Foot washing

Maundy (from the Vulgate of John 13:34 mandatum meaning "command"),[1][2][3][4][5] or the Washing of the Feet, is a religious rite observed by various Christian denominations. The name is taken from the first few Latin words sung at the ceremony of the washing of the feet, "Mandatum novum do vobis ut diligatis invicem sicut dilexi vos" ("I give you a new commandment, That ye love one another as I have loved you") (John 13:34), and from the Latin form of the commandment of Christ that we should imitate His loving humility in the washing of the feet (John 13:14–17). The term mandatum (maundy), therefore, was applied to the rite of foot-washing on this day of the Christian Holy Week called Maundy Thursday.

John 13:1–17 recounts Jesus' performance of this act. In verses 13:14–17, He instructs His disciples:

If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you. Most assuredly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him. If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them.

— John 13:14–17 (NKJV)

Many denominations (including Anglicans, Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians, Mennonites, and Catholics) therefore observe the liturgical washing of the feet on Maundy Thursday of Holy Week.[5] Moreover, for some denominations, foot-washing was an example, a pattern. Many groups throughout Church history and many modern denominations have practiced foot washing as a church ordinance including Adventists, Anabaptists, Baptists, Free Will Baptists, and Pentecostals.[5]

Meister des Hausbuches 003
Christ Washing the Feet of the Apostles by Meister des Hausbuches, 1475 (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin).

Etymology

The origin of the word Maundy has at least two possibilities:

  1. Through Middle English and Old French mandé, from Latin mandatum.
  2. From the Latin mendicare, Old French mendier, and English maund, which means "to beg" (verb) or a "small basket" (noun) held out by maunders (beggars) as they maunded (begged).[6]

Background

The root of this practice appears to be found in the hospitality customs of ancient civilizations, especially where sandals were the chief footwear. A host would provide water for guests to wash their feet, provide a servant to wash the feet of the guests or even serve the guests by washing their feet. This is mentioned in several places in the Old Testament of the Bible (e.g. Genesis 18:4; 19:2; 24:32; 43:24; I Samuel 25:41; et al.), as well as other religious and historical documents. A typical Eastern host might bow, greet, and kiss his guest, then offer water to allow the guest to wash his feet or have servants do it. Though the wearing of sandals might necessitate washing the feet, the water was also offered as a courtesy even when shoes were worn.

I Samuel 25:41 is the first biblical passage where an honored person offers to wash feet as a sign of humility. In John 12, Mary of Bethany anointed Jesus' feet presumably in gratitude for raising her brother Lazarus from the dead, and in preparation for his death and burial. The Bible records washing of the saint's feet being practised by the primitive church in I Timothy 5:10 perhaps in reference to piety, submission and/or humility. There are several names for this practice: maundy, foot washing, washing the saints' feet, pedilavium, and mandatum.

Biblical reference

Washing of the Feet - Capella dei Scrovegni - Padua 2016
Christ Reasoning with Peter, by Giotto di Bondone (Cappella Scrovegni a Padova).

Christian denominations that observe foot washing do so on the basis of the authoritative example and command of Jesus as found in John 13:1–15 (NKJV):

Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him; Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God; He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself. After that he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded. Then cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet? Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter. Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all. For he knew who should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean. So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you? Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am. If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.

Jesus demonstrates the custom of the time when he comments on the lack of hospitality in one Pharisees home by not providing water to wash his feet in Luke 7:44:

And he turned to the woman, and said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman? I entered into thine house, thou gavest me no water for my feet: but she hath washed my feet with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head.

History

The rite of foot washing finds its roots in scripture. Even after the death of the apostles or the end of the Apostolic Age, the practice was continued.

It appears to have been practiced in the early centuries of post-apostolic Christianity, though the evidence is scant. For example, Tertullian (145–220) mentions the practice in his De Corona, but gives no details as to who practiced it or how it was practiced. It was practiced by the Church at Milan (c. 380), is mentioned by the Council of Elvira (300), and is even referenced by Augustine (c. 400).

Observance of foot washing at the time of baptism was maintained in Africa, Gaul, Germany, Milan, northern Italy, and Ireland.

According to the Mennonite Encyclopedia "St. Benedict's Rule (529) for the Benedictine Order prescribed hospitality feetwashing in addition to a communal feetwashing for humility"; a statement confirmed by the Catholic Encyclopedia.[7] It apparently was established in the Roman church, though not in connection with baptism, by the 8th century.

The Albigenses observed footwashing in connection with communion, and the Waldenses' custom was to wash the feet of visiting ministers.

