Forced displacement

Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion. Someone who has experienced forced displacement is a "forced immigrant", a "displaced person" (DP), rarely also a "displacee", or if it is within the same country, an internally displaced person (IDP). In some cases the forced immigrant can also become a refugee, as that term has a specific legal definition. A specific form of forced displacement is population transfer, which is a coherent policy to move unwanted groups, for example, as an attempt at ethnic cleansing. Another form is deportation.

Forced displacement has accompanied persecution, as well as war, throughout human history but has only become a topic of serious study and discussion relatively recently. This increased attention is the result of greater ease of travel, allowing displaced people to flee to nations far removed from their homes, the creation of an international legal structure of human rights, and the realizations that the destabilizing effects of forced immigration, especially in parts of Africa, the Middle East, south and central Asia, ripple out well beyond the immediate region.

Displaced persons in 2017[1]
Total population
65.6 million[2]
Regions with significant populations
Refugees17.187 million
IDPs36.627 million
Asylum seekers2.826 million
People in refugee-like situation803,134
Alchimowicz Deportees
Deportees to Siberia by Kazimierz Alchimowicz (1894), National Museum in Warsaw, illustrating the torment of Polish Siberian deportees, patriots from the Russian zone of partitioned Poland in the period following the collapse of the January Uprising.
Karte Entkulakisierung
General deportation currents of the dekulakization 1930–1931
Displaced people - Flickr - Al Jazeera English
The Amam refugee camp is named after its first native is born in 2009. Its name, Amam, means peace

Definition

The concept of forced displacement envelopes demographic movements like flight, evacuation, displacement, and resettlement. The International Organization for Migration defines a forced migrant as any person who migrates to "escape persecution, conflict, repression, natural and human-made disasters, ecological degradation, or other situations that endanger their lives, freedom or livelihood".[3][4]

The International Association for the Study of Forced Migration (IASFM) defines it as "the movements of refugees and internally displaced people (those displaced by conflicts) as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects."[5]

According to Alden Speare, "in the strictest sense migration can be considered to be involuntary only when a person is physically transported from a country and has no opportunity to escape from those transporting him." Movement under threat, even the immediate threat to life, contains a voluntary element, as long as there is an option to escape to another part of the country, go into hiding or to remain and hope to avoid persecution."[6] However this thought has been questioned, especially by Marxians, who argue that in most cases migrants have little or no choice.[6]

Causes

Causes for forced displacement can include:

  • Natural disaster: Occurrence of a disaster – such as floods, tsunamis, landslides, earthquakes or volcanoes – leads to temporary or permanent displacement of population from that area. In such a scenario, migration becomes more of a survival strategy, as natural disasters often cause the loss of money, homes, and jobs. For example, Hurricane Katrina resulted in displacement of almost the entire population of New Orleans, leaving the community and government with several economic and social challenges.[7]
  • Environmental problems: The term environmental refugee has been in use recently representing people who are forced to leave their traditional habitat because of environmental factors which negatively impact his or her livelihood, or even environmental disruption i.e. biological, physical or chemical change in ecosystem.[8] Migration can also occur as a result of slow-onset climate change, such as desertification or sea-level rise, of deforestation or land degradation.
  • Man-made disasters: Examples are industrial accidents and especially accidents that involve chemicals or radioactivity, such as in Chernobyl, Bhopal or Fukushima.
  • War, civil war, political repression or religious conflicts: Some migrants are impelled to cross national borders by war or persecution, due to political, social, ethnic, religious reasons. These immigrants may be considered refugees if they apply for asylum in the receiving country.[9]
  • Development-induced displacement: Such displacement or population transfer is the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development. It has been historically associated with the construction of dams for hydroelectric power and irrigation purposes but also appears due to many other activities, such as mining and transport (roads, ports, airports). The best-known recent example of such development-induced displacement may be that resulting from the construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China. This type of forced migration disproportionately affects low income earners and ethnic minorities. According to estimates, between 90 and 100 million people were forced to leave their homes due to development projects in the 1990s.[5]
  • Human trafficking and human smuggling: Migrants displaced through deception or coercion with purpose of their exploitation fall under this category. The data on such forced migration are limited since the activities involved are clandestine in nature. While migration of this nature is well covered for male migrants (working in agriculture, construction etc.), same cannot be said for their female counterparts as the market situation for them might be unscrupulous (sex work or domestic service). The International Labour Organization considers trafficking an offence against labor protection and denies them the opportunity of utilizing their resources for their country. ILO’s Multilateral Framework includes principle no. 11 that recommends, "Governments should formulate and implement, in consultation with the social partners, measures to prevent abusive practices, migrant smuggling and people trafficking; they should also work towards preventing irregular labor migration.
  • Slavery: History's greatest forced migration was the Middle Passage of the Atlantic slave trade during the 15th through the 19th centuries. Of the 20 million Africans captured for the trade, half died in their forced march to the African coast, and another ten to twenty percent died on slave ships carrying them from Africa to the Americas.[10]
  • Ethnic cleansing: The systematic forced removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. For example, during counter-Reformation the Catholics removed of Protestants during the 16th through 19th centuries in Europe (e.g. Salzburg Protestants).

