of Communication and the faculty adviser of University radio station WCYJ-FM, while also doing some work with University Relations.

In 2010, he hosted the inaugural Sports Announcing Camp at Waynesburg University, featuring a week of programs and instruction for high school students interested in broadcasting.

Frattare is also a broadcaster with the TribLive High School Sports Network, providing play-by-play coverage and color commentary for WPIAL high school sporting events.

Leslie O'Connor

Leslie M. O'Connor (August 31, 1889 – January 20, 1966) was an American lawyer and professional baseball executive. He was the assistant to the Commissioner of Baseball from January 1921 until the death of Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis on November 25, 1944; then he filled the void as acting commissioner (technically, as chairman of the Major League Advisory Council) until the election of Happy Chandler as Landis' successor on April 24, 1945. After spending another six months in the commissioner's office as Chandler's top assistant, O'Connor became general manager of the Chicago White Sox of Major League Baseball from November 1945 through November 1948, and he later served as president of the Pacific Coast League.Born in Chicago, Illinois, O'Connor was admitted to the bar and served in World War I as a member of the Judge Advocate General's Corps. When Landis was appointed Commissioner in the wake of the 1919 Black Sox Scandal, O'Connor became his top administrator for 24 seasons until Landis' sudden death in 1944. As Landis' right-hand man, he was involved in investigations, writing Landis' decisions and keeping records. After five months as acting commissioner—head of the three-man council that included league presidents Ford Frick and Will Harridge—during the waning months of World War II, O'Connor stepped aside for Chandler and was his top aide during the transition until after the 1945 baseball season.He then was named general manager of the White Sox by team owner Grace Comiskey and held that post for three losing campaigns. After the White Sox lost 101 games and finished last in the eight-team American League in 1948, O'Connor stepped down and was succeeded by Frank Lane. The team won 195 games and lost 262 (.427) during O'Connor's tenure as GM.

He remained in baseball, however, as a member of the Major-Minor League Executive Council, and then as legal counsel for and president of the top-level Pacific Coast League. As PCL president from 1956 through 1959, he was in office during the tumultuous shift of the Dodgers and Giants from New York City to Los Angeles and San Francisco, which resulted in a significant alteration of the PCL map. During O'Connor's four-year term, the league replaced four teams located in the metro areas of those cities with clubs in Vancouver (Oakland Oaks), Salt Lake City (Hollywood Stars), Phoenix (San Francisco Seals) and Spokane (Los Angeles Angels).

O'Connor died in Tokyo at the age of 76.

List of National League presidents

The National League President was the chief executive of the National League of professional baseball until 1999, when the NL and the American League merged into Major League Baseball.

List of St. Louis Cardinals in the Baseball Hall of Fame

The St. Louis Cardinals, a Major League baseball (MLB) franchise based in St. Louis, Missouri, have competed in the National League (NL) since 1892, and in the American Association (AA) from 1882 to 1891. They have won 11 World Series titles, one additional interleague championship and were co-champions (tied) in another prior to the modern World Series. Known as the Cardinals from 1900 to the present, the St. Louis franchise were also known as the Brown Stockings (1882), Browns (1883–98), and Perfectos (1899). A total of 37 players and other personnel associated with the Cardinals have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York.

The first former Cardinals players to be inducted into Baseball Hall of Fame were John McGraw and Cy Young in 1937, the second year of the Museum's annual balloting. Rogers Hornsby was the first to be inducted as Cardinal, which occurred in 1942. Of the 37 former Cardinals elected to the Hall of Fame, 17 have been inducted as Cardinals and nine with the Cardinals logo on their cap. The latest former Cardinals personnel to be inducted were Tony La Russa and Joe Torre, which occurred in 2014.

In addition, two separate awards – the Ford Frick Award and J. G. Taylor Spink Award – while not conferring the status of enshrining their recipients as members of the Hall of Fame, honor the works of a total of six sportswriters and broadcasters in connection with their coverage of the Cardinals. The Cardinals also have a franchise hall of fame known as the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum located within Ballpark Village adjacent to Busch Stadium, the Cardinals' home stadium.