There is some evidence that it was observed by the early Hussites; and the practice was a meaningful part of the 16th century radical reformation. Foot washing was often "rediscovered" or "restored" by Protestants in revivals of religion in which the participants tried to recreate the faith and practice of the apostolic era which they had abandoned or lost.

Catholic practice

In Catholic Church, the ritual washing of feet is now associated with the Mass of the Lord's Supper, which celebrates in a special way the Last Supper of Jesus, before which he washed the feet of his twelve apostles.

Evidence for the practice on this day goes back at least to the latter half of the 12th century, when "the pope washed the feet of twelve sub-deacons after his Mass and of thirteen poor men after his dinner."[7] From 1570 to 1955, the Roman Missal printed, after the text of the Holy Thursday Mass, a rite of washing of feet unconnected with the Mass. For many years Pius IX performed the foot washing in the sala over the portico of Saint Peter's, Rome.[8]

Court function at the Palace of Ribeira in 1748
John V of Portugal performs the Washing of the Feet rite in Ribeira Palace, 1748.

In 1955 Pope Pius XII revised the ritual and inserted it into the Mass. Since then, the rite is celebrated after the homily that follows the reading of the gospel account of how Jesus washed the feet of his twelve apostles (John 13:1–15). Some persons who have been selected – usually twelve, but the Roman Missal does not specify the number – are led to chairs prepared in a suitable place. The priest goes to each and, with the help of the ministers, pours water over each one's feet and dries them. There are some advocates of restricting this ritual to clergy or at least men.[9]

In a notable break from the 1955 norms, Pope Francis washed the feet of two women and Muslims at a juvenile detention center in Rome 2013.[10][11] In 2016 it was announced that the Roman Missal had been revised to permit women to have their feet washed on Maundy Thursday; previously it permitted only males to do so.[12] In 2016 Catholic priests around the world washed both women’s and men’s feet on Holy Thursday "their gesture of humility represented to many the progress of inclusion in the Catholic church."[13]

At one time, most of the European monarchs also performed the Washing of Feet in their royal courts on Maundy Thursday, a practice continued by the Austro-Hungarian Emperor and the King of Spain up to the beginning of the 20th century (see Royal Maundy).[7] In 1181 Roger de Moulins, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller issued a statute declaring, "In Lent every Saturday, they are accustomed to celebrate maundy for thirteen poor persons, and to wash their feet, and to give to each a shirt and new breeches and new shoes, and to three chaplains, or to three clerics out of the thirteen, three deniers and to each of the others, two deniers".[14]

Eastern Christian practice

Omovenie nog
Orthodox icon of Christ washing the feet of the Apostles (16th century, Pskov school of iconography).

Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic

The Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches practice the ritual of the Washing of Feet on Holy and Great Thursday (Maundy Thursday) according to their ancient rites. The service may be performed either by a bishop, washing the feet of twelve priests; or by an Hegumen (Abbot) washing the feet of twelve members of the brotherhood of his monastery. The ceremony takes place at the end of the Divine Liturgy.

After Holy Communion, and before the dismissal, the brethren all go in procession to the place where the Washing of Feet is to take place (it may be in the center of the nave, in the narthex, or a location outside). After a psalm and some troparia (hymns) an ektenia (litany) is recited, and the bishop or abbot reads a prayer. Then the deacon reads the account in the Gospel of John, while the clergy perform the roles of Christ and his apostles as each action is chanted by the deacon. The deacon stops when the dialogue between Jesus and Peter begins. The senior-ranking clergyman among those whose feet are being washed speaks the words of Peter, and the bishop or abbot speaks the words of Jesus. Then the bishop or abbot himself concludes the reading of the Gospel, after which he says another prayer and sprinkles all of those present with the water that was used for the foot washing. The procession then returns to the church and the final dismissal is given as normal.

Oriental Orthodox

Bishop Sebouh - Washing of Feet
Bishop Sebouh Chouldjian of the Armenian Apostolic Church washing the feet of children.

Foot washing rites are also observed in the Oriental Orthodox churches on Maundy Thursday.

In the Coptic Orthodox Church the service is performed by the parish priest. He blesses the water for the foot washing with the cross, just as he would for blessing holy water and he washes the feet of the entire congregation.

In the Syrian Orthodox Church, this service is performed by a bishop or priest. There will be some 12 selected men, both priests and the lay people, and the bishop or priest will wash and kiss the feet of those 12 men. It is not merely a dramatization of the past event. Further it is a prayer where the whole congregation prays to wash and cleanse them of their sins.

Protestant practice

Maundy Thursday 07 washing feet diocese St Asaph
Foot washing by the Bishop of St Asaph, Church in Wales, Maundy Thursday.

