Foot (unit)

The foot (pl. feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: , the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement. Since 1959, both units have been defined by international agreement as equivalent to 0.3048 meters exactly. In both systems, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard.

Historically the "foot" was a part of many local systems of units, including the Greek, Roman, Chinese, French, and English systems. It varied in length from country to country, from city to city, and sometimes from trade to trade. Its length was usually between 250 mm and 335 mm and was generally, but not always, subdivided into 12 inches or 16 digits.

The United States is the only industrialized nation that uses the international foot and the survey foot (a customary unit of length) in preference to the meter in its commercial, engineering, and standards activities.[1] The foot is legally recognized in the United Kingdom; road signs must use imperial units (however distances on road signs are always marked in miles or yards, not feet), while its usage is widespread among the British public as a measurement of height.[2][3] The foot is recognized as an alternative expression of length in Canada[4] officially defined as a unit derived from the meter[5] although both the U.K. and Canada have partially metricated their units of measurement. The measurement of altitude in international aviation is one of the few areas where the foot is used outside the English-speaking world.

The length of the international foot corresponds to a human foot with shoe size of 13 (UK), 14 (US male), 15.5 (US female) or 46 (EU sizing).

foot
Unit systemimperial/US units
Unit oflength
Symbolft 
Conversions
1 ft in ...... is equal to ...
   imperial/US units   1/3 yd
 12 in
   metric (SI) units   0.3048 m

Historical origin

Determination of the rute and the feet in Frankfurt
Determination of the rod, using the length of the left foot of 16 randomly chosen people coming from church service. Woodcut published in the book Geometrei by Jakob Köbel (Frankfurt, c. 1535).

Historically the human body has been used to provide the basis for units of length.[6] The foot of a white male is typically about 15.3% of his height,[7] giving a person of 160 centimetres (5 ft 3 in) a foot of 245 millimetres (9.6 in) and one of 180 centimetres (5 ft 11 in) a foot of 275 millimetres (10.8 in).

Archeologists believe that the Egyptians, Ancient Indians and Mesopotamians preferred the cubit while the Romans and the Greeks preferred the foot. Under the Harappan linear measures, Indus cities during the Bronze Age used a foot of 13.2 inches (340 mm) and a cubit of 20.8 inches (530 mm).[8] The Egyptian equivalent of the foot—a measure of four palms or 16 digits—was known as the djeser and has been reconstructed as about 30 cm (12 in).

The Greek foot (πούς, pous) had a length of ​1600 of a stadion,[9] one stadion being about 181.2 m,[10] therefore a foot being at the time about 302 mm. Its exact size varied from city to city and could range as much as between 270 mm and 350 mm, but lengths used for temple construction appear to have been about 295 mm to 325 mm, the former being close to the size of the Roman foot.

The standard Roman foot (pes) was normally about 295.7 mm (97% of today's measurement), but in the provinces, the pes Drusianus (foot of Nero Claudius Drusus) was used, with a length of about 334 mm. (In reality, this foot predated Drusus.)[11]

Originally both the Greeks and the Romans subdivided the foot into 16 digits, but in later years, the Romans also subdivided the foot into 12 unciae (from which both the English words "inch" and "ounce" are derived).

After the fall of the Roman Empire, some Roman traditions were continued but others fell into disuse. In AD 790 Charlemagne attempted to reform the units of measure in his domains. His units of length were based on the toise and in particular the toise de l'Écritoire, the distance between the fingertips of the outstretched arms of a man.[12] The toise has 6 pieds (feet) each of 326.6 mm (12.86 in).

He was unsuccessful in introducing a standard unit of length throughout his realm: an analysis of the measurements of Charlieu Abbey shows that during the 9th century the Roman foot of 296.1 mm was used; when it was rebuilt in the 10th century, a foot of about 320 mm[Note 1] was used. At the same time, monastic buildings used the Carolingian foot of 340 mm.[Note 1][13]

The procedure for verification of the foot as described in the 16th century posthumously published work by Jacob Koebel in his book Geometrei. Von künstlichem Feldmessen und absehen is:[14][15]

Stand at the door of a church on a Sunday and bid 16 men to stop, tall ones and small ones, as they happen to pass out when the service is finished; then make them put their left feet one behind the other, and the length thus obtained shall be a right and lawful rood to measure and survey the land with, and the 16th part of it shall be the right and lawful foot.