Lorn Brown

Lorn Brown (September 18, 1938 – June 24, 2010) was a sports broadcaster who worked for baseball's AAA Iowa Oaks 1973–1974 (St. Louis Cardinals September 1974 fill-in), Chicago White Sox (1976–1979, 1983–1988), Milwaukee Brewers (1980–1981), and New York Mets (1982), among other jobs. He once said that he changed the spelling of his first name from Lorne to Lorn because he didn't want to be confused with the actor Lorne Greene.Brown's career included working alongside such baseball broadcasters as Harry Caray, Bob Uecker, and Bob Murphy, each a recipient of the prestigious Ford C. Frick Award, the highest honor in the field. While a member of the Mets' TV broadcast team (WOR Channel 9), many Mets fans referred to him as "The Professor" because of his appearance; beside his greying beard and glasses, he would often choose to wear a vest or a Tweed Jacket on air. He was replaced in the Mets booth by Tim McCarver, who would go on to become the highest-profile baseball broadcaster of his generation and winner of the Ford Frick award.

According to Daniel Okrent, his work alongside Uecker could be strained:

Long baseball seasons demanded humor, and Uecker provided it. With the players, he was always charming; at other times, though, he could be brutally cold, as he was to his radio-booth partner from the year before, Lorn Brown. When Brown was doing the play-by-play, Uecker would turn off his mike, making himself inaccessible to a desperate Brown, a decent, earnest, and rather unimaginative man who couldn't easily make it through an inning without the help of a partner. Brown was stolid, plodding, hung up on statistics. He was also painfully ill at ease among ball players, and Uecker disdained him for it.

Brown's basketball work included Bradley U., Drake U, Big 10, ACC, Missouri Valley, Notre Dame and Metro Conf. TV networks as well as TV announcer for the Chicago Bulls 1974-1978. Brown is a member of the Illinois Basketball Coaches Hall of Fame.Brown also turned his baritone voice toward work in the commercial voice-over field, narrating commercials for Budweiser beer, Ace Hardware, and the National Football League, among others. He was represented by Grossman & Jack Talent, Inc.

Brown died from apparent heart failure on June 24, 2010 at the age of 71.

Tom Borland

Thomas Bruce Borland (February 14, 1933 – March 2, 2013), nicknamed "Spike", was an American relief pitcher in Major League Baseball who played portions of the 1960 and 1961 seasons for the Boston Red Sox. Borland batted and threw left-handed, stood 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall and weighed 172 pounds (78 kg).

Born in Kansas, Borland graduated from high school in McAlester, Oklahoma, and attended what is now Oklahoma State University, where he was named Most Outstanding Player of the 1955 College World Series. His minor league career began in 1955 with the Oakland Oaks of the Pacific Coast League, but he was declared a free agent by Commissioner of Baseball Ford Frick when it was discovered that the Baltimore Orioles had violated the bonus rule of the day by signing Borland, then loaning him to the Oaks. Signed then by the Red Sox, Borland missed two full years (1956–57) while serving in the United States Army. In 1959, he won 14 games, losing eight, and posted a strong 2.73 earned run average for American Association champion Minneapolis, and was promoted to the Red Sox in mid-May 1960.

In 27 MLB appearances (26 in 1960 and only one in 1961), including four games started, Borland posted an 0–4 record with a poor 6.75 ERA in 52 innings pitched, allowing 70 hits and 23 bases on balls. He struck out 32 and was credited with three saves as a relief pitcher.

As a minor leaguer he had a 48–39 record and a 3.42 ERA between 1955 and 1963. He was traded to the expansion Houston Colt .45s in March 1962 in exchange for Dave Philley, but never appeared in a Major League game for them. Instead, he spent two years in his home state for Houston's Triple-A affiliate, the Oklahoma City 89ers, before leaving baseball.

Wawaka, Indiana

Wawaka is an unincorporated community in Elkhart Township, Noble County, in the U.S. state of Indiana.

Veterans Committee
J. G. Taylor Spink Award
First basemen
Second basemen
Third basemen
Designated hitters
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