Japanese businessman Wataru Ohashi, who was the president of Footwork Express Co., Ltd., a Japanese logistics company, began investing heavily in the Arrows team in 1990, the deal including requiring the cars to display the Footwork logo prominently. The team was officially renamed Footwork in 1991, and secured a deal to race with Porsche engines. Results were poorer than expected, and after just six races, Footwork dropped the Porsche engines and continued with Hart-built Ford engines.
For the 1992 season they switched engine supplier to Mugen. Arrows retained the Footwork name until Ohashi withdrew his financial backing before the 1996 season, whereupon the name of the team reverted to Arrows. Regardless, Jackie Oliver had retained operational control throughout the entire period.
|Full name||Footwork Arrows|
|Base||Milton Keynes, United Kingdom|
|Noted staff||Jackie Oliver|
|Noted drivers|| Christian Fittipaldi|
|Formula One World Championship career|
|First entry||1991 United States Grand Prix|
|Races entered||97 (91 starts)|
|Final entry||1996 Japanese Grand Prix|
Arrows was officially renamed Footwork for 1991. The season began with the A11C chassis with Porsche engines, but after neither Michele Alboreto or Alex Caffi qualified in Brazil there was a reshuffle with Alan Rees being made financial director and John Wickham named team manager. The prototype FA12 appeared but was then destroyed when its suspension failed at the notorious Tamburello turn at Imola. Alboreto suffered a broken foot which required several stitches and Caffi damaged a second new car at Monaco. Caffi was then hurt in a road accident a week later, and was replaced by Stefan Johansson for several races.
In June the team decided to replace the unsuccessful Porsche engines with Hart-prepared Cosworth DFR engines. Having failed to score points for a year the team was forced to pre-qualify from the half-way point of the season and appeared in the races only rarely in the second part of the year. Despite the problems the team opened a 40%-scale windtunnel at Milton Keynes.
For 1992, Caffi was dropped and Aguri Suzuki joined, bringing a supply of Mugen V10s. The FA13 chassis, designed by Alan Jenkins, was a conventional, straightforward car and Alboreto scored four times, 5th in both the Spanish and San Marino Grands Prix and 6th in both the Brazilian and Portuguese Grands Prix, the team finishing with six points and equal 7th with Ligier in the Constructors' Championship.
For 1993, Alboreto was dropped to make way for Derek Warwick who joined Suzuki with Mugen engines and a new FA14 chassis. It was a disappointing year, however. Warwick scored all the four points with a 6th place in the 1993 British Grand Prix and a 4th in the 1993 Hungarian Grand Prix, which remained the best Footwork result in history until late 1995. The team finished 9th in the Constructors' Championship with four points. At the end of the season Ohashi withdrew his sponsorship. The team lost its Mugen engines as a result, and had to return to Ford V8s for 1994.
Jenkins designed the Footwork FA15 for young drivers Gianni Morbidelli and Christian Fittipaldi but money was short. The neat car drew a number of admiring glances, with Fittipaldi taking 4th place at the Pacific Grand Prix, before being one of the stars of the Monaco Grand Prix, running third at one point until his gearbox failed. Initially the car was fragile, but just as the team began to solve the problems, the revised regulations that followed the deaths of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna robbed the cars of their neat aerodynamics. Further points were scored in the German Grand Prix where the cars came 4th and 5th out of eight finishers Thanks to Michael Schumacher's disqualification from the Belgian Grand Prix, Morbidelli was promoted to 6th, which was some compensation for team-mate Fittipaldi being disqualified from 6th in the parc fermé at the 1994 Canadian Grand Prix. That allowed Footwork to finish 9th in the Constructors' Championship, with nine points. At the end of the year there was a setback when Fittipaldi quit Formula One and headed to the IndyCar World Series in the United States. Wickham also departed.
With an increasingly difficult financial situation the team picked pay driver Taki Inoue to partner Morbidelli in the Jenkins-designed Arrows-Hart FA16. In the mid-season there was so little money that Morbidelli had to be replaced by Max Papis, although he returned for the last three races and scored Footwork's first podium in Adelaide. That result, plus a 6th place in the Canadian Grand Prix allowed Footwork to finish 8th in the Constructors' Championship, equal on points with Tyrrell but claiming the higher position due to better results (the best results for Tyrrell were two 5th places). At the end of the year, Jackie Oliver and Alan Rees bought back the shares from Ohashi thanks to assistance from finance house Schwabische Finanz & Unternehmensberatung AG.