England

Imperial measurement standards, Greenwich
The unofficial public imperial measurement standards erected at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich in the 19th century

The Neolithic long foot, first proposed by archeologists Mike Parker Pearson and Andrew Chamberlain, is based upon calculations from surveys of Phase 1 elements at Stonehenge. They found that the underlying diameters of the stone circles had been consistently laid out using multiples of a base unit amounting to 30 long feet, which they calculated to be 1.056 of a modern foot (0.3219m). Furthermore, this unit is identifiable in the dimensions of some stone lintels at the site and in the diameter of the "southern circle" at nearby Durrington Walls. Evidence that this unit was in widespread use across southern Britain is available from the Folkton Drums from Yorkshire (neolithic artifacts, made from chalk, with circumferences that exactly divide as integers into ten long feet) and a similar object excavated at Lavant, Sussex, again with a circumference divisible as a whole number into ten long feet.[16]

The measures of Iron Age Britain are uncertain and proposed reconstructions such as the Megalithic Yard are controversial. Later Welsh legend credited Dyfnwal Moelmud with the establishment of their units, including a foot of 9 inches. The Belgic or North German foot of 335 mm (13.2 inches) was introduced to England either by the Belgic Celts during their invasions prior to the Romans or by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th and 6th century.

Roman units were introduced following their invasion in AD 43. The Roman foot had been previously standardized by Agrippa at around 296 mm or 11.65 inches. Following the Roman withdrawal and Saxon invasions, the Roman foot continued to be used in the construction crafts while the Belgic foot was used for land measurement. Both the Welsh and Belgic feet seem to have been based on multiples of the barleycorn, but by as early as 950 the English kings seem to have (ineffectually) ordered measures to be based upon an iron yardstick at Winchester and then London. Henry I was said to have ordered a new standard to be based upon his own arm and, by the c. 1300 Act concerning the Composition of Yards and Perches[17] traditionally credited to Edward I or II, the statute foot was a different measure exactly ​1011 of the old foot. The barleycorn, inch, ell, and yard were likewise shrunk, while rods and furlongs remained the same.[18] The ambiguity over the state of the mile was resolved by the 1593 Act against Converting of Great Houses into Several Tenements and for Restraint of Inmates and Inclosures in and near about the City of London and Westminster, which codified the statute mile as comprising 5,280 feet. The differences among the various physical standard yards around the world, revealed by increasingly powerful microscopes, eventually led to the 1959 adoption of the international foot defined in terms of the meter.

Definition

International foot

The international yard and pound agreement of July 1959 defined the length of the international yard in the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations as exactly 0.9144 meters. Consequently, the international foot is defined to be equal to exactly 0.3048 meters. This was 2 ppm shorter than the previous U.S. definition and 1.7 ppm longer than the previous British definition.[19]

The international standard symbol for a foot is "ft" (see ISO 31-1, Annex A). In some cases, the foot is denoted by a prime, which is often marked by an apostrophe, and the inch by a double prime; for example, 2 feet 4 inches is sometimes denoted as 2′−4″, 2′ 4″ or 2′4″. (See 'minute' for another case where prime and double prime symbols are used to denote first and second cuts in refining measurement.)

Pre-1959

In the United States, the foot was defined as 12 inches, with the inch being defined by the Mendenhall Order of 1893 by 39.37 inches = 1 m. In Imperial units, the foot was defined as ​13 yard, with the yard being realized as a physical standard (separate from the standard meter).

The yard standards of the different Commonwealth countries were periodically compared with one another.[20] The value of the United Kingdom primary standard of the yard was determined in terms of the meter by the National Physical Laboratory in 1964 as 0.9143969 m,[21] implying a pre-1959 foot in the UK of approximately 0.304798966667 m.

Survey foot

When the international foot was defined in 1959, a great deal of survey data was already available based on the former definitions, especially in the United States and in India. The small difference between the survey and the international foot would not be detectable on a survey of a small parcel, but becomes significant for mapping, or when the state plane coordinate system (SPCS) is used in the US, because the origin of the system may be hundreds of thousands of feet (hundreds of miles) from the point of interest. Hence the previous definitions continued to be used for surveying in the United States and India for many years, and are denoted survey feet to distinguish them from the international foot. The United Kingdom was unaffected by this problem, as the retriangulation of Great Britain (1936–62) had been done in meters.

US survey foot

The United States survey foot is defined as exactly ​12003937 meters, approximately 0.304800609601 m.[22] Out of the 50 states, 24 have legislated that surveying measures should be based on the U.S. survey foot, eight have legislated that they be made on the basis of the international foot, and 18 have not specified the conversion factor from metric units.[23]

In 1986 the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) released the North American Datum of 1983, which underlies the state plane coordinate systems and is entirely defined in meters. An NGS policy from 1991 has this to say about the units used with the new datum to define the SPCS 83:

In preparation for the adjustment of the North American Datum of 1983, 31 states enacted legislation for the State Plane Coordinate System of 1983 (SPCS 83). All states defined SPCS 83 with metric parameters. Within the legislation, the U.S. Survey Foot was specified in 11 states and the International Foot was specified in 6 states. In all other states the meter is the only referenced unit of measure in the SPCS 83 legislation. The remaining 19 states do not yet have any legislation concerning SPCS 83.[24]

Since then, 42 states have abandoned the non-metric versions of SPCS 83: seven states continue to keep location data in survey feet as well as in meters, while one state keeps data in international feet as well as in meters.[23] State legislation is also important for determining the conversion factor to be used for everyday land surveying and real estate transactions, although the difference (2 ppm) is of no practical significance given the precision of normal surveying measurements over short distances (usually much less than a mile).

Indian survey foot

The Indian survey foot is defined as exactly 0.3047996 m,[25] presumably derived from a measurement of the previous Indian standard of the yard. The current National Topographic Database of the Survey of India is based on the metric WGS-84 datum,[26] which is also used by the Global Positioning System.

Historical use

Fußmaße1
Page from Austrian Lehrbuch des gesammten Rechnens für die vierte Classe der Hauptschulen in den k.k. Staaten – 1848[27]

Metric foot

An ISO 2848 measure of 3 basic modules (30 cm) is called a "metric foot", but there were earlier distinct definitions of a metric foot during metrication in France and Germany.

France

In 1799 the meter became the official unit of length in France. This was not fully enforced, and in 1812 Napoleon introduced the system of mesures usuelles which restored the traditional French measurements in the retail trade, but redefined them in terms of metric units. The foot, or pied métrique, was defined as one third of a meter. This unit continued in use until 1837.[28]

Germany

In southwestern Germany in 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was founded and three different reformed feet were defined, all of which were based on the metric system:[29]

  • In Hesse, the Fuß (foot) was redefined as 25 cm.
  • In Baden, the Fuß was redefined as 30 cm.
  • In the Palatinate, the Fuß was redefined as being ​33 13 cm (as in France).

Other obsolete feet

Prior to the introduction of the metric system, many European cities and countries used the foot, but it varied considerably in length: the voet in Ieper, Belgium, was 273.8 millimetres (10.78 in) while the piede in Venice was 347.73 millimetres (13.690 in). Lists of conversion factors between the various units of measure were given in many European reference works including:

Many of these standards were peculiar to a particular city, especially in Germany (which, before German Unification in 1871, consisted of many kingdoms, principalities, free cities and so on). In many cases the length of the unit was not uniquely fixed: for example, the English foot was stated as 11 pouces 2.6 lignes (French inches and lines) by Picard, 11 pouces 3.11 lignes by Maskelyne and 11 pouces 3 lignes by D'Alembert.[37]

Most of the various feet in this list ceased to be used when the countries adopted the metric system. The Netherlands and modern Belgium adopted the metric system in 1817, having used the mesures usuelles under Napoleon[38] and the newly formed German Empire adopted the metric system in 1871.[39]

The palm (typically 200 mm to 280 mm) was used in many Mediterranean cities instead of the foot. Horace Doursther, whose reference was published in Belgium which had the smallest foot measurements, grouped both units together, while J.F.G. Palaiseau devoted three chapters to units of length: one for linear measures (palms and feet), one for cloth measures (ells) and one for distances traveled (miles and leagues). In the table below, arbitrary cut-off points of 270 mm and 350 mm have been chosen.