Conditions

In the majority of cases forced migration across borders takes place without the required documentation. It may even involve human smugglers and traffickers. Displaced people often place their lives at risk, are obliged to travel in inhumane conditions and may be exposed to exploitation and abuse. And on top of that the states where they seek protection may regard them as a threat to their security.[11]

Overview and distinctions between the terms

  • The term 'Refugee Studies' denotes an academic discipline or field of study which covers the study of refugees, often their experiences in seeking refuge.[12] There are several categories of individuals who are included in this study, with labels that include: 'Refugee’; ‘expellees’; ‘exile’; ‘displaced person’; ‘internally displaced person (IDP)’; ‘economic refugees’; ‘humanitarian refugee’; ‘stateless person’; ‘tsunami refugee’; ‘development refugee’; ‘environmental refugee’; ‘government assisted refugee (GAR)’ etc.[12]
  • The term displaced person (DP) was first widely used during World War II and the resulting refugee outflows from Eastern Europe,[13] when it was used to specifically refer to one removed from his or her native country as a refugee, prisoner or a slave laborer. Most of the victims of war, political refugees and DPs of the immediate post-Second World War period were Ukrainians, Poles, other Slavs, as well as citizens of the Baltic states – Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians, who refused to return to Soviet-dominated eastern Europe. A.J. Jaffe claimed that the term was originally coined by Eugene M. Kulischer.[14] The meaning has significantly broadened in the past half-century.
  • If the displaced person has crossed an international border and falls under one of the relevant international legal instruments, they may become a refugee.[15] The term "refugee" is also commonly used as a synonym for displaced person, causing confusion between the general descriptive class of anyone who has left their home and the subgroup of legally defined refugees who enjoy specified international legal protection. However, forced migrants may not apply for asylum in the country they fled to, so they may not be classed as asylum seekers or – if application would be successful – refugees. The terms refugee and asylum seeker always have a legal framework or system as context. If forced migrants do not access this legal system or it does not exist in the country they have fled to, they cannot be categorised as such.
  • Forced migrants are always either IDPs or displaced people, as both of these terms do not require a legal framework and the fact that they left their homes is sufficient. The distinction between the terms displaced person and forced migrant is minor, however, the term displaced person has an important historic context (e.g. World War II).
  • A displaced person who crosses an international border without permission from the country they are entering, and without applying for asylum, may be considered an illegal immigrant.
  • A displaced person who left his or her home because of political persecution or violence, but did not cross an international border, is commonly considered to be the less well-defined category of internally displaced person (IDP), and is subject to more tenuous international protection. Bogumil Terminski distinguishes two general categories of internal displacement: displacement of risk (mostly conflict-induced displacement, deportations and disaster-induced displacement) and displacement of adaptation (associated with voluntary resettlement, development-induced displacement and environmentally-induced displacement).
  • If the displaced person was forced out their home because of economically driven projects like that of the Three Gorges Dam in China and various Indian dams, it is called development-induced displacement. People are also often displaced due to natural or man-made disasters. Displacement can also occur as a result of slow-onset climate change, such as desertification or sea-level rise. A person who is displaced due to environmental factors which negatively impact his or her livelihood is generally known as an environmental migrant. Such displacement can be cross-border in nature but is frequently internal. No specific international legal instrument applies to such individuals. Foreign nations often offer disaster relief to mitigate the effects of such disaster displacement.
  • Displaced person generally refers to one who is forced to migrate for reasons other than economic conditions, such as war or persecution. A migrant who fled because of economic hardship is an economic migrant.