In March 1996, Tom Walkinshaw acquired a controlling interest in the team by buying out Rees. Walkinshaw controlled 40% of the shares with an associate Peter Darnbrough buying 11% and Oliver retaining 49%. The team was renamed TWR Arrows for the remaining part of the 1996 season. Jos Verstappen scored with a 6th place in the Argentine Grand Prix the last ever point for Footwork in Formula 1. The team finished 9th in the Constructors' Championship, as they had done in 1993 and 1994.
(key) (results in bold indicate pole position)
|Porsche 3512 3.5 V12||G||USA||BRA||SMR||MON||CAN||MEX||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||ESP||JPN||AUS||0||NC|
|FA12C||Ford Cosworth DFR 3.5 V8||Michele Alboreto||Ret||Ret||DNQ||DNQ||DNPQ||DNQ||15||Ret||DNQ||13||0||NC|
|1992||FA13||Mugen-Honda MF-351H 3.5 V10||G||RSA||MEX||BRA||ESP||SMR||MON||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||JPN||AUS||6||7th|
|Mugen-Honda MF-351 HB 3.5 V10||G||RSA||BRA||EUR||SMR||ESP||MON||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||JPN||AUS||4||9th|
|1994||FA15||Ford HBE7/8 3.5 V8||G||BRA||PAC||SMR||MON||ESP||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||EUR||JPN||AUS||9||9th|
|1995||FA16||Hart 830 3.0 V8||G||BRA||ARG||SMR||ESP||MON||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||EUR||PAC||JPN||AUS||5||8th|
|1996||FA17||Hart 830 3.0 V8||G||AUS||BRA||ARG||EUR||SMR||MON||ESP||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||JPN||1||9th|
The 1991 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on 12 May 1991.1996 Belgian Grand Prix
The 1996 Belgian Grand Prix (formally the LIV Grand Prix de Belgique) was a Formula One motor race held on 25 August 1996 at Spa-Francorchamps. It was the thirteenth race of the 1996 FIA Formula One World Championship.
The 44-lap race was won by Michael Schumacher, driving a Ferrari. Schumacher had crashed heavily in Friday practice, but recovered to qualify third before taking his second win of the season. Jacques Villeneuve, who had started from pole position, finished second in his Williams-Renault, with Mika Häkkinen third in a McLaren-Mercedes. Villeneuve's teammate and Drivers' Championship leader, Damon Hill, finished fifth.Allan Jenkins
Alan, Allan or Allen Jenkins may refer to:
Allan Jenkins (footballer) (born 1981), Scottish footballer
Allan Jenkins (journalist), writer for the British Observer Sunday newspaper
Allen Jenkins (1900–1974), American character actor
Alan Jenkins (poet) (born 1955), British poet; winner of the 1994 Forward Poetry Prize
Alan Jenkins (engineer) (born 1947), former designer with McLaren, and technical director of Footwork Arrows Formula One motor racing teams
Alan Jenkins (journalist), editor of The Herald 1968–1971Arrows A11
The Arrows A11 was a Formula One car with which the Arrows team competed in the 1989 and 1990 Formula One seasons, and at the start of the 1991 season (badged as a Footwork).
Designed by Ross Brawn, the A11 was the first Arrows car following the ban on turbocharged engines at the end of 1988, being fitted with a normally-aspirated 3.5-litre Ford Cosworth DFR V8 engine. It was raced to reasonably good effect by Derek Warwick and Eddie Cheever in 1989, Warwick finishing in the top six on five occasions and briefly challenging for victory in the Canadian Grand Prix, and Cheever finishing third in the United States Grand Prix, held in his home town of Phoenix, Arizona. With 13 points, Arrows placed seventh in the Constructors' Championship.
For 1990, the car received minor suspension upgrades and became the A11B, while Italian drivers Michele Alboreto and Alex Caffi replaced Warwick and Cheever. 1990 turned out to be far less successful than 1989, however, as the car failed to qualify seven times, and finished in the top six only once, when Caffi took fifth at an attritional race in Monaco. Caffi was also forced to sit out the United States and Spanish races through injury, Germany's Bernd Schneider deputising on both occasions. The two points from Monaco gave Arrows ninth in the Constructors' Championship.