Foot washing is observed by numerous Protestant and proto-Protestant groups, including Seventh-day Adventist, Pentecostal, and Pietistic groups, some Anabaptists, and several types of Southern Baptists. Foot washing rites are also practiced by many Anglican, Lutheran and Methodist churches, whereby foot washing is most often experienced in connection with Maundy Thursday services and, sometimes, at ordination services where the Bishop may wash the feet of those who are to be ordained. Though history shows that foot washing has at times been practiced in connection with baptism, and at times as a separate occasion, by far its most common practice has been in connection with the Lord's supper service. The Moravian Church practiced Foot Washing until 1818. There has been some revival of the practice as other liturgical churches have also rediscovered the practice.

ChristWashingFeet
Christus, by the Lutheran Lucas Cranach the Elder. This woodcut of John 13:14–17 is from Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist.

The observance of washing the saints' feet is quite varied, but a typical service follows the partaking of unleavened bread and wine.[15] Deacons (in many cases) place pans of water in front of pews that have been arranged for the service. The men and women participate in separate groups, men washing men's feet and women washing women's feet. Each member of the congregation takes a turn washing the feet of another member. Each foot is placed one at a time into the basin of water, is washed by cupping the hand and pouring water over the foot, and is dried with a long towel girded around the waist of the member performing the washing. Most of these services appear to be quite moving to the participants.

Among groups that do not observe foot washing as an ordinance or rite, the example of Jesus is usually held to be symbolic and didactic. Among these groups, foot washing is nevertheless sometimes literally practiced. First, some reserve it to be a practice of hospitality or a work of necessity. Secondly, some present it as a dramatic lesson acted out in front of the congregation.

Anabaptist practice

Groups descending from the 1708 Schwarzenau Brethren, such as the Grace Brethren, Church of the Brethren, Brethren Church, Old German Baptist Brethren, and the Dunkard Brethren regularly practice foot washing (generally called "feetwashing"[16][17][18][19][20][21][22]) as one of three ordinances that compose their Lovefeast, the others being the Eucharist and a fellowship meal. Historically related groups such as the Amish and most Mennonites also wash feet, tracing the practice to the 1632 Dordrecht Confession of Faith. For members, this practice promotes humility towards and care for others, resulting in a higher egalitarianism among members.

Baptist practice

Footwashing of Bro. Noah
The Friday Night Communion and Foot Washing Service at the Nolynn Association of Separate Baptist in Christ

Many Baptists observe the literal washing of feet as a third ordinance. The communion and foot washing service is practiced regularly by members of the Separate Baptists in Christ, General Association of Baptists, Free Will Baptists, Primitive Baptists, Union Baptists, Old Regular Baptist, Christian Baptist Church of God, and Brethren in Christ.[23] Feet washing is also practiced as a third ordinance by many Southern Baptists, General Baptists, and Independent Baptists.

Others

In the mid-1830s, Joseph Smith introduced the original temple rites of the Latter Day Saint movement in Kirtland, Ohio, which primarily involved foot washing, followed by speaking in tongues and visions.[24][25][26] This foot washing took place exclusively among men, and was based upon the Old and New Testament.[27] After Joseph Smith was initiated into the first three degrees of Freemasonry, this was adapted into the whole body "Endowment" ritual more similar to contemporary Mormon practice, which is nearly identical to Masonic temple rites, and does not specifically involve the feet.[24] In 1843, Smith included a foot washing element in the faith's second anointing ceremony in which elite married couples are anointed as heavenly monarchs and priests.[28]

The True Jesus Church includes footwashing[29] as a scriptural sacrament based on John 13:1–11. Like the other two sacraments, namely Baptism and the Lord's Supper, members of the church believe that footwashing imparts salvific grace to the recipient—in this case, to have a part with Christ (John 13:8).

Most Church of God denominations also include footwashing in their Passover ceremony as instructed by Jesus in John 13:1–11.

Most Seventh-day Adventist congregations schedule an opportunity for foot washing preceding each quarterly (four times a year) Communion service. As with their "open" Communion, all believers in attendance, not just members or pastors, are invited to share in the washing of feet with another: men with men, women with women, and frequently, spouse with spouse. This service is alternatively called the Ordinance of Foot-Washing or the Ordinance of Humility. Its primary purpose is to renew the cleansing that only comes from Christ, but secondarily to seek and celebrate reconciliation with another member before Communion/the Lord's Supper.[30]

Progressive Judaism

A number of Jewish rabbis who disagree with the initiation custom of brit milah, or circumcision of a male baby, instead have offered brit shalom, or a multi-part naming ceremony which eschews circumcision. One portion of the ritual, Brit rechitzah, involves the washing of the baby's feet.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Klink, E.W.; Arnold, C.E. (2017). John. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Zondervan. p. 877. ISBN 978-0-310-53764-9. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  2. ^ Possidius (28 March 2013). ""Mandatum novum do vobis": Maundy Thursday Sermon". Read the Fathers.
  3. ^ Piper, John (20 March 2008). "Thursday of the Commandment". Desiring God.
  4. ^ Dave Wilton (4 April 2015). "Maundy Thursday". WordOrigins.org.
  5. ^ a b c Peter C. Bower. The Companion to the Book of Common Worship. Geneva Press. Retrieved 11 April 2009. Maundy Thursday (or le mandé; Thursday of the Mandatum, Latin, commandment)
  6. ^ "Notes about Lent and Holy Week". Discipling Ministry. Frazier Park, California: Shepherd of the Mountains Lutheran Church. 3 December 2012.
  7. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Washing of Feet and Hands" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  8. ^ Tuker & Malleson 1897, p. 251.
  9. ^ Washing of the Feet on Holy Thursday. Catholic Online. 29 March 2006.
  10. ^ [1] NPR, 28 March 2013.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Logos, 28 March 2013.
  12. ^ Burke, Daniel (21 January 2016). "Pope Francis changes foot-washing rite to include women". CNN.
  13. ^ The Catholic Church puts one foot forward on the path to including women The Washington Post, 26 March 2016
  14. ^ E.J. King, The Rule Statutes and Customs of the Hospitallers 1099–1310 (London: Methuen, 1934), p. 39.
  15. ^ Smith, Joseph (1876). The book of Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Territory, Deseret News Office. p. 292.
  16. ^ Church of the Brethren. "Brethren practices". COB Website. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  17. ^ For All Who Minister: A Worship Manual for the Church of the Brethren. Elgin, IL: Brethren Press. 1993. pp. 183–226.
  18. ^ "The Neglected Practice of Foot-washing". The Anabaptist Network. 3 March 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  19. ^ Ramirez, Frank (4 July 2014). "Learning to wash feet is theme of Brethren Journal Association luncheon". Church of the Brethren Newsline. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  20. ^ "About Us". Mountain View Church of the Brethren. 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  21. ^ "Feetwashing in the Church of the Brethren". The Anabaptist Network. 3 March 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  22. ^ COB Youth Peace Travel Team 2012 (28 June 2012). "Youth Peace Travel Team goes to National Young Adult Conference 2012!". Church of the Brethren Blog. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  23. ^ Manual of Doctrine & Government of the Brethren in Christ Church (PDF). and Brethren in Christ Church.
  24. ^ a b Gruss, E.C.; Thuet, L.A. (2006). What Every Mormon (And Non-mormon) Should Know. XULON Press. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-60034-163-2. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  25. ^ Arrington, "Oliver Cowdery's Kirtland, Ohio, 'Sketch Book,'" BYU Studies, Summer 12 [1972]: 416–420; Cook and Backman, Kirtland Elders' Quorum Record, 1836–1841 pp. 1–9.
  26. ^ Buerger, David John (2002) [1994]. The Mysteries of Godliness: A History of Mormon Temple Worship (2nd ed.). Signature Books. ISBN 978-1-56085-176-9. OCLC 52076971.
  27. ^ Buerger, David John (2001). "The Development of the Mormon Temple Endowment Ceremony". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 34 (1/2): 78. ISSN 0012-2157.
  28. ^ Buerger 2002, p. 24–26.
  29. ^ "Foot Washing".
  30. ^ "Ordinance of Foot-Washing", Seventh-day Adventist Church Manual (PDF) (17th ed.). Hagerstown, MD: Secretariat, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. p. 82. ISBN 0-8280-1947-9.

References

  • Tuker, Mildred Anna Rosalie; Malleson, Hope (1897). The liturgy in Rome: Feasts and functions of the church. The ceremonies of Holy Week. Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome. Adam and Charles Black.
  • Historical and Informational
    • Appalachian Mountain Religion: a History, by Deborah Vansau McCauley (ISBN 0-252-06414-3)
    • Catholic Encyclopedia, Charles G. Herbermann, Edward A. Pace, Condé B. Pallen, Thomas J. Shahan, and John J. Wynne, editors
    • Eerdman's Handbook to the History of Christianity, Tim Dowley, et al., editors
    • Encyclopedia of Religion in the South, Samuel S. Hill, editor
    • Foxfire 7, Paul F. Gillespie, editor
    • Manners and Customs of Bible Lands, by Fred H. Wight
    • Mennonite Encyclopedia (Vol. 2), Cornelius J. Dyck, Dennis D. Martin, et al., editors
  • Historical and Theological (con)
    • Footwashing by the Master and by the Saints, by Elam J. Daniels
    • Manual of Church Order (ch. 6), by J. L. Dagg
  • Historical and Theological (pro)
    • The Washing of the Saints' Feet, by J. Matthew Pinson (Randall House, 2006, ISBN 0-89265-522-4)
    • A Free Will Baptist Handbook: Heritage, Beliefs, and Ministries, by J. Matthew Pinson
    • Baptist Doctrine: the Doctrine of Foot Washing, by R. L. Vaughn
    • Footwashing in John 13 and the Johannine Community, by John Christopher Thomas
    • Washing the Saints' Feet shown to be an Ordinance of Christ, by Joseph Sorsby

see also

External links

Abecedarian

Abecedarians were a 16th-century German sect of Anabaptists who rejected all human learning. Questions have been raised as to the historical accuracy of the name and sect.

Ablution in Christianity

Ablution, in religion, is a prescribed washing of part or all of the body of possessions, such as clothing or ceremonial objects, with the intent of purification or dedication. In Christianity, both baptism and footwashing are forms of ablution. In liturgical churches, ablution can refer to purifying fingers or vessels related to the Eucharist. In the New Testament, washing also occurs in reference to rites of Judaism part of the action of a healing by Jesus, the preparation of a body for burial,[Acts 9:37] the washing of nets by fishermen,[Lk. 5:2] a person's personal washing of the face to appear in public,[Matt. 6:17] the cleansing of an injured person's wounds,[Acts 16:33] Pontius Pilate's washing of his hands as a symbolic claim of innocence[Matt. 27:24] and foot washing,[Jn. 13:5-14] [1 Tim. 5:10] now partly a symbolic rite within the Church. According to the Gospel of Matthew, Pontius Pilate declared himself innocent of the blood of Jesus by washing his hands.[Matthew 27:24] This act of Pilate may not, however, have been borrowed from the custom of the Jews. The same practice was common among the Greeks and Romans.

According to Christian tradition, the Pharisees carried the practice of ablution to great excess.[Matt. 23:25] The Gospel of Mark refers to their ceremonial ablutions: "For the Pharisees…wash their hands 'oft'"[Mark 7:1-5] or, more accurately, "with the fist" (R.V., "diligently"); or, as Theophylact of Bulgaria explains it, "up to the elbow," referring to the actual word used in the Greek New Testament, πυγμή pygmē, which refers to the arm from the elbow to the tips of the fingers. In the Book of Acts, Paul and other men performed ablution before entering the Temple in Jerusalem: "Then Paul took the men, and the next day purifying himself with them entered into the temple, to signify the accomplishment of the days of purification, until that an offering should be offered for every one of them."[Acts 21:26]In the Old Testament, ablution was considered a prerequisite to approaching God, whether by means of sacrifice, prayer, or entering a holy place. The Bible has many rituals of purification relating to menstruation, childbirth, sexual relations, nocturnal emission, unusual bodily fluids, skin disease, death, and animal sacrifices. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church prescribes several kinds of hand washing for example after leaving the latrine, lavatory or bathhouse, or before prayer, or after eating a meal. The women in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church are prohibited from entering the church temple during menses; and the men do not enter a church the day after they have had intercourse with their wives.Christianity has always placed a strong emphasis on hygiene, Despite the denunciation of the mixed bathing style of Roman pools by early Christian clergy, as well as the pagan custom of women naked bathing in front of men, this did not stop the Church from urging its followers to go to public baths for bathing, which contributed to hygiene and good health according to the Church Father, Clement of Alexandria. The Church also built public bathing facilities that were separate for both sexes near monasteries and pilgrimage sites; also, the popes situated baths within church basilicas and monasteries since the early Middle Ages. Pope Gregory the Great urged his followers on value of bathing as a bodily need. Contrary to popular belief bathing and sanitation were not lost in Europe with the collapse of the Roman Empire. Soapmaking first became an established trade during the so-called "Dark Ages". The Romans used scented oils (mostly from Egypt), among other alternatives. By the mid-19th century, the English urbanised middle classes had formed an ideology of cleanliness that ranked alongside typical Victorian concepts, such as Christianity, respectability and social progress. The Salvation Army has adopted movement of the deployment of the personal hygiene, and by providing personal hygiene products.

Absolon Stumme

Absolon Stumme (died 1499) was a Late Gothic painter from Northern Germany who worked in Hamburg.

Absolon Stumme married into the Bornemann family of artists, becoming the second stepfather of Hinrik Bornemann, who died the same year as he did. After their deaths the Hamburg Cathedral altarpiece, upon which they had been working, was finished by Wilm Dedeke. It is debated by 20th-century art historians which of the two is recorded as the Master of the Hamburg cathedral altar. Both are also associated with the Master of the Lüneburg foot washing.