Criminal prosecution

Forced displacement has been subjected to several trials before local and international courts. One of the requirements that need to be met for an offence as a war crime is that the victim is a "protected person" under international humanitarian law. The expression "protected person" originally referred only to the categories of individuals explicitly protected under one of the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, but was later accepted as defining a civilian or police force who do not participate directly in a conflict.[16] Following the end of World War II, the Krupp trial was held with a specific charge to the forced displacement of civilian populations for the purpose of forced labour. The US Military Tribunal concluded that " [t]here is no international law that permits the deportation or the use of civilians against their will for other than on reasonable requisitions for the need of the army, either within the area of the army or after deportation to rear areas or to the homeland of the occupying power".[16] At the Nuremberg trials, Hans Frank, chief jurist in occupied Poland, was found guilty, among others for forced displacement of the civilian population.[17]

In Article 49, the Fourth Geneva Convention, adopted on 12 August 1949, specifically forbids forced displacement:

Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected people from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.[18]

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court defines forced displacement as a crime within the jurisdiction of the court:

"Deportation or forcible transfer of population" means forced displacement of the people concerned by expulsion or other coercive acts from the area in which they are lawfully present, without grounds permitted under international law.[19]

Several people were tried and convicted by the ICTY for connection to forced displacement during the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s. On 11 April 2018, the Appeals Chamber sentenced Vojislav Šešelj 10 years in prison under Counts 1, 10, and 11 of the indictment for instigating deportation, persecution (forcible displacement), and other inhumane acts (forcible transfer) as crimes against humanity due to his speech in Hrtkovci on 6 May 1992, in which he called for the expulsion of Croats from Vojvodina. [20][21][22] Other convictions for forced displacement included ex-Bosnian Serb politician Momčilo Krajišnik,[23] ex-Croatian Serb leader Milan Martić, [24] former Bosnian Croat paramilitary commander Mladen Naletilić,[25] and Bosnian Serb politician Radoslav Brđanin.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ UNHCR (17 June 2017). "UNHCR worldwide population overview". UNHCR. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  2. ^ http://www.unhcr.org/en-ie/figures-at-a-glance.html
  3. ^ http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_160632.pdf
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-21. Retrieved 2011-08-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ a b "What is forced migration? — Forced Migration Online". www.forcedmigration.org.
  6. ^ a b "FORCED MIGRATION IN INDONESIA : HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES". graeme hugo. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  7. ^ "Disasters and Forced Migration in the 21st Century". ssrc.org.
  8. ^ Terminski, Bogumil. Environmentally-Induced Displacement: Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges, University de Liege, 2012
  9. ^ Conventions No. 29, 105, 138 and 182; Convention No. 97 (Art. 3, Annex I; Art. 8 and Annex II, Art. 13); Convention No. 143, Part I; 1990 International Convention (Art. 21)
  10. ^ PBS-WGBH (1999). "The Middle Passage". Africans in America. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  11. ^ http://www.unhcr.org/46f7c0ee2.pdf | page 16
  12. ^ a b Cameron, Bobby Thomas (2014). "Reflections on Refugee Studies and the Study of Refugees: Implications for Policy Analysts" (PDF). Journal of Management & Public Policy. 6: 4–13.
  13. ^ Mark Wyman: Dps: Europe's Displaced Persons, 1945–1951. Cornell University Press 1998 (reprint). ISBN 0-8014-8542-8.
  14. ^ A. J. Jaffe: Notes on the Population Theory of Eugene M. Kulischer. In: The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 2. (April 1962). Pp. 187–206.(online)
  15. ^ U.N. Convention relating to status of Refugees Archived March 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ a b Guido Acquaviva (June 2011). "Legal and Protection Policy Research Series: Forced Displacement and International Crimes" (PDF). UNHCR. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Nuremberg Trial Judgements: Hans Frank". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949 – DEPORTATIONS, TRANSFERS, EVACUATIONS". ICRC. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  19. ^ "Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court" (PDF). International Criminal Court. 2011. p. 7. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  20. ^ "APPEALS CHAMBER REVERSES ŠEŠELJ'S ACQUITTAL, IN PART, AND CONVICTS HIM OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY". United Nations Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals. 11 April 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  21. ^ "UN court sentences ultranationalist Serb leader to 10 years". TRT World. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Serbia: Conviction of war criminal delivers long overdue justice to victims". Amnesty International. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  23. ^ "UN tribunal transfers former Bosnian Serb leader to UK prison". UN News. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  24. ^ "UN tribunal upholds 35-year jail term for leader of breakaway Croatian Serb state". UN News. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  25. ^ "Bosnian Croat commander convicted by UN tribunal to serve jail term in Italy". UN News. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  26. ^ "Bosnian Serb politician convicted by UN tribunal to serve jail term in Denmark". UN News. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2018.

Further reading

External links

Amott test

The Amott test is one of the most widely used empirical wettability measurements for reservoir cores in petroleum engineering. The method combines two spontaneous imbibition measurements and two forced displacement measurements. This test defines two different indices: the Amott water index () and the Amott oil index ().

Ba'athist Arabization campaigns in North Iraq

The Ba'athist Arabization campaigns in North Iraq involved the forced displacement and cultural Arabization of minorities (Kurds, Yezidis, Assyrians, Shabaks, Armenians, Turkmen, Mandeans), in line with settler colonialist policies, led by the Ba'athist government of Iraq from the 1960s to the early 2000s, in order to shift the demographics of North Iraq towards Arab domination. The Iraqi Ba'ath party, first under Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and later Saddam Hussein, engaged in active expulsion of minorities from the mid-1970s onwards. In 1978 and 1979, 600 Kurdish villages were burned down and around 200,000 Kurds were deported to the other parts of the country.The campaigns took place during the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, being largely motivated by the Kurdish-Arab ethnic and political conflict. The Baathist policies motivating those events are sometimes referred to as "internal colonialism", described by Francis Kofi Abiew as a "Colonial 'Arabization'" program, including large-scale Kurdish deportations and forced Arab settlement in the region.

Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor

The Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym CAVR: Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação de Timor Leste) was an independent truth commission established in East Timor in 2001 under the UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) and charged to “inquire into human rights violations committed on all sides, between April 1974 and October 1999, and facilitate community reconciliation with justice for those who committed less serious offenses.” The idea of a truth commission in East Timor was first agreed by the National Council of Timorese Resistance in 2000.The Commission had a triple mandate as reflected in its name, to address:

(1) reception (acolhimento), the return of Timorese displaced into Indonesian West Timor and their reintegration into their communities, which the Commission described as "people embracing each other as East Timorese, of coming back to our selves, living under one roof, after many years of division and violence";

(2) truth seeking, rendering a full accounting of human rights violations between 1974 and 1999 (the end of the period of Indonesian rule), primarily though the collection of 7,669 statements; and