By the start of 1991, the team had been taken over by the Japanese Footwork concern and renamed accordingly, and had also secured a deal to run Porsche V12 engines, replacing the Fords. However, the team's car for that season, the FA12, had to be redesigned when it was discovered that the large Porsche engine, the 3512, could not fit into it. The team therefore modified the A11B into the A11C to accommodate this engine, and used it in the first two races, as well as at San Marino after Alboreto destroyed his redesigned FA12 during practice. From these five attempts, the ageing car qualified only once (Alboreto in the United States), before being finally retired.Arrows Grand Prix International
Arrows Grand Prix International was a British Formula One team active from 1978 to 2002. It was known as Footwork from 1991 to 1996.Arrows Grand Prix results
These are the complete Grand Prix racing results for Arrows Grand Prix International, also including Footwork Arrows.Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari
The Autodromo Internazionale Enzo e Dino Ferrari is a race track near the Italian town of Imola, 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) east of Bologna. It is one of the few major international circuits to run in an anti-clockwise direction. The circuit is named after Ferrari's late founder, Enzo Ferrari, and his son, Alfredo Ferrari, who had died in 1956. The circuit has a FIA Grade One license.It was the venue for the San Marino Grand Prix. For many years, two Grands Prix were held in Italy every year, so the race held at Imola was named after the nearby state. It also hosted the 1980 edition of the Italian Grand Prix, which usually takes place at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza. When Formula One visits Imola, it is seen as the home circuit of Scuderia Ferrari, and masses of supporters come out to support the local team.Brian Hart
Brian Hart (7 September 1936 – 5 January 2014) was a British racing driver and engineer with a background in the aviation industry. He is best known as the founder of Brian Hart Limited, a company that developed and built engines for motorsport use.Footwork
Footwork may refer to:
Footwork (music genre)
Footwork (martial arts)
Footwork (Chicago), a type of Chicago street dance and related juke house music style
Footwork (racing team), an International Formula 3000 team
Footwork Arrows, the identity of the Arrows Formula One team while it was owned by Footwork International Corp.Footwork FA12
The Footwork FA12 was a Formula One car designed and built by the Footwork Arrows team for the 1991 season. The number 9 car was driven by Michele Alboreto and the number 10 car was shared by Alex Caffi and Stefan Johansson. The team had no test driver.
The FA12 was intended to start the season, but the new Porsche 3512 engine was so large and bulky that the car had to be re-designed to install it properly, so a 1990-based car called the A11C was used for the first three race meetings.The FA12 finally debuted at the San Marino Grand Prix, where Caffi failed to qualify the new car (Alboreto still had an A11C). For the following Monaco Grand Prix both drivers had FA12s - Caffi once again failed to qualify and Alboreto retired from the race. Stefan Johansson replaced Caffi at the Canadian Grand Prix after Caffi sustained injuries in a road accident; this time both drivers qualified but both also retired from the race. The Mexican Grand Prix was the last appearance of the Porsche engine; Johansson failed to qualify and Alboreto again retired from the race.
Before the next race in France, the team switched to the Ford-Cosworth DFR 3.5 litre V8 engine, in a modified version of the car designated the FA12C. But results were not much better; the last 10 races of the season yielded only 7 starts and 4 finishes, with a best placing of 10th.Footwork FA13
The Footwork FA13 was a Formula One car used by the Footwork Arrows team in the 1992 Formula One season and was updated to become FA13B for the first two races of the 1993 Formula One season. It was powered by the Mugen Honda V10 engine.
The FA13 chassis, designed by Alan Jenkins, was a conventional, straightforward car and Alboreto scored four times, 5th in both the Spanish and San Marino Grands Prix and 6th in both the Brazilian and Portuguese Grands Prix, the team finishing with six points and equal 7th with Ligier in the Constructors' Championship.Footwork FA15
The Footwork FA15 was a Formula One car with which the Footwork team competed in the 1994 Formula One season. The number 9 seat was taken by Christian Fittipaldi and the number 10 seat was taken by Gianni Morbidelli. The team never employed a test driver. The engine was a Ford HBE7/8 3.5 V8. The team did not have a main sponsor.Gianni Morbidelli
Gianni Morbidelli (born 13 January 1968) is an Italian racing driver. He participated in 70 Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 11 March 1990. He achieved one podium, and scored a total of 8.5 championship points. He currently competes in the TCR International Series.Hart Racing Engines
Brian Hart Ltd., also known as Hart and Hart Racing Engines, was a motor racing engine manufacturer that participated in 157 Formula One Grands Prix, powering a total of 368 entries.
Founded in 1969 by British engineer Brian Hart, Hart initially concentrated on servicing and tuning engines from other manufacturers for various independent British teams at all levels of motorsport. Hart found particular success with developments of Ford's FVA engine, eventually leading the large multinational company to approach the small independent to develop the Ford BDA 1.6 L engine for the 2.0L class. The European Formula Two title was won in both 1971 and 1972 with Hart-built Ford engines, and the 2.0 L BDA engine powered the majority of Ford's 1970s rallying successes.