Apostolic Faith Mission Church of God

The Apostolic Faith Mission Church of God is a Pentecostal Christian denomination founded in 1906 by F. W. Williams. In 2005, there were 10,730 members in 18 congregations.Williams was a black man who went to Los Angeles to participate in the revival there. While in Los Angeles, he was baptized by William J. Seymour. He later returned to the South, and converted the members of a Primitive Baptist Church there. The members of the church gave Williams their building as the new meeting house for his church. In 1915, Williams adopted a nontrinitarian view and formally separate from Seymour's church, and renamed his new church.The church places an emphasis on faith healing. It also permits the ordination of women preachers and practices foot washing in its communion rite. It considers any baptism performed without the words "the Lord Jesus Christ" to be void. Alcohol, drugs, and tobacco are forbidden to its members. Members are also advised to only marry other persons who have been "saved".

Ausbund

The Ausbund (Paragon in German) is the oldest Anabaptist hymnal and one of the oldest Christian song books in continuous use. It is used today by North American Amish congregations.

Brethren in Christ Church

The Brethren in Christ Church (BIC) is an Anabaptist Christian denomination with roots in the Mennonite church, Radical Pietism, and Wesleyan holiness. They have also been known as River Brethren and River Mennonites.

Dordrecht Confession of Faith

The Dordrecht Confession of Faith is a statement of religious beliefs adopted by Dutch Mennonite leaders at a meeting in Dordrecht, the Netherlands, on 21 April 1632. Its 18 articles emphasize belief in salvation through Jesus Christ, baptism, nonviolence (non-resistance), withdrawing from, or shunning those who are excommunicated from the Church, feet washing ("a washing of the saints' feet"), and avoidance of taking oaths.

It was an influential part of the Radical Reformation and remains an important religious document to many modern Anabaptist groups such as the Amish. In 1725, Jacob Gottschalk, a Mennonite bishop, met with sixteen other ministers from southeastern Pennsylvania and adopted the Confession. They also wrote the following endorsement, which Gottschalk was the first to sign:

We the hereunder written Servants of the Word of God, and Elders in the Congregation of the People, called Mennonists, in the Province of Pennsylvania, do acknowledge, and herewith make known, that we do own the foregoing Confession, Appendix, and Menno's Excusation, to be according to our Opinion; and also, have took the same to be wholly ours. In Testimony whereof, and that we believe that same to be good, we have here unto Subscribed our Names.

Horseshoe Bay, Bermuda

Horseshoe Bay is a well-known beach in Bermuda. As a tourist spot, it lies on the main island's south (Atlantic Ocean) coast, in the parish of Southampton. It is one of two beaches of the same name in Bermuda, with the other located at Tucker's Island: since the 1940s part of a peninsula that housed the former US Naval Operating Base, and is now called Morgan's Point.

The sand of Horseshoe Bay's beach is very fine and displays a white colour. The beach is equipped with one lifeguard station which is manned during the summer between 10 AM and 6 PM. There is also a café where lunch can be purchased during the summer months. The same building also provides toilet facilities, showers and a foot-washing area for removing sand before departing. A shuttle bus is available from 11 am to 6 pm to transport beach-goers between the beach and the nearest bus stop, carrying passengers down the hill for $1 each, and up for $2. The Government provides a special bus service for tourists at the top of the hill that leaves about every 15 minutes. This service is operates from about 12 to 6 pm. If you miss the last special bus the regular buses run about every 45 minutes until about 10 pm.

A beach volleyball competition takes place once a week in the summer months, and is a regular activity for both tourists and locals alike. Horseshoe Bay is also the usual location for a New Years party organised by those members of the significant expat population who have opted not to go overseas for the season. The Bermuda Good Friday KiteFest is a great family event that takes place annually on Good Friday at Horseshoe Bay. The largest annual event in Bermuda also takes place at Horseshoe Bay on Emancipation Day (usually the last Wednesday night & Thursday in July or the first Wednesday night & Thursday in August) called The Bermuda Beachfest Emancipation Celebration. Beachfest (as it is known) is an action packed 2 day event full of live entertainment, beach sports, cultural traditions, activities and more, and attracts the largest cross-section of locals and visitors on the island.

Part of an army base, Warwick Camp, the area is still used for training by the Bermuda Regiment, especially in the winter months. The headland separating the western end from East Whale Bay holds the remains of fortifications that housed a coastal artillery battery, with another on the high ground behind. Horseshoe Bay itself lies in the danger area behind the butts of the rifle range of 800 yd (730 m), and the western end of the beach is littered with bullets fired from Enfield, Snider–Enfield, Martini–Henry, Lee–Metford, and Lee–Enfield rifles and other weapons of similar calibres. However, this range is no longer used due to the limited range of the 5.56mm NATO rifle cartridge, which has been used for the last three decades.

International Pentecostal Church of Christ

The International Pentecostal Church of Christ (or IPCC) is a Pentecostal denomination formed in 1976 by the merger of two Pentecostal organizations.

In 1907, Gaston B. Cashwell, called the Apostle of Pentecost in the South, founded a periodical called The Bridegroom's Messenger, in Atlanta, Georgia. About the same time, Paul and Hattie Barth started a church. The Barths became editors of The Bridegroom's Messenger. In 1918, they began Beulah Heights Bible School in Atlanta, and in 1921 they organized an association that became the International Pentecostal Assemblies.

John Stroup, a member of the Methodist Protestant Church, professed receiving the baptism of the Holy Ghost in 1908. Stroup was one of the first individuals to take the Pentecostal message into southern Ohio and parts of Kentucky. He organized the Pentecostal Church of Christ in Flatwoods, Kentucky in 1917. The body originally headquartered in Ashland, Kentucky, and later in London, Ohio.

In 1976, the International Pentecostal Assemblies and the Pentecostal Church of Christ merged to become the International Pentecostal Church of Christ. Headquarters are located in London, Ohio. The church operates two youth camps, and six departments - Education, Global Missions, Home Missions and Evangelism, Christian Education, National Youth, and Women's Ministries. Publications of the church are The Bridegroom's Messenger (considered the oldest Pentecostal periodical in the world) and The Pentecostal Leader, a training magazine.

Doctrines are detailed in a 19-article Statement of Faith ranging from the inspiration of the Scriptures to tithes and offerings. The IPCC is one of the only Pentecostal and Evangelical denominations to elevate the issue of racism to their statement of faith. The church holds two ordinances - water baptism by immersion, and holy communion. The denomination has two practices that are encouraged within the local church - foot washing, and child dedication. The body is Trinitarian, and, like many related bodies, holds that speaking in tongues is the initial evidence of the baptism of the Holy Ghost.

Its affiliations are with the Pentecostal/Charismatic Churches of North America, Pentecostal World Conference, a charter member of the National Association of Evangelicals, and the World Evangelical Fellowship.

In 2003, the denomination had 4,961 members in 67 churches. Nearly half of its congregations are located in Ohio. The rest are concentrated primarily in Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina.

Jakob Ammann

Jakob Ammann (also Jacob Amman, Amann; 12 February 1644 – between 1712 and 1730) was an Anabaptist leader and namesake of the Amish religious movement.

Maundy

Maundy may refer to:

Maundy Thursday – a Christian holiday commemorating the Last Supper

Foot washing - the liturgical foot washing ceremonies which occurs on Maundy Thursday

Maundy money – dispensed at the Maundy ceremony by the British Monarch

Nonconformity to the world

Nonconformity to the world, also called separation from the world, is a Christian doctrine based on Romans 12:2, 2. Corinthians 6:17 and other verses of the New Testament that became important among different Protestant groups, especially among Anabaptist. The corresponding German word used by Anabaptists is Absonderung. Nonconformity is primarily expressed through the practices of plain dress and simple living.

Ordinance (Latter Day Saints)

In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term ordinance is used to refer to sacred rites and ceremonies that have spiritual and symbolic meanings and act as a means of conveying divine grace. Ordinances are physical acts which signify or symbolize an underlying spiritual act; for some ordinances, the spiritual act is the finalization of a covenant between the ordinance recipient and God.

Ordinances are always performed by the authority of the LDS priesthood and in the name of Jesus Christ. The use of the term "ordinance" in LDS parlance is distinct from the use of the term in other branches of Christian tradition, where "ordinance (Christian)" is often used to imply that the act is merely symbolic and does not convey grace. LDS use of the term "ordinance" carries the same meaning as the term "sacrament" as used by other Christian denominations. Community of Christ-derived denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement also tend to refer to "sacraments" rather than "ordinances".

Some ordinances, such as baptism, confirmation and the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, are similar to those practiced by other Christian denominations. Other Latter Day Saint ordinances are unique and usually performed within a Latter Day Saint temple. These ordinances include the endowment and sealings.

Primitive Baptists

Primitive Baptists – also known as Hard Shell Baptists or Old School Baptists – are conservative Baptists adhering to a degree of Calvinist beliefs that coalesced out of the controversy among Baptists in the early 19th century over the appropriateness of mission boards, tract societies, and temperance societies. The adjective "primitive" in the name is used in the sense of "original".

Regular Baptists

Regular Baptists members "of a moderately Calvinistic Baptist sect that is found chiefly in the southern U.S., represents the original English Baptists before the division into Particular and General Baptists, and observes closed communion and foot washing", according to Merriam Webster.The Baptist Bulletin of the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches defines them simply as groups who believe "orthodox, Baptist doctrine" and "affirm the rule or measure of the Scripture." As compared to General Baptists or Free Baptists, Regular Baptists were strict in their beliefs, and therefore also called Strict Baptists.

River Brethren

The River Brethren is a name used to indicate certain Christian groups originating in 1770, during the Radical Pietist movement among German colonizers in Pennsylvania.

In the 17th century, Mennonite refugees from Switzerland had settled their homes near the Susquehanna River in the northeastern U.S.

Their religious guides, Jacob and John Engle, joined with the revival, and their followers were often known by their locality: a group of brethren from north of Marietta, Pennsylvania on the east side of the Susquehanna River came to be known as the River Brethren. Perhaps they were baptized in the Susquehanna.

The initial spiritual leader of the brethren was Martin Boehm, evangelical preacher, who was excluded from the Mennonite Church. He later became bishop of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ.

The River Brethren distanced themselves from Boehm and the United Brethren movement.

Influenced by the Schwarzenau Brethren (named Dunkers), the River Brethren developed a conviction that trine (triple, in allusion to the Trinity) immersion, foot washing, adherence to plain dress, was the scriptural form of religion. They opposed war, alcohol, tobacco, and worldly pleasures.

Nevertheless, they maintained their identity and did not join the Dunker movement. Jacob Engle is one of the early leaders who promoted trine immersion. The first confessional statement of this group was formulated around 1780.

As of 2010 there are four bodies of River Brethren in about 300 congregations:

Brethren in Christ Church

Calvary Holiness Church

Old Order River Brethren (also called Yorker Brethren)

United Zion ChurchCommon to the Radical Piestic tradition, the River Brethren hold experience meetings, in which "members [are seen] testifying of God's work in their lives in bringing them to salvation and daily living." When a member has a conversion experience, he or she begins taking part in the experience meeting and then requests baptism.Several factions of the River Brethren withdrew in the middle of the 19th century, including the Yorker Brethren and the United Zion Church, while the main body took the name Brethren in Christ, by which a group of Mennonites is also known.

There were about 11,000 members in the United States and Canada in 1992. They carry out missionary work in Asia and Africa.

Schwenkfelder Church

The Schwenkfelder Church (listen ) is a small American Christian body rooted in the 16th-century Protestant Reformation teachings of Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (1489–1561).

Swiss Brethren

The Swiss Brethren are a branch of Anabaptism that started in Zürich, spread to nearby cities and towns, and then was exported to neighboring countries. Today's Swiss Mennonite Conference can be traced to the Swiss Brethren.

In 1525, Felix Manz, Conrad Grebel, George Blaurock and other radical evangelical reformers broke from Ulrich Zwingli and formed a new group because they felt reforms were not moving fast enough.Rejection of infant baptism was a distinguishing belief of the Swiss Brethren. On the basis of Sola scriptura doctrine, the Swiss Brethren declared that since the Bible does not mention infant baptism, it should not be practiced by the church. This belief was subsequently refuted by Ulrich Zwingli. Consequently, there was a public dispute, in which the council affirmed Zwingli's position. This solidified the Swiss Brethren and resulted in their persecution by all other reformers as well as the Catholic Church.

Because of persecution by the authorities, many Swiss Brethren moved from Switzerland to neighboring countries. The Swiss Brethren became known as Mennonites after the division of 1693, a disagreement between groups led by Jacob Amman and Hans Reist. Many of the Mennonites in France, Southern Germany, the Netherlands and North America, as well as most Amish descend from the Swiss Brethren.

Ubi caritas

Ubi caritas is a hymn of the Western Church, long used as one of the antiphons for the washing of feet on Maundy Thursday. The Gregorian melody was composed sometime between the fourth and tenth centuries, though some scholars believe the text dates from early Christian gatherings before the formalization of the Mass. It is usually sung at Eucharistic Adoration and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and on Holy Thursday evening at the Mass of the Lord's Supper. The current Roman Catholic Missal (1970, 3rd typical edition 2000) reassigned it from the foot-washing mandatum to the offertory procession at the Holy Thursday Mass of the Lord's Supper, and it also is found in current Anglican and Lutheran hymnals.

In the second typical edition (1975) of the current Roman Missal, the antiphonal response was altered to read "Ubi caritas est vera, Deus ibi est," after certain very early manuscripts. This translates as: "Where charity is true, God is there."

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