(3) reconciliation, conducted through a "novel and previously untested programme" called the Community Reconciliation Process, designed to reintegrate low-level offenders into their community.The commissioners, all Timorese nationals, were:

Aniceto Guterres Lopes, from the human rights group "Yayasan Hak"

Jacinto Alves

Maria Olandina Isabel Caeiro Alves, chair of "Women against violence"

Isabel Amaral Guterres

Father Jovito Araujo, a Catholic priest and former member of the resistance group OJETIL (Organização de Jovens e Estudantes de Timor Leste)

Jose Estevao Soares

Agustino de Vasconcelos, a minister in the East Timor Protestant Church (GKTT)CAVR was housed in the Comarca, a former Portuguese and Indonesian prison, which today houses the post-CAVR technical secretariat, the CAVR archive, and a museum open to the public.The Commission delivered its 2,500-page report entitled Chega meaning "stop" or "enough" in Portuguese, covering human rights violations from 1974 to 1999, to the President of East Timor on 31 October 2005. The President then handed the report to the Secretary General of the UN as required by law, on 20 January 2006.

"Chega" found that East Timor had suffered massive human rights violations, including violations of the right to self-determination, killings and disappearances, forced displacement and famine, detention and torture, violations of the laws of war, political trials, sexual violence, violations of the rights of the child, and violations of economic and social rights. It determined that the death toll during Indonesian rule had been between a low limit of 102,800 and may have been as high as 183,000. It also concluded that the majority of deaths had been the result of actions by the Indonesian army, and that violence in 1999 was the result of a "systematic campaign orchestrated at the highest levels of the Indonesian government." The findings of Chega were affirmed in 2008 by the Indonesia–Timor Leste Commission of Truth and Friendship.

The Chega! report was published in Indonesian and subsequently in English translation by Kompas Gramedia Group. It consists of five volumes:

Vol 1: CAVR’s work and mandate; history of the conflict; analysis of the occupying power and the resistance; profile of human rights violations 1974-1999.

Vol 2: Human rights violations: self-determination; unlawful killings and forced disappearances; forced displacement and famine.

Vol 3: Human rights violations (cont.): arbitrary detention, torture and ill-treatment; violations of the laws of war; political trials; rape, sexual slavery and other forms of sexual violence; violations of the rights of the child; economic and social rights.

Vol 4: Findings on responsibility and accountability; the community reconciliation process; victim support; recommendations.

Vol 5: Appendices on: crimes against humanity in 1999, data and statistical methods, indictments by the Serious Crimes Unit, and acknowledgements (including donors); glossary; index.

Community Front in Defense of Land

The Community Front in Defense of Land (in Spanish: Frente del Pueblo en Defensa de La Tierra, FPDT) was formed in 2002, by residents of San Salvador Atenco, to resist their forced displacement by the government of Mexico. The government planned to displace them to make way for a new Mexico City international airport. The people of San Salvador Atenco have risen up against the government from time to time for various reasons, the most common being disputes for land.

The FPDT is known to be allied with the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) and with groups such as the FPFV (Francisco Villa Popular Front), through the program called The Other Campaign.

Emigration

Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another. Both are acts of migration across national or other geographical boundaries.

Demographers examine push and pull factors for people to be pushed out of one place and attracted to another. There can be a desire to escape negative circumstances such as shortages of land or jobs, or unfair treatment. People can be pulled to the opportunities available elsewhere. Fleeing from oppressive conditions, being a refugee and seeking asylum to get refugee status in a foreign country, may lead to permanent emigration.

Forced displacement refers to groups that are forced to abandon their native country, such as by enforced population transfer or the threat of ethnic cleansing.

Exile (2016 film)

Exile (French: Exil) is a 2016 Cambodian-French documentary film directed by Rithy Panh which explores the effects of forced displacement. It was selected to screen in the Special Screenings section of the 2016 Cannes Film Festival.

Forced displacement in popular culture

Forced displacement and the experiences of refugees, asylum seekers and otherwise forcibly displaced people became of increasing interest in the popular culture since 2015 with the European migrant crisis.

Indian Gorkha

Indian Gorkhas (Nepali: भारतीय गोर्खा, Bharatiya Gorkha) also known as Nepali-Indians (Nepali: नेपाली भारतीय), are Nepali language-speaking Indians. The term "Indian Gorkha" is used to differentiate the Gorkhas of India from the Gurkhas of Nepal.Indian Gorkhas are citizens of India as per the gazette notification of the Government of India on the issue of citizenship of the Gorkhas of India. However, the Indian Gorkhas are faced with a unique identity crisis with regard to their Indian citizenship because of the Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship (1950) that permits "on a reciprocal basis, the nationals of one country in the territories of the other the same privileges in the matter of residence, ownership of property, participation in trade and commerce, movement and other privileges of a similar nature".

Jujuy Exodus

The Jujuy Exodus (in Spanish, Éxodo Jujeño) was an episode of the Argentine War of Independence. It was a massive forced displacement of people from the Jujuy Province, by orders of General Manuel Belgrano, conducted by his patriot forces that were battling a Royalist army. The population was compelled to leave under the threat of execution.

Land consumption

Land consumption as part of human resource consumption is the conversion of land with healthy soil and intact habitats into areas for industrial agriculture, traffic (road building) and especially urban human settlements. More formally, the EEA has identifid 3 land consuming activities:

The expansion of built-up area which can be directly measured;

the absolute extent of land that is subject to exploitation by agriculture, forestry or other economic activities; and

the over-intensive exploitation of land that is used for agriculture and forestry.In all of those respects, land consumption is equivalent to typical land use in industrialized regions and civilizations.

Since often aforementioned conversion activities are virtually irreversible, the term land loss is also used. From 1990 to 2000, 1.4 million hectares (3.5×10^6 acres) of open space were consumed in the U.S.. In Germany, land is being consumed at a rate of more than 70 hectares (170 acres) every day (~250 thousand hectares (620,000 acres) per 10 years). In European Union, land take is estimated approximately about to 1.2 million hectares in 21 EU countries over the period 1990-2006.

Urban growth reduces open space in and around cities, impacting biodiversity and ecosystem services

Land loss can also happen due to natural factors, like erosion or desertification - nevertheless most of those can also eventually be tracked back to human activities. Another slightly different interpretation of the term is the forced displacement or compulsory acquisition of a native people or settlers from their original land due to land grabbing, etc.. Again, in most cases, this will be due to economic reasons like search for profitable investment and commodification of natural resources.

Even though global land loss progresses at an alarming rate, the land footprint, the area required by some Western countries can a lot larger than the land actually used or even available in the country itself.While land prices have surged in the first few years of the 21st century, land consumption economy still lacks environmental full-cost accounting to add the long-term costs of environmental degradation.

People's Protection Units

The People's Protection Units or People's Defense Units (Kurdish: ;یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل ;Yekîneyên Parastina Gel‎ pronounced [jɛkiːnɛjeːn pɑːɾɑːstɯnɑː ɡɛl], Arabic: وحدات حماية الشعب‎, Classical Syriac: ܚܕܝ̈ܘܬܐ ܕܣܘܬܪܐ ܕܥܡܐ‎, translit. Ḥdoywotho d'Sutoro d'Amo; YPG) is a mainly-Kurdish militia in Syria and the primary component of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria's Syrian Democratic Forces. The YPG is mostly ethnically Kurdish, and also includes Arabs, foreign volunteers, and is closely allied to the Syriac Military Council, a militia of Assyrians.

The YPG was formed in 2004 as the armed wing of the Kurdish leftist Democratic Union Party. It expanded rapidly in the Syrian Civil War and came to predominate over other armed Kurdish groups. A sister group, the Women's Protection Units (YPJ), fights alongside them. The YPG is active in northern and eastern Syria.