With Ford's withdrawal from F2 in the mid-1970s, Hart began to concentrate on building their own designs. The first engine to bear the Hart name alone was the twin-cam, four-cylinder Hart 420R F2 unit, which appeared in 1976 and powered race-winning cars until the end of the decade. In 1978, the Toleman team agreed to a partnership program, with Toleman providing finance to develop further Hart engine designs. The fruits of this collaboration resulted in Toleman taking a one-two finish in the 1980 European F2 Championship.
For 1981 Hart followed Toleman into Formula One, with an inline four-cylinder 1.5 L turbo engine named the 415T. However, the year was a disaster, with Brian Hart's small operation failing to keep pace with better-funded outfits. Toleman cars only qualified to race twice. Hart persisted though, with the best result from the five-year relationship with Toleman coming when Ayrton Senna took second place at the 1984 Monaco Grand Prix and Toleman claiming 7th in the 1984 Constructors Championship. Teo Fabi also took pole position in a Toleman-Hart at the 1985 German Grand Prix, the first of only two F1 poles by a Hart-powered car.
During this period, Hart turbos were used by three other teams – RAM (1984–85); Spirit (1984–85); and the Haas Lola team (1985–86). While none of their teams performed that well, Hart gained a reputation for excellent work on a small budget.
After 1984 companies like Renault, Honda, BMW, TAG-Porsche, and Ferrari were able to develop their engines to receive much higher turbo boost than the Hart 415T. This resulted in Brian Hart stopping development of the engine. The last time it was used was by the Haas Lola team at the 1986 San Marino Grand Prix, with Patrick Tambay qualifying 11th but retiring with engine troubles after just five laps.
At its peak in 1986, the Hart 415T produced a reported 750 bhp (559 kW; 760 PS) at 11,000 rpm.Following this and the outlawing of turbocharged engines in Formula One after the 1988 season, Hart did freelance work. The company mainly tuned Cosworth DFR V8s for a number of F1 teams, including Footwork Arrows in 1990 and 1991, Tyrrell in 1990, Larrousse in 1991 and AGS in 1991.
Hart returned with an in-house 3.5 L V10 in 1993 named the 1035, signing a two-year deal with the Jordan team. This culminated in a successful 1994 season, with Rubens Barrichello finishing third at the Pacific Grand Prix and taking the engine company's last F1 pole position at the Belgian Grand Prix.
With the introduction of the 3.0 L formula in 1995, Hart switched to a V8 engine named the 830, and these were used by the Arrows team in 1995 and 1996; Gianni Morbidelli took third at the 1995 Australian Grand Prix. For 1997, these engines were taken over by the Minardi team, while Brian Hart himself designed a new V10 engine, the 1030, although the funds to build it were not available.
Later that year, Tom Walkinshaw Racing (TWR) bought out Brian Hart Ltd., and merged it into their Arrows Formula One team. The 1030 V10 was built and raced in 1998–1999 as the Arrows T2-F1 V10, with Mika Salo taking a fourth place at the 1998 Monaco Grand Prix. Frustrated with the lack of development, Brian Hart left Arrows.Jos Verstappen
Johannes Franciscus "Jos" Verstappen (born 4 March 1972) is a Dutch former racing driver. After his F1 career Jos Verstappen has won races in A1 Grand Prix and Le Mans Series LMP2 races (winning the 24 hours of Le Mans LMP2 class in 2008). Prior to his F1 debut in 1994, he was also the German Formula Three champion and Masters of Formula Three winner in 1993. Jos was the most successful Dutch F1 racing driver before he retired and started mentoring his son Max in Formula 1.Porsche 3512
The Porsche 3512 was a motor racing engine designed by Porsche for use in Formula One in the early 1990s.