Location Modern Country Local name Metric
equivalent
(mm)
Comments
Vienna Austria Wiener Fuß 316.102[36][40]
Tyrol Austria Fuß 334.12[29]
Ieper/Ypres Belgium voet 273.8[41]
Bruges/Brugge Belgium voet 274.3[41]
Brussels Belgium voet 275.75[41]
Hainaut Belgium pied 293.39[33]
Liège Belgium pied 294.70[33]
Kortrijk Belgium voet 297.6[41]
Aalst Belgium voet 277.2[41]
Mechelen Belgium voet 278.0[41]
Leuven Belgium voet 285.5[41]
Tournai Belgium pied 297.77[33]
Antwerp Belgium voet 286.8[41]
China China tradesman's foot 338.3[42]
China China mathematician's foot 333.2[42]
China China builder's foot 322.8[42]
China China surveyor's foot 319.5[42]
Moravia Czech Republic stopa 295.95[29]
Prague Czech Republic stopa 296.4[35] (1851) Bohemian foot or shoe
301.7[30] (1759) Quoted as "11 pouces1 34 lignes"[Notes 1]
Denmark Denmark Fod 313.85[36] Until 1835, thereafter the Prussian foot
330.5[30] (1759) Quoted as "​2 12 lignes larger than the pied [of Paris]"[Notes 1]
France France pied du roi 324.84[43] [Notes 2]
Angoulême France pied d'Angoulême 347.008[44]
Bordeaux (urban) France pied de ville de Bordeaux 343.606[44]
Bordeaux (rural) France pied de terre de Bordeaux 357.214[44]
Strasbourg France pied de Strasbourg 294.95[44]
Württemberg Germany Fuß 286.49[29]
Hanover Germany Fuß 292.10[29]
Augsburg Germany Römischer Fuß 296.17[34]
Nuremberg Germany Fuß 303.75[34]
Meiningen-Hildburghausen Germany Fuß 303.95[29]
Oldenburg Germany Römischer Fuß 296.41[29]
Weimar Germany Fuß 281.98[29]
Lübeck Germany Fuß 287.62[36]
Aschaffenburg Germany Fuß 287.5[33]
Darmstadt Germany Fuß 287.6[33] Until 1818, thereafter the Hessen "metric foot"
Bremen Germany Fuß 289.35[36]
Rhineland Germany Fuß 313.7[42]
Berlin Germany Fuß 309.6[42]
Hamburg Germany Fuß 286.8[42]
Bavaria Germany Fuß 291.86[29]
Aachen Germany Fuß 282.1[34]
Leipzig Germany Fuß 282.67[29]
Dresden Germany Fuß 283.11[29]
Saxony Germany Fuß 283.19[36]
Prussia Germany, Poland, Russia etc. Rheinfuß 313.85[36]
Frankfurt am Main Germany Fuß 284.61[29]
Venice & Lombardy Italy 347.73[29]
Turin Italy 323.1[42]
Rome Italy piede romano 297.896[44]
Malta Malta 283.7[42]
Utrecht Netherlands voet 272.8[42]
Amsterdam Netherlands voet 283.133[32] Divided into 11 duimen (inches)
Honsbossche en Rijpse Netherlands voet 285.0[32]
’s Hertogenbosch Netherlands voet 287.0[32]
Gelderland Netherlands voet 292.0[32]
Bloois (Zeeland) Netherlands voet 301.0[32]
Schouw Netherlands voet 311.0[32]
Rotterdam Netherlands voet 312.43[33]
Rijnland Netherlands voet 314.858[32]
Norway Norway fot 313.75[45] (1824–1835)[Notes 3] Thereafter as for Sweden
Warsaw Poland stopa 297.8[46] until 1819
288.0[33] (From 1819) Polish stopa
Lisbon Portugal 330.0[34] (From 1835)[Notes 4]
Riga Latvia pēda 274.1[42]
South Africa South Africa Cape foot 314.858[47] Originally equal to the Rijnland foot; redefined as 1.033 English feet in 1859.
Burgos and Castile Spain Pie de Burgos/
Castellano
278.6[30] (1759) Quoted as "122.43 lignes"[Notes 1]
Toledo Spain Pie 279.0[30] (1759) Quoted as "10 pouces 3.7 lignes"[Notes 1]
Sweden Sweden fot 296.9[36] = 12 tum (inches). The Swedish fot was also used in Finland ("jalka").
Zürich Switzerland 300.0[42]
Galicia Ukraine, Poland stopa galicyjska 296.96[33] Part of Austria before World War I
Scotland United Kingdom fuit, fit, troigh 305.287[48] [Notes 5]

(In Belgium, the words pied (French) and voet (Dutch) would have been used interchangeably.)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d The source document used pre-metric French units (pied, pouce and lignes)
  2. ^ The original meter was computed using pre-metric French Units
  3. ^ The Norwegian fot was defined in 1824 as the length of a (theoretical) pendulum that would have a period of ​1238 seconds at 45° from the equator
  4. ^ Prior to 1835, the pé or foot was not used in Portugal – instead a palm was used. In 1835 the size of the palm was increased from 217.37 mm (according to Palaiseau) to 220 mm
  5. ^ The Scots foot ceased to be legal after the Act of Union in 1707

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The original reference was given in a round number of centimeters

References

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  48. ^ "Scottish Weights and Measures: Distance and Area". Scottish Archive Network. Archived from the original on August 14, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
Belgae

The Belgae () were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by Julius Caesar in his account of his wars in Gaul. Some peoples in Britain were also called Belgae and O'Rahilly equated them with the Fir Bolg in Ireland. The Belgae gave their name to the Roman province of Gallia Belgica and, much later, to the modern country of Belgium; today "Belgae" is also Latin for "Belgians".

Bullock's

Bullock's was a department store chain, headquartered in Los Angeles, California. The company operated full-line department stores in California, Arizona and Nevada. Bullock's also operated the more upscale Bullocks Wilshire in some parts of Southern California.

Burmese language

The Burmese language (Burmese: မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA: [mjəmà bàðà]) is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal ethnic group. Although the Constitution of Myanmar officially recognizes the English name of the language as the Myanmar language, most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese, after Burma, the older name for Myanmar. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 33 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar and neighboring countries.

Burmese is a tonal, pitch-register, and syllable-timed language, largely monosyllabic and analytic, with a subject–object–verb word order. It is a member of the Lolo-Burmese grouping of the Sino-Tibetan language family. The Burmese alphabet is ultimately descended from a Brahmic script, either Kadamba or Pallava.

Chek

Chek or CHEK may refer to:

Chek (brand), soft drink brand of Winn-Dixie

Chek (unit), a traditional Chinese unit of length

CHEK-DT, a TV station in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

chek, the Hong Kong English spelling of "尺", the Hong Kong foot unit of measure, see Shaku

Chek, Kyrgyzstan

Quick Chek, a chain of convenience stores based in New Jersey

Sport Chek, Canadian retailer of sports clothing and equipment

Corps of Guides

Corps of Guides may refer to:

Corps of Guides (India) - a unit raised in 1846 in Peshawar by Lt. Harry Lumsden

Guides Cavalry, a Pakistani armoured unit descended from the British Empire unit

Guides Infantry, a Pakistani foot unit descended from the British Empire unit

Corps of Guides (Canada)

Corps of Mounted Guides (Portugal)

Heritage Mall

Heritage Mall is a shopping center in Albany in the U.S. state of Oregon. Anchored by Target, the 406,500-square-foot (37,770 m2) mall opened in 1988. Located near the junction of Interstate 5 and U.S. Route 20, the mall sits on 33 acres (13 ha) and is the largest in the Albany-Corvallis-Lebanon metropolitan area.

List of shopping malls in Oregon

This is an incomplete list of currently existing shopping centers and malls in the U.S. state of Oregon.

Martineau Place

Martineau Place is a shopping centre located in the city centre of Birmingham, England. It contains a mixture of shops and restaurants, with the emphasis on food and drink which is located on the roofs of the shops. Retailers include Sainsbury's, Deichmann, Boots, Argos and Poundland, the upper levels of the centre include a 168-room hotel.

It is located on land bounded by High Street, Union Street, Bull Street and Corporation Street, with primary retail frontages on all these streets. It is directly opposite the House of Fraser department store, formerly known as Rackhams.

The Martineau Way pedestrian route runs through the centre of Martineau Place, and includes further retail frontages. This also connects the Centre to main thoroughfare New Street (via Union Passage) and to the separate Priory Square shopping centre (via Dalton Way).

Moreno Valley Mall

The Moreno Valley Mall at Towngate is a shopping mall located on the former site of the Riverside International Raceway in Moreno Valley, California.Developed by Homart Development Company, the initial anchor stores in 1992 were Sears, J.C. Penney's, May Company California, and Harris Department Stores and had 140 specialty stores.In the early years competition for tenants divided prospects between competing developers. In September 1996 the City confirmed that lower than anticipated revenues would result in a shortfall estimated to extend the payback period of the $13 million infrastructure loan to an estimated 2026 with the loan peaking at $19.5 million. Also, the mall was then valued at $66 million, far less than its original valuation of $107 million.Moreno Valley Mall directly contracts with the local Police Service as well as private security firm for security services.In 2015, Sears Holdings spun off 235 of its properties, including the Sears at Moreno Valley Mall, into Sertiage Growth Properties.Los Angeles Investor International Growth Properties (IGP) completed its purchase of the Moreno Valley Mall in November 2017.

The Los Angeles investor was tops among more than 10 investors that competed at an online auction hosted on the RealInsight sales platform. It won the auction with an offer of $60.25 million and had to pony up another 5% as a buyer's premium, bringing its total purchase price to $63 million.

One Foot

One Foot or one foot may refer to:

a single Foot (unit)

Unipedalism, the condition of having only leg or one foot.

"One Foot", any variation of a snowboarding trick done with one foot removed from the binding

"One Foot", a variation of an ollie (skateboarding) trick

"One Foot" (Walk the Moon song), by American rock band Walk the Moon from their 2017 album, What If Nothing

"One Foot", by American band Fun on their 2012 album, Some Nights

One Queensridge Place

One Queensridge Place is the name given to two residential skyscrapers located on the west side of the Las Vegas Valley in the highly affluent Queensridge neighborhood of Summerlin, Nevada. Construction began in 2005 and concluded in 2007. The buildings are twins, measuring approximately 233.5 feet (71.2 m) high. Each tower has 20 constructed floors with curtain wall facades and distinctive architecture. The resulting large windows allow for views of the Las Vegas Strip and the Red Rock Mountains.

Pile–Pontoon Railroad Bridge

The Pile–Pontoon Railroad Bridge was a floating bridge which crossed the Mississippi River in northern Iowa.

From 1857 Marquette, Iowa became a major hub on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway, as grain from throughout Iowa and Minnesota was sent through the city en route to Lake Michigan. A permanent bridge between Marquette and Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin was thought impractical, in part due to substantial river traffic which would have required clear spans high above the water.

Goods were initially transported by boat across the river, which required unloading and reloading of railroad cars. In the late 1860’s, the Milwaukee Road’s agent John Lawler conceived a ferry crossing, using barges with rail tracks on their decks. Because there are two channels separated by an island, each channel required a barge which was pulled across by cables, and a small rail yard crossing the island connecting the two ferries. This allowed transshipment of railroad cars without unloading, but was still less than efficient.

A better solution was found by Michael Spettel and Lawler, who patented a permanent pontoon bridge system to span the river in 1874. This comprised piled trestles built out into the river, and two pontoons: A 210-foot unit on the east channel, and a 227-foot unit on the west. Each pontoon was hinged at one end to allow it to float open, and was pulled closed by a steam-powered cable. As well as allowing for river traffic, this allowed end-of-winter ice flows to pass down the river without risk of damaging the structure.

The pontoons were built with a timber-framed deck which could be raised or lowered by as much as 18 feet to allow for changes in the river level, which can vary by as much as 22-1/2 feet (at extreme high water, the bridge could not be used). Adjusting and supporting the deck with timber blocks was a laborious process requiring much manual work. At each end, a short, ramped length of steel span was provided, carrying the track onto the adjoining trestles. Train speed across the pontoons was limited to 7 miles per hour.

Prairie du Chien businessman Lawler took most of the credit for this invention, and made a small fortune through its operation. Marquette subsequently became home to a major rail yard, which even as late as 1920 was the busiest in Iowa, employing 400 people.

The original crossing was upgraded with replacement of the eastern pontoon in 1914, and a longer (276-foot) western pontoon in 1916; the longest in the world at that time. The replacement spans included steam-powered lift machinery to adjust the height of the track deck. However, the railroad's significance declined and the last passenger train stopped in Marquette in 1960. The pontoon bridge was disassembled in 1961.

Second Church of Christ, Scientist (San Francisco, California)

The former Second Church of Christ, Scientist is an historic Christian Science church building located at 651 Dolores Street, corner of Cumberland Street, across from Dolores Park in the Mission District of San Francisco, California. Built in 1905, it was designed by noted San Francisco architect William H. Crim in the Classical Revival and Beaux Arts styles of architecture. Its crowning glory is its massive wood-framed truss system dome which rests on the octagonal walls of the auditorium.

Due to the dwindling size of its congregation and the increased cost of maintaining such a large building, the building was sold in 2012 to commercial property developer Siamak Akhavan, who previously bought Golden Gate Lutheran Church at 601 Dolores Street and converted into his own home. His plan for the former Second Church is to convert it into four residential units.Second Church of Christ, Scientist is now located at 2287 Mission Street, near 19th Street.The project was completed in 2016 and the building was converted into 4 very distinct and gracious units. 3 were built out in the main body of the building and ranged in size from 5200 to almost 5500 square feet. Additionally, the developer floored over the dome and created a 4000 square foot unit inside the dome. To do so he cut away and raised the outer edge of the interior plaster dome to expose the windows that circle the entire dome. The three lower units were all successfully sold off over the next 10 months or so, one at a time, for prices ranging from $6.1M to $6.149M. For more information about the project see the links below.

Skycoaster

Skycoaster is an amusement park ride, produced and managed by Skycoaster, Inc., owned division of Ride Entertainment Group. On the ride, riders in groups of 1 to 3 are winched to the top of a launch tower and then dropped towards the ground, swinging from a cable tether back and forth until brought to a rest. Sky Coasters can range from 100–300 feet (30.5–91.4 m) in height. Skycoaster is an upcharge attraction at most installations, an additional fare is charged to riders who have already paid general admission to the park, and so must pay again for each ride. Names for the ride include variations of Skycoaster, along with Dare Devil Dive (at Six Flags parks), RipCord, and Xtreme Skyflyer (at Cedar Fair parks).

Sports Direct

Sports Direct International plc is a British retailing group. Established in 1982 by Mike Ashley, the company is the United Kingdom's largest sports-goods retailer and operates roughly 670 stores worldwide. The company owns a large number of sporting brands and trades predominantly under the SportsDirect.com brand. Other retailers owned by the company include House of Fraser, Flannels, USC and Lillywhites. The company operates under low margins.Sporting and fashion brands owned include Donnay, Slazenger, Firetrap, Everlast, Kangol, Karrimor and Lonsdale, among others.

Mike Ashley has continued to hold a majority stake in the business, and his holding has been 61.7 percent since October 2013. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and it is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

Units of measurement in France before the French Revolution

Before the French Revolution, which started in 1789, French units of measurement were based on the Carolingian system, introduced by the first Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (800 – 814 AD) which in turn were based on ancient Roman measures. Charlemagne brought a consistent system of measures across the entire empire. However, after his death, the empire fragmented and many rulers introduced their own variants of the units of measure.

Some of Charlemagne's units of measure, such as the pied du Roi (the king's foot) remained virtually unchanged for about a thousand years, while others, such as the aune (ell—used to measure cloth) and the livre (pound) varied dramatically from locality to locality. By the time of the revolution, the number of units of measure had grown to the extent that it was almost impossible to keep track of them.

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