In early 2015, the group won a major victory over ISIL at the Siege of Kobanî, where the YPG began to receive air and ground support from the United States and other coalition nations. Since then, the YPG has primarily fought against ISIL, as well as on occasion fighting other Syrian rebel groups.In late 2015, the YPG founded the Syrian Democratic Forces upon the US's urging, as an umbrella group to better incorporate Arabs and minorities into the war effort. In 2016–2017, the SDF's Raqqa campaign captured the city of Raqqa, the Islamic State's de facto capital.

Several western sources have described the YPG as the "most effective" force in fighting ISIL in Syria. A light infantry force, the YPG has limited military equipment and few armoured vehicles.

The YPG has been criticized by Turkey for its alleged support for the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), especially since a rebellion in southern Turkey began in 2015. According to U.S. Special Forces Commander General Raymond A. Thomas at the Aspen Security Forum in July 2017, the SDF is a PR-friendly name for the YPG, which Thomas personally suggested because the YPG is considered an arm of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), which is designated as a terrorist group by the U.S. government. American Defense Secretary Ashton Carter confirmed "substantial ties" between the PYD/YPG and the PKK. Testifying to the U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee Congress, Director of National Intelligence Daniel Coats, the top U.S. intelligence official, explicitly defined the YPG as the "PKK's militia force in Syria”. Turkey has designated the YPG as a terrorist organization, and in 2018 Turkey captured most of Afrin Canton from the YPG.

Pocomoke people

The Pocomoke people were an aboriginal nation whose territory encompassed the rivers: Pocomoke, Great Annemessex, Little Annemessex and Manokin, the bays of Monie and Chincoteague, and the sounds of Pocomoke and Tangier.

Their numbers decreased during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries due to the effects of several diseases brought from Europe, massacres by Virginia colonists, and forced displacement from their territory by numerous land grants and patents to immigrants and transports. Beginning about 1742 some Pocomoke families moved northward, by way of the Susquehanna River and settled in present-day Pennsylvania and Canada, while others cohabited with the Assateague, Nanticoke and Choptanks near Indian River. Today's communities of the Pocomoke People are descendants of those who remained on the Lower Eastern Shore following the partial exodus of the Pocomokes in the eighteenth century.

The present organization calling itself the Pocomoke Indian Nation is a descendant community who hold a traditional and cultural kinship with the historic Pocomoke People. Its mission is to preserve the heritage and way of life of the Pocomoke Nation by teaching its young members Pocomoke traditions, skills and language; and to educate the general public about the history and culture of the Pocomoke People through interpretive demonstrations in collaboration with schools, parks, and local events.

The Pocomoke Indian Nation is incorporated as a Maryland tax exempt entity and is listed by the IRS as a public charity-501c3 organization. The Pocomoke Indian Nation concurs on federal projects that must comply with Section 106 and NAGPRA provisions. While the Pocomoke was a treaty nation with Maryland; no petition has been submitted to date for requesting formal recognition from the United States or the State of Maryland.

Politics of Khuzestan Province

This article focuses on the politics of Khuzestan Province, a petroleum-rich and ethnically diverse province of southwestern Iran.

Prayer of the Refugee

"Prayer of the Refugee" is a song by American rock band Rise Against, featured on their fourth studio album The Sufferer & the Witness (2006). The lyrics were written by lead vocalist Tim McIlrath, and deal with the themes of forced displacement and the societal issues surrounding refugees. The song uses a contrasting verse-chorus form, with slow and melancholic verses against fast-paced and chaotic choruses. It was released as The Sufferer & the Witness's second single on December 6, 2006.

Commercially, "Prayer of the Refugee" reached number seven on the Alternative Songs chart, and was later certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. Critics praised the contrasting verse-chorus format, as well as the simple yet effective lyrics. In the accompanying music video, the band performs in a retail store, with intermittent shots of foreign workers making the store products. The band wanted the video to showcase how conventional business models allow for various human rights violations.

Refugee

A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition). Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the UNHCR if they formally make a claim for asylum.

The lead international agency coordinating refugee protection is the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The United Nations have a second Office for refugees, the UNRWA, which is solely responsible for supporting the large majority of Palestinian refugees.

Sri Lanka and state terrorism

The Sri Lankan state has been accused of state terrorism against the Tamil minority as well as the Sinhalese majority. The Sri Lankan government and the Sri Lankan Armed Forces have been charged with massacres, indiscriminate shelling and bombing, extrajudicial killings, rape, torture, disappearance, arbitrary detention, forced displacement and economic blockade. According to Amnesty International state terror was institutionalized into Sri Lanka's laws, government and society.

Taji, Iraq

Taji (Arabic: التاجي‎) is a rural district north of the city of Baghdad, within Baghdad Province and Saladin Province.

Taji District has about 400,000 inhabitants.

Tehcir Law

The Tehcir Law (from tehcir, a word of Arabic origin in Ottoman Turkish and meaning "deportation" or "forced displacement" as defined by the Turkish Language Institute), or, officially by the Republic of Turkey, the "Sevk ve İskân Kanunu" (Relocation and Resettlement Law) was a law passed by the Ottoman Parliament on May 27, 1915 authorizing the deportation of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population. The resettlement campaign resulted in the deaths of anywhere between 800,000 and over 1,800,000 civilians in what is commonly referred to as the Armenian Genocide. The bill was officially enacted on June 1, 1915 and expired on February 8, 1916.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1193

United Nations Security Council resolution 1193, adopted unanimously on 28 August 1998, after recalling Resolution 1076 (1996) concerning Afghanistan, the Council discussed the deteriorating political, military and humanitarian situation in Afghanistan during the ongoing civil war in the country.In the preamble of the resolution, the Council expressed concern at the escalation of the Afghan conflict due to an offensive by the Taliban in the north of the country, causing a threat to international peace and security, destruction and the displacement of large numbers of people and refugees. It was also concerned at the increasingly ethnic and religious nature of the conflict, particularly against the Shiites. Despite calls from the United Nations to cease foreign interventions in Afghanistan, there was continued interference including the involvement of foreign military personnel in addition to arms and ammunition supplies to all parties in the country.The humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan also concerned the Security Council, which deplored measures by the Taliban which forced the evacuation of United Nations humanitarian personnel from the country. There was concern for Iranian Consulate-General who was kidnapped and the fate of several other Iranian nationals that were missing. It remained disturbed at the deteriorating security situation, the presence of terrorists, drug trafficking, discrimination against girls and women and other violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in Afghanistan.

The Security Council reiterated that the conflict could only be settled through peaceful means, and demanded that all Afghan factions stop fighting and work together towards the aim of establishing a fully representative government that would protect the rights of Afghans. Attacks on United Nations personnel which resulted in casualties from the World Food Programme and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Taliban territory and the kidnap of Iran's Consulate-General in Mazar-i-Sharif were both condemned. All groups had to ensure that humanitarian relief supplies could be delivered and they were reminded of their obligations under the Geneva Conventions.The Secretary-General Kofi Annan was requested to continue investigations into alleged mass killings of prisoners of war and civilians, ethnically motivated forced displacement and other instances of persecution. He was also required to keep the Council informed on the situation in Afghanistan. Finally, the Afghan factions were urged to end the discrimination against girls and women, to respect human rights, to cease supporting terrorists and halt illegal drug activities.

Segregation in countries by type (in some countries, categories overlap)
Religious
"Racial"
Gender
Sexual orientation
Dynamics
Related
topics
By owner
By nature
Commons
Theory
Applications
Disposession/
redistribution
Scholars
(key work)
Aspects
Issues
Theories
Notable
scholars

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