Porsche had left Formula One at the end of 1987 after four years supplying TAG-badged turbo engines to the McLaren team, but decided to return two years later with a view to creating a V12 engine for the newly introduced 3.5-litre normally-aspirated regulations (hence this engine's designation of 3512). After a partnership with the small Onyx team was suggested, in early 1990 the company signed a four-year deal with Footwork Arrows, to commence in 1991.The 3512 was designed by Porsche veteran Hans Mezger, and had an 80-degree V-angle and a power take-off from the centre of the engine. The latter had been a feature of the flat-12 Type 912 engine (also designed by Mezger) in the Porsche 917 sports car of the early 1970s, but was unusual for Formula One.Problems beset the 3512 almost immediately, as it was completed later than scheduled, and its layout meant that it was large and heavy. When ancillaries like the clutch and flywheel were installed, the engine weighed 418 lb - compared to the V12s of Honda and Ferrari at 352 lb and 308 lb respectively. All this meant that it could not be properly installed in Footwork's car for the 1991 season, the FA12, and so the team had to redesign this car while starting the season with a modified version of their 1989/1990 car, designated the A11C.Further difficulties were encountered when the engine started to be used: power output was said to be only around 670 hp (500 kW) at around 13,000 rpm, while the novel method of drawing power from the centre of the engine led to oil pressure problems.When the season got underway at the Phoenix street circuit in the United States, Alex Caffi failed to qualify his A11C, while teammate Michele Alboreto qualified 25th but retired from the race at half-distance with a gearbox failure. At the faster Interlagos circuit for the next round in Brazil, both drivers failed to make the grid. The redesigned FA12 was introduced at the San Marino Grand Prix at Imola, another fast circuit, but Alboreto destroyed his car during practice and was forced to use the A11C, and again both drivers failed to qualify. Then at Monaco, Caffi suffered a crash of his own and once again failed to make the grid, while Alboreto again qualified 25th before his 3512 failed at half-distance.
By this stage, Footwork had already given up hope in the Porsche engine, and had decided to go back to the Ford Cosworth DFR V8 that had been used in 1989 and 1990. However, the team had to make do with the 3512 for the North American rounds in Canada and Mexico, for which Stefan Johansson took the place of Caffi, who had sustained injuries in a road accident. Both drivers managed to qualify at Montreal, Alboreto 21st and Johansson 25th, but retired with throttle and engine problems. Then in Mexico, after four of the team's seven engines for the weekend had failed on the Friday, Johansson failed to qualify, while Alboreto qualified 26th and last, only for his 3512 to fail again before half-distance.
Footwork finally reverted to the DFR in time for the French Grand Prix, installed in a modification of the FA12, designated the FA12C. Porsche formally terminated its deal with the team shortly before the Japanese Grand Prix in October, and has not appeared in Formula One since.
A V10 replacement for the 3512 was in development at the time of Porsche's withdrawal from Formula One. This engine would not be completed until several years later, when it was modified for use in the stillborn Porsche LMP project in 2000. The engine eventually became mass-produced when a further variant was chosen as the powerplant of the Porsche Carrera GT supercar.Porsche LMP2000
The Porsche LMP2000 (also known as the Porsche 9R3) was a Le Mans Prototype racing car that was developed between 1998 and 2000, but never raced. One car was built, and it was designed around a modified version of Porsche's 3.5-litre V10 engine that was originally designed for Formula 1 in 1992. The project was cancelled before the car was built, leading to various rumours about the reason for its demise.Ricardo Rosset
Ricardo Rosset (born 27 July 1968) is a Brazilian racing driver. He participated in 33 Formula One Grands Prix, making his debut at the 1996 Australian Grand Prix. He scored no championship points. He eventually quit Formula One to focus on developing a sportswear business in Brazil.Tyrrell 020
The Tyrrell 020 was a Formula One racing car designed by Harvey Postlethwaite and George Ryton for Tyrrell Racing and raced during the 1991 season. The 020 was driven by Satoru Nakajima who brought the Honda engine contract with him and also by Stefano Modena. Its best result was a second place by Modena in the Canadian Grand Prix. Tyrrell scored 12 points to finish 6th in the Constructors' Championship with half the points scored by Modena's 2nd in Canada.
The car was powered by the 690 bhp (515 kW; 700 PS) Honda RA101-E V10 engine previously raced by McLaren in 1990 and maintained by Mugen Motorsports, which would run Mugen-Honda badged engines the following year for Footwork Arrows.
The car was updated for the 1992 season and was dubbed the 020B. For this season the Honda V10 was replaced with the 680 bhp (507 kW; 689 PS) Ilmor LH10 V10 engine and was driven by Olivier Grouillard and veteran Andrea de Cesaris. The team only scored 8 points for the season but again finished in 6th place.
The 020 was pressed into service again for the first nine races of the 1993 season. Again updated it was called the 020C. For the third time in three years the car ran a V10 engine but this time it carried the 690 bhp (515 kW; 700 PS) Yamaha OX10A. It was driven again by De Cesaris who was joined by Japanese driver Ukyo Katayama. Neither driver would score a World Championship point driving the car.
The Tyrrell 020C was replaced by the 021 midway through the 1993 season.
|Arrows Grand Prix International|
Although World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity.
Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was in the Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed.