Follies

Follies is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by James Goldman. The story concerns a reunion in a crumbling Broadway theatre, scheduled for demolition, of the past performers of the "Weismann's Follies", a musical revue (based on the Ziegfeld Follies), that played in that theatre between the World Wars. It focuses on two couples, Buddy and Sally Durant Plummer and Benjamin and Phyllis Rogers Stone, who are attending the reunion. Sally and Phyllis were showgirls in the Follies. Both couples are deeply unhappy with their marriages. Buddy, a traveling salesman, is having an affair with a girl on the road; Sally is still as much in love with Ben as she was years ago; and Ben is so self-absorbed that Phyllis feels emotionally abandoned. Several of the former showgirls perform their old numbers, sometimes accompanied by the ghosts of their former selves. The musical numbers in the show have been interpreted as pastiches of the styles of the leading Broadway composers of the 1920s ands '30s, and sometimes as parodies of specific songs.

The Broadway production opened on April 4, 1971, directed by Harold Prince and Michael Bennett, and with choreography by Bennett. The musical was nominated for eleven Tony Awards and won seven. The original production, the most costly performed on Broadway to that date,[1] ran for over 500 performances but ultimately lost its entire investment. The musical has had a number of major revivals, and several of its songs have become standards, including "Broadway Baby", "I'm Still Here", "Too Many Mornings", "Could I Leave You?", and "Losing My Mind".

Follies
Pfollies.jpeg
Original Broadway poster
MusicStephen Sondheim
LyricsStephen Sondheim
BookJames Goldman
Productions
Awards

Background

After the failure of Do I Hear A Waltz? (1965), for which he had written the lyrics to Richard Rodgers's music, Sondheim decided that he would henceforth work only on projects where he could write both the music and lyrics himself. He asked author and playwright James Goldman to join him as bookwriter for a new musical. Inspired by a New York Times article about a gathering of former showgirls from the Ziegfeld Follies, they decided upon a story about ex-showgirls.[2]

Originally titled The Girls Upstairs, the musical was originally to be produced by David Merrick and Leland Hayward in late 1967, but the plans ultimately fell through, and Stuart Ostrow became the producer, with Joseph Hardy to direct. These plans also did not work out,[3] and finally Harold Prince, who had worked previously with Sondheim, became the producer and director. He had agreed to work on The Girls Upstairs if Sondheim would agree to work on Company; Michael Bennett, the young choreographer of Company, was also brought onto the project. It was Prince who changed the title to Follies; he was "intrigued by the psychology of a reunion of old chorus dancers and loved the play on the word 'follies'".[2]

Plot

In 1971, on the soon-to-be demolished stage of the Weismann Theatre, a reunion is being held to honor the Weismann's "Follies" shows past, and the beautiful chorus girls who performed there every year between the two World Wars. The once resplendent theatre is now little but planks and scaffolding ("Prologue"/"Overture"). As the ghosts of the young showgirls slowly drift through the theatre, a majordomo enters with his entourage of waiters and waitresses. They pass through the spectral showgirls without seeing them.

Sally Durant Plummer, "blond, petite, sweet-faced" and at 49 "still remarkably like the girl she was thirty years ago",[4] a former Weismann girl, is the first guest to arrive; her ghostly youthful counterpart moves towards her. Phyllis Rogers Stone, a stylish and elegant woman,[4] also arrives with her husband Ben, a renowned philanthropist and politician. As their younger counterparts approach them, Phyllis comments to Ben about their past. He feigns a lack of interest; there is an underlying tension in their relationship. As more guests arrive, Sally’s husband, Buddy, enters. He is a salesman, in his early 50s, appealing and lively,[4] whose smiles cover inner disappointment.

Finally, Weismann enters to greet his guests. Roscoe, the old master of ceremonies, introduces the former showgirls ("Beautiful Girls"). Former Weismann performers at the reunion include Max and Stella Deems, who lost their radio jobs and became store owners in Miami; Solange La Fitte, a coquette, who is vibrant and flirtatious even at 66; Hattie Walker, who has outlived five younger husbands; Vincent and Vanessa, former dancers who now own an Arthur Murray franchise; Heidi Schiller, for whom Franz Lehár once wrote a waltz (or was it Oscar Straus? Facts never interest her; what matters is the song!); and Carlotta Campion, a film star who has embraced life and benefited from every experience.

As the guests reminisce, the stories of Ben, Phyllis, Buddy, and Sally unfold. Phyllis and Sally were roommates while in the Follies, and Ben and Buddy were best friends at school in New York. When Sally sees Ben, her former lover, she greets him self-consciously ("Don't Look at Me"). Buddy and Phyllis join their spouses and the foursome reminisces about the old days of their courtship and the theatre, their memories vividly coming to life in the apparitions of their young counterparts ("Waiting For The Girls Upstairs"). Each of the four is shaken at the realization of how life has changed them. Elsewhere, Willy Wheeler (portly, in his sixties) cartwheels for a photographer. Emily and Theodore Whitman, ex-vaudevillians in their seventies, perform an old routine ("The Rain on the Roof"). Solange proves she is still fashionable at what she claims is 66 ("Ah, Paris!"), and Hattie Walker performs her old showstopping number ("Broadway Baby").

Buddy warns Phyllis that Sally is still in love with Ben, and she is shaken by how the past threatens to repeat itself. Sally is awed by Ben’s apparently glamorous life, but Ben wonders if he made the right choices and considers how things might have been ("The Road You Didn't Take"). Sally tells Ben how her days have been spent with Buddy, trying to convince him (and herself) ("In Buddy’s Eyes"). But it is clear that Sally is still in love with Ben – even though their affair ended badly when Ben decided to marry Phyllis. She shakes loose from the memory and begins to dance with Ben, who is touched by the memory of the Sally he once cast aside.

Phyllis interrupts this tender moment and has a biting encounter with Sally. Before she has a chance to really let loose, they are both called on to participate in another performance – Stella Deems and the ex-chorines line up to perform an old number ("Who's That Woman?"), as they are mirrored by their younger selves. Afterward, Phyllis and Ben angrily discuss their lives and relationship, which has become numb and emotionless. Sally is bitter and has never been happy with Buddy, although he has always adored her. She accuses him of having affairs while he is on the road, and he admits he has a steady girlfriend, Margie, in another town, but always returns home. Carlotta amuses a throng of admirers with a tale of how her dramatic solo was cut from the Follies because the audience found it humorous, transforming it as she sings it into a toast to her own hard-won survival ("I'm Still Here").

Ben confides to Sally that his life is empty. She yearns for him to hold her, but young Sally slips between them and the three move together ("Too Many Mornings"). Ben, caught in the passion of memories, kisses Sally as Buddy watches from the shadows. Sally thinks this is a sign that the two will finally get married, and Ben is about to protest until Sally interrupts him with a kiss and runs off to gather her things, thinking that the two will leave together. Buddy leaves the shadows furious, and fantasizes about the girl he should have married, Margie, who loves him and makes him feel like "a somebody", but bitterly concludes he does not love her back ("The Right Girl"). He tells Sally that he's done, but she is lost in a fantasy world, and tells him that Ben has asked her to marry him. Buddy tells her she must be either crazy or drunk, but he's already supported Sally through rehab clinics and mental hospitals and cannot take any more. Ben drunkenly propositions Carlotta, with whom he once had a fling, but she has a young lover and coolly turns him down. Heidi Schiller, joined by her younger counterpart, performs "One More Kiss", her aged voice a stark contrast to the sparkling coloratura of her younger self. Phyllis kisses a waiter and confesses to him that she had always wanted a son. She then tells Ben that their marriage can't continue the way it has been. Ben replies by saying that he wants a divorce, and Phyllis assumes the request is due to his love for Sally. Ben denies this, but still wants Phyllis out. Angry and hurt, Phyllis considers whether to grant his request ("Could I Leave You?").

Phyllis begins wondering at her younger self, who worked so hard to become the socialite that Ben needed. Ben yells at his younger self for not appreciating all the work that Phyllis did. Both Buddys enter to confront the Bens about how they stole Sally. Sally and her younger self enter and Ben firmly tells Sally that he never loved her. All the voices begin speaking and yelling at each other. Suddenly, at the peak of madness and confusion, the couples are engulfed by their follies, which transform the rundown theatre into a fantastical "Loveland", an extravaganza even more grand and opulent than the gaudiest Weismann confection: "the place where lovers are always young and beautiful, and everyone lives only for love".[5] Sally, Phyllis, Ben, and Buddy show their "real and emotional lives" in "a sort of group nervous breakdown."[6]

What follows is a series of musical numbers performed by the principal characters, each exploring their biggest desires. The two younger couples sing in a counterpoint of their hopes for the future ("You're Gonna Love Tomorrow/Love Will See Us Through"). Buddy then appears, dressed in "plaid baggy pants, garish jacket, and a shiny derby hat", and performs a high-energy vaudeville routine depicting how he is caught between his love for Sally and Margie's love for him[4] ("The God-Why-Don't-You-Love-Me Blues"). Sally appears next, dressed as a torch singer, singing of her passion for Ben from the past - and her obsession with him now ("Losing My Mind"). In a jazzy dance number, accompanied by a squadron of chorus boys, Phyllis reflects on the two sides of her personality, one naive and passionate and the other jaded and sophisticated and her desire to combine them ("The Story of Lucy and Jessie"). Resplendent in top hat and tails, Ben begins to offer his devil-may-care philosophy ("Live, Laugh, Love"), but stumbles and anxiously calls to the conductor for the lyrics, as he frantically tries to keep going. Ben becomes frenzied, while the dancing ensemble continues as if nothing was wrong. Amidst a deafening discord, Ben screams at all the figures from his past and collapses as he cries out for Phyllis.

"Loveland" has dissolved back into the reality of the crumbling and half-demolished theatre; dawn is approaching. Ben admits to Phyllis his admiration for her, and Phyllis shushes him and helps Ben regain his dignity before they leave. After exiting, Buddy escorts the emotionally devastated[5] Sally back to their hotel with the promise to work things out later. Their ghostly younger selves appear, watching them go. The younger Ben and Buddy softly call to their "girls upstairs", and the Follies end.

Songs

Source: Follies Score

  • "Prologue" – Orchestra
  • "Overture" – Orchestra
  • "Beautiful Girls" – Roscoe and Company
  • "Don't Look at Me" – Sally and Ben
  • "Waiting for the Girls Upstairs" – Ben, Sally, Phyllis and Buddy, Young Ben, Young Sally, Young Phyllis and Young Buddy
  • "Montage" ("Rain on the Roof"/"Ah, Paris!"/"Broadway Baby") – Emily, Theodore, Solange, and Hattie
  • "The Road You Didn't Take" – Ben
  • "Bolero d'Amour" – Danced by Vincent and Vanessa ≠≠
  • "In Buddy's Eyes" – Sally
  • "Who's That Woman?" – Stella and Company
  • "I'm Still Here" – Carlotta
  • "Too Many Mornings" – Ben and Sally
  • "The Right Girl" – Buddy
  • "One More Kiss" – Heidi and Young Heidi
  • "Could I Leave You?" – Phyllis
  • "Loveland" – Company
  • "You're Gonna Love Tomorrow" / "Love Will See Us Through" – Young Ben, Young Sally, Young Phyllis and Young Buddy
  • "The God-Why-Don't-You-Love-Me Blues" – Buddy, "Margie", "Sally"
  • "Losing My Mind" – Sally
  • "The Story of Lucy and Jessie" ≠ – Phyllis and Company
  • "Live, Laugh, Love" – Ben and Company
  • "Chaos" – Ben and Company
  • "Finale" – Young Buddy and Young Ben

≠ Some productions substitute "Ah, But Underneath" when the actress portraying Phyllis is not primarily a dancer.

≠≠ Omitted from some productions

Note: this is the original song list from the original Broadway production in 1971. Variations are discussed in Versions

Songs cut prior to the Broadway premiere include: "All Things Bright and Beautiful" (used in the prologue), "Can That Boy Foxtrot!", "Who Could Be Blue?", "Little White House", "So Many People", "It Wasn't Meant to Happen", "Pleasant Little Kingdom",[7] and "Uptown Downtown". The musical numbers "Ah, But Underneath" (replacing "The Story of Lucy and Jessie"), "Country House", "Make the Most of Your Music" (replacing "Live, Laugh, Love"), "Social Dancing" and a new version of "Loveland" have been incorporated into various productions.

Analysis

Hal Prince said: "Follies examines obsessive behavior, neurosis and self-indulgence more microscopically than anything I know of."[8] Bernadette Peters quoted Sondheim on the character of "Sally": "He said early on that [Sally] is off balance, to put it mildly. He thinks she’s very neurotic, and she is very neurotic, so he said to me, 'Congratulations. She’s crazy.'"[9] Martin Gottfried wrote: "The concept behind Follies is theater nostalgia, representing the rose-colored glasses through which we face the fact of age ... the show is conceived in ghostliness. At its very start, ghosts of Follies showgirls stalk the stage, mythic giants in winged, feathered, black and white opulence. Similarly, ghosts of the Twenties shows slip through the evening as the characters try desperately to regain their youth through re-creations of their performances and inane theater sentiments of their past."[10]

Joanne Gordon, author and Chair and Artistic Director, Theatre, at California State University, Long Beach,[11][12] wrote "Follies is in part an affectionate look at the American musical theater between the two World Wars and provides Sondheim with an opportunity to use the traditional conventions of the genre to reveal the hollowness and falsity of his characters' dreams and illusions. The emotional high generated by the reunion of the Follies girls ultimately gives way to anger, disappointment, and a weary resignation to reality."[13] "Follies contains two scores: the Follies pastiche numbers and the book numbers."[14] Some of the Follies numbers imitate the style of particular composers of the early 20th century: "Losing My Mind" is in the style of a George Gershwin ballad "The Man I Love".[15] Sondheim noted that the song "The God-Why-Don't-You-Love-Me Blues" is "another generic pastiche: vaudeville music for chases and low comics, but with a patter lyric...I tried to give it the sardonic knowingness of Lorenz Hart or Frank Loesser."[16]

"Loveland", the final musical sequence, (that "consumed the last half-hour of the original" production[17]) is akin to an imaginary 1941 Ziegfeld Follies sequence, with Sally, Phyllis, Ben and Buddy performing "like comics and torch singers from a Broadway of yore."[18] "Loveland" features a string of vaudeville-style numbers, reflecting the leading characters' emotional problems, before returning to the theatre for the end of the reunion party. The four characters are "whisked into a dream show in which each acts out his or her own principal 'folly'".[17]

Versions

Goldman continued to revise the book of the musical right up to his death, which occurred shortly before the 1998 Paper Mill Playhouse production. Sondheim, too, has added and removed songs that he judged to be problematic in various productions. Ted Chapin explains: "Today, Follies is rarely performed twice in exactly the same version. James Goldman's widow made the observation that the show has morphed throughout its entire life...The London production had new songs and dialogue. The Paper Mill Playhouse production used some elements from London but stayed close to the original. The 2001 Roundabout Broadway revival, the first major production following Goldman's death in 1998, was again a combination of previous versions."[19]

Major changes were made for the original production in London, which attempted to establish a lighter tone and favored a happier ending than the original Broadway production. According to Joanne Gordon, "When Follies opened in London...it had an entirely different, and significantly more optimistic, tone. Goldman's revised book offered some small improvements over the original."[20]

According to Sondheim, the producer Cameron Mackintosh asked for changes for the 1987 London production. "I was reluctantly happy to comply, my only serious balk being at his request that I cut "The Road You Didn't Take" ... I saw no reason not to try new things, knowing we could always revert to the original (which we eventually did). The net result was four new songs...For reasons which I've forgotten, I rewrote "Loveland" for the London production. There were only four showgirls in this version, and each one carried a shepherd's crook with a letter of the alphabet on it."[21]

The musical was written in one act, and the original director, Prince, did not want an intermission, while the co-director, Bennett, wanted two acts. It was originally performed in one act.[22] The 1987 West End, 2005 Barrington Stage Company,[23] the 2001 Broadway revival[24] and Kennedy Center 2011 productions were performed in two acts.[18] However, the August 23, 2011, Broadway preview performance was performed without an intermission.[25] By opening the 2011 Broadway revival was performed with the intermission, in two acts.[26] The 2017 National Theatre production is performed without an interval.

Productions

1971 Original Broadway

Follies had its pre-Broadway tryout at the Colonial Theatre, Boston, from February 20 through March 20, 1971.[27][28]

Follies stage
Model of set design by Boris Aronson

Follies premiered on Broadway on April 4, 1971 at the Winter Garden Theatre. It was directed by Harold Prince and Michael Bennett, with choreography by Bennett, scenic design by Boris Aronson, costumes by Florence Klotz, and lighting by Tharon Musser. It starred Alexis Smith (Phyllis), John McMartin (Ben), Dorothy Collins (Sally), Gene Nelson (Buddy), along with several veterans of the Broadway and vaudeville stage. The supporting role of Carlotta was created by Yvonne De Carlo, and usually is given to a well-known veteran performer who can belt out a song. Other notable performers in the original productions were: Fifi D'Orsay as Solange LaFitte, Justine Johnston as Heidi Schiller, Mary McCarty as Stella Deems, Arnold Moss as Dimitri Weismann, Ethel Shutta as Hattie Walker, and Marcie Stringer and Charles Welch as Emily and Theodore Whitman.

The show closed on July 1, 1972 after 522 performances and 12 previews. According to Variety, the production was a "total financial failure, with a cumulative loss of $792,000."[29] Prince planned to present the musical on the West Coast and then on a national tour. However, the show did not do well in its Los Angeles engagement and plans for a tour ended.[30]

Frank Rich, for many years the chief drama critic for The New York Times, had first garnered attention, while an undergraduate at Harvard University, with a lengthy essay for the Harvard Crimson about the show, which he had seen during its pre-Broadway run in Boston. He predicted that the show eventually would achieve recognition as a Broadway classic.[31] Rich later wrote that audiences at the original production were baffled and restless.[32]

For commercial reasons, the cast album was cut from two LPs to one early in production. Most songs were therefore heavily abridged and several were left entirely unrecorded. According to Craig Zadan, "It's generally felt that ... Prince made a mistake by giving the recording rights of Follies to Capitol Records, which in order to squeeze the unusually long score onto one disc, mutilated the songs by condensing some and omitting others."[33] Chapin confirms this: "Alas ... final word came from Capitol that they would not go for two records.... [Dick Jones] now had to propose cuts throughout the score in consultation with Steve."[34] "One More Kiss" was omitted from the final release but was restored for CD release. Chapin relates that "there was one song that Dick Jones [producer of the cast album] didn't want to include on the album but which Steve Sondheim most definitely did. The song was "One More Kiss", and the compromise was that if there was time, it would be recorded, even if Jones couldn't promise it would end up on the album. (It did get recorded but didn't make its way onto the album until the CD reissue years later.)"[35][36]

1972 Los Angeles

The musical was produced at The Muny, St. Louis, Missouri in July 1972 and then transferred to the Shubert Theatre, Century City, California, running from July 22, 1972 through October 1, 1972. It was directed by Prince and starred Dorothy Collins (Sally; replaced by Janet Blair), Alexis Smith (Phyllis), John McMartin (Ben; replaced by Edward Winter), Gene Nelson (Buddy), and Yvonne De Carlo (Carlotta) reprising their original roles.[37] The production was the premiere attraction at the newly constructed 1,800-seat theatre, which, coincidentally, was itself razed thirty years later (in 2002, in order to build a new office building), thus mirroring the Follies plot line upon which the musical is based. [38]

1985 Wythenshawe and Lincoln Center

A full production ran at the Forum Theatre, Wythenshawe, England, from 30 April 1985, directed by Howard Lloyd-Lewis, design by Chris Kinman, costumes by Charles Cusick-Smith, lighting by Tim Wratten, musical direction by Simon Lowe, and choreographed by Paul Kerryson.[39] The cast included Mary Millar (Sally Durant Plummer), Liz Izen (Young Sally), Meg Johnson (Stella Deems), Les Want (Max Deems), Betty Benfield (Heidi Schiller), Joseph Powell (Roscoe), Chili Bouchier (Hattie Walker), Shirley Greenwood (Emily Whitman), Bryan Burdon (Theodore Whitman), Monica Dell (Solange LaFitte), Jeannie Harris (Carlotta Campion), Josephine Blake (Phyllis Rogers Stone), Kevin Colson (Ben), Debbie Snook (Young Phyllis), Stephen Hale (Young Ben), Bill Bradley (Buddy Plummer), Paul Burton (Young Buddy), David Scase (Dimitri Weismann), Mitch Sebastian (Young Vincent), Kim Ismay (Young Vanessa), Lorraine Croft (Young Stella), and Meryl Richardson (Young Heidi).[40]

A staged concert at Avery Fisher Hall, Lincoln Center, was performed on September 6 and 7, 1985. The concert starred Barbara Cook (Sally), George Hearn (Ben), Mandy Patinkin (Buddy), and Lee Remick (Phyllis), and featured Carol Burnett (Carlotta), Betty Comden (Emily), Adolph Green (Theodore), Liliane Montevecchi (Solange LaFitte), Elaine Stritch (Hattie Walker), Phyllis Newman (Stella Deems), Jim Walton (Young Buddy), Howard McGillin (Young Ben), Liz Callaway (Young Sally), Daisy Prince (Young Phyllis), Andre Gregory (Dmitri), Arthur Rubin (Roscoe), and Licia Albanese (Heidi Schiller). Rich, in his review, noted that "As performed at Avery Fisher Hall, the score emerged as an original whole, in which the 'modern' music and mock vintage tunes constantly comment on each other, much as the script's action unfolds simultaneously in 1971 (the year of the reunion) and 1941 (the year the Follies disbanded)."[32]

Among the reasons the concert was staged was to provide an opportunity to record the entire score. The resulting album was more complete than the original cast album.[32] However, director Herbert Ross took some liberties in adapting the book and score for the concert format—dance music was changed, songs were given false endings, new dialogue was spoken, reprises were added, and Patinkin was allowed to sing "The God-Why-Don't-You-Love-Me Blues" as a solo instead of a trio with two chorus girls. Portions of the concert were seen by audiences worldwide in the televised documentary about the making of the concert, also released on videotape and DVD, of 'Follies' in Concert.[41]

1987 West End

Follies~UK~Purple.jpeg
The London production purple poster

The musical played in the West End at the Shaftesbury Theatre on July 21, 1987 and closed on February 4, 1989 after 644 performances. The producer was Cameron Mackintosh, direction was by Mike Ockrent, with choreography by Bob Avian and design by Maria Bjornson. The cast featured Diana Rigg (Phyllis), Daniel Massey (Ben), Julia McKenzie (Sally), David Healy (Buddy), Lynda Baron, Leonard Sachs, Maria Charles, Pearl Carr & Teddy Johnson. Dolores Gray was praised as Carlotta, continuing to perform after breaking her ankle, although in a reduced version of the part.[42] During the run, Eartha Kitt replaced Gray, sparking somewhat of a comeback (she went on to perform her own one woman show at The Shaftesbury Theatre to sell-out houses for three weeks from 18 March 1989 after Follies closed). Other cast replacements included Millicent Martin as Phyllis. Julia McKenzie returned to the production for the final four performances.[42]

The book "was extensively reworked by James Goldman, with Sondheim's cooperation and also given an intermission." The producer Cameron Mackintosh did not like "that there was no change in the characters from beginning to end.... In the London production ... the characters come to understand each other." Sondheim "did not think the London script was as good as the original." However, he thought that it was "wonderful" that, at the end of the first act, "the principal characters recognized their younger selves and were able to acknowledge them throughout the last thirty minutes of the piece."[43] Sondheim wrote four new songs: "Country House" (replacing "The Road You Didn't Take"), "Loveland" (replacing the song of the same title), "Ah, But Underneath" (replacing "The Story of Lucy and Jessie", for the non-dancer Diana Rigg), and "Make the Most of Your Music" (replacing "Live, Laugh, Love").[42]

Critics who had seen the production in New York (such as Frank Rich) found it substantially more "upbeat" and lacking in the atmosphere it had originally possessed. According to the Associated Press (AP) reviewer, "A revised version of the Broadway hit Follies received a standing ovation from its opening-night audience and raves from British critics, who said the show was worth a 16-year wait." The AP quoted Michael Coveney of The Financial Times, who wrote: "Follies is a great deal more than a camp love-in for old burlesque buffs and Sondheim aficionados."[44] In The New York Times the critic Francis X. Clines wrote: "The initial critics' reviews ranged from unqualified raves to some doubts whether the reworked book of James Goldman is up to the inventiveness of Sondheim's songs. 'A truly fantastic evening,' The Financial Times concluded, while the London Daily News said, 'The musical is inspired,' and The Times described the evening as 'a wonderful idea for a show which has failed to grow into a story.'"[45] The Times critic, Irving Wardle, also said, "It is not much of a story, and whatever possibilities it may have had in theory are scuppered by James Goldman’s book … a blend of lifeless small-talk, bitching and dreadful gags".[46] Clines further commented: "In part, the show is a tribute to musical stage history, in which the 57-year-old Mr. Sondheim is steeped, for he first learned song writing at the knee of Oscar Hammerstein II and became the acknowledged master songwriter who bridged past musical stage romance into the modern musical era of irony and neurosis. Follies is a blend of both, and the new production is rounded out with production numbers celebrating love's simple hope for young lovers, its extravagant fantasies for Ziegfeld aficionados, and its fresh lesson for the graying principals."[45]

This production was also recorded on two CDs and was the first full recording.[47]

Follies was voted ninth in a BBC Radio 2 listener poll of the UK's "Nation's Number One Essential Musicals."[48]

U.S. regional productions

Michigan Opera Theatre (MOT) was the first major American opera company to present Follies as part of their main stage repertoire, running from October 21, 1988 through November 6. The MOT production starred Nancy Dussault (Sally), John-Charles Kelly (Buddy), Juliet Prowse (Phyllis) and Ron Raines (Ben), Edie Adams (Carlotta), Thelma Lee (Hattie), and Dennis Grimaldi (Vincent).[49][50]

A production also ran from March to April 1995 at the Theatre Under the Stars, Houston, Texas and in April to May 1995 at the 5th Avenue Theatre, Seattle with Constance Towers (Phyllis), Judy Kaye (Sally), Edie Adams, Denise Darcel, Virginia Mayo and Karen Morrow (Carlotta).[51] The 1998 Paper Mill Playhouse production (Millburn, New Jersey) was directed by Robert Johanson with choreography by Jerry Mitchell and starred Donna McKechnie (Sally), Dee Hoty (Phyllis), Laurence Guittard (Ben), Tony Roberts (Buddy), Kaye Ballard (Hattie ), Eddie Bracken (Weismann), and Ann Miller (Carlotta). Phyllis Newman and Liliane Montevecchi reprised the roles they played in the Lincoln Center production.[52] "Ah, But Underneath" was substituted for "The Story of Lucy and Jessie" in order to accommodate non-dancer Hoty.[53] This production received a full-length recording on two CDs, including not only the entire score as originally written, but a lengthy appendix of songs cut from the original production in tryouts.[54]

Julianne Boyd directed a fully staged version of Follies in 2005 by the Barrington Stage Company (Massachusetts) in June–July 2005. Principal cast included Kim Crosby (Sally), Leslie Denniston (Phyllis), Jeff McCarthy (Ben), Lara Teeter (Buddy), Joy Franz (Solange), Marni Nixon (Heidi), and Donna McKechnie (Carlotta). Stephen Sondheim attended one of the performances.[55]

1996 and 1998 concerts

Dublin concert

The Dublin Concert was held in May 1996 at the National Concert Hall. Directed by Michael Scott. The cast included Lorna Luft, Millicent Martin, Mary Millar, Dave Willetts, Trevor Jones Bryan Smyth, Alex Sharpe, Christine Scarry, Aidan Conway and Enda Markey.[56]

London concert

A concert was held at Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London, on December 8, 1996, and broadcast on BBC Radio 2 on February 15, 1997. The cast starred Julia McKenzie (Sally), Donna McKechnie (Phyllis), Denis Quilley (Ben) and Ron Moody (Buddy). This show recreated the original Broadway score.[57]

Sydney concert

Follies was performed in concert at the Sydney Opera House with the Sydney Symphony Orchestra[58] in February 1998 as the highlight of the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras and had three performances. It followed a similar presentation at the 1995 Melbourne Festival of Arts. The show starred Toni Lamond (Sally),[59] Jill Perryman, Judi Connelli, Terence Donovan, Ron Haddrick, Todd McKenney, and Leonie Page.[60][61]

2001 Broadway revival

A Broadway revival opened at the Belasco Theatre on April 5, 2001 and closed on July 14, 2001 after 117 performances and 32 previews. This Roundabout Theatre limited engagement had been expected to close on September 30, 2001. Directed by Matthew Warchus with choreography by Kathleen Marshall, it starred Blythe Danner (Phyllis), Judith Ivey (Sally), Treat Williams (Buddy), Gregory Harrison (Ben), Marge Champion, Polly Bergen (Carlotta), Joan Roberts (the original Laurey from the original Broadway production of Oklahoma!; later replaced by Marni Nixon), Larry Raiken (Roscoe) and an assortment of famous names from the past. Former MGM and onetime Broadway star Betty Garrett, best-known to younger audiences for her television work, played Hattie.[62] It was significantly stripped down (earlier productions had featured extravagant sets and costumes) and was not a success critically.

According to an article in The Hollywood Reporter, "almost every performance of the show played to a full house, more often than not to standing-room-only. Tickets always were tough to come by. The reason the final curtain came down Saturday was because, being a production by the Roundabout Theatre Company – a subscription-based 'not-for-profit' theater company – it was presented under special Equity terms, with its actors paid a minimal fee. To extend the show, it would have been necessary to negotiate new contracts with the entire company ... because of the Belasco's limited seating, it wasn't deemed financially feasible to do so."[63]

Theatre writer and historian John Kenrick wrote, "the bad news is that this Follies is a dramatic and conceptual failure. The good news is that it also features some of the most exciting musical moments Broadway has seen in several seasons. Since you don't get those moments from the production, the book or the leads, that leaves the featured ensemble, and in Follies that amounts to a small army. ... Marge Champion and Donald Saddler are endearing as the old hoofers. ... I dare you not to fall in love with Betty Garrett's understated "Broadway Baby" – you just want to pick her up and hug her. Polly Bergen stops everything cold with "I’m Still Here," bringing a rare degree of introspection to a song that is too often a mere belt-fest.... [T]he emotional highpoint comes when Joan Roberts sings 'One More Kiss'."[64]

2002 London revival

A production was mounted at London's Royal Festival Hall in a limited engagement. After previews from August 3, 2002, it opened officially on August 6, and closed on August 31, 2002. Paul Kerryson directed, and the cast starred David Durham as Ben, Kathryn Evans as Sally, Louise Gold as Phyllis, Julia Goss as Heidi and Henry Goodman as Buddy. Variety singer and performer Joan Savage sang "Broadway Baby".[65][66][67] This production conducted by Julian Kelly featured the original Broadway score.[68]

2002 Los Angeles

Follies was part of L.A.'s Reprise series, and it was housed at the Wadsworth Theatre, presented as a staged concert, running from June 15 to June 23, 2002. The production was directed by Arthur Allan Seidelman, set design by Ray Klausen, lighting design by Tom Ruzika, costumes by Randy Gardell, sound design by Philip G. Allen, choreography by Kay Cole, musical director Gerald Sternbach.[69]

The production starred Bob Gunton (Ben), Warren Berlinger (Dimitri Weismann), Patty Duke (Phyllis), Vikki Carr (Sally), Harry Groener (Buddy), Carole Cook (Hattie), Carol Lawrence (Vanessa), Ken Page (Roscoe), Liz Torres (Stella), Amanda McBroom (Solange), Grover Dale (Vincent), Donna McKechnie (Carlotta), Carole Swarbrick (Christine), Stella Stevens (Dee Dee), Mary Jo Catlett (Emily), Justine Johnston (Heidi), Jean Louisa Kelly (Young Sally), Austin Miller (Young Buddy), Tia Riebling (Young Phyllis), Kevin Earley (Young Ben), Abby Feldman (Young Stella), Barbara Chiofalo (Young Heidi), Trevor Brackney (Young Vincent), Melissa Driscoll (Young Vanessa), Stephen Reed (Kevin), and Billy Barnes (Theodore).[70] Hal Linden was originally going to play Ben, but left because he was cast in the Broadway revival of Cabaret as Herr Schultz.[71] Tom Bosley was also originally cast as Dimitri Weismann.

2007 New York City Center Encores!

New York City Center's Encores! "Great American Musicals in Concert" series featured Follies as its 40th production for six performances in February 2007 in a sold out semi-staged concert. The cast starred Donna Murphy (Phyllis), Victoria Clark (Sally), Victor Garber (Ben) and Michael McGrath (Buddy). Christine Baranski played Carlotta, and Lucine Amara sang Heidi. The cast also included Anne Rogers, Jo Anne Worley and Philip Bosco. The director and choreographer was Casey Nicholaw.[72][73] This production used the original text and the "Loveland" lyrics performed in the 1987 London production.[74]

2011 Kennedy Center and Broadway

The Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts production at the Eisenhower Theatre started previews on May 7, 2011, with an official opening on May 21, and closed on June 19, 2011.[75] The cast starred Bernadette Peters as Sally, Jan Maxwell as Phyllis, Elaine Paige as Carlotta, Linda Lavin as Hattie, Ron Raines as Ben and Danny Burstein as Buddy. The production was directed by Eric Schaeffer, with choreography by Warren Carlyle, costumes by Gregg Barnes, set by Derek McLane and lighting by Natasha Katz.[76] Also featured were Rosalind Elias as Heidi, Régine as Solange, Susan Watson as Emily, and Terri White as Stella. The budget was reported to be $7.3 million.[18][75] The production played to 95% capacity.[77]

Reviews were mixed, with Ben Brantley of The New York Times writing, "It wasn't until the second act that I fell in love all over again with Follies". Peter Marks of The Washington Post wrote that the revival "takes an audience halfway to paradise." He praised a "broodingly luminous Jan Maxwell" and Burstein's "hapless onetime stage-door Johnny", as well as "the show's final 20 minutes, when we ascend with the main characters into an ironic vaudeville dreamscape of assorted neuroses - the most intoxicating articulation of the musical's 'Loveland' sequence that I've ever seen." Variety gave a very favorable review to the "lavish and entirely satisfying production", saying that Schaeffer directs "in methodical fashion, building progressively to a crescendo exactly as Sondheim does with so many of his stirring melodies. Several show-stopping routines are provided by choreographer Warren Carlyle." Terry Teachout of the Wall Street Journal noted that "One of the signal achievements of this Follies is that it succeeds in untangling each and every strand of the show's knotty plot... Mr. Schaeffer is clearly unafraid of the darkness of Follies, so much so that the first act is bitter enough to sting. Yet he and Warren Carlyle ... just as clearly revel in the richness of the knowing pastiche songs with which Mr. Sondheim evokes the popular music of the prerock era."[18][78]

The production transferred to Broadway at the Marquis Theatre in a limited engagement starting previews on August 7, 2011, with the official opening on September 12, and closing on January 22, 2012 after 151 performances and 38 previews.[79] The four principal performers reprised their roles, as well as Paige as Carlotta. Jayne Houdyshell as Hattie, Mary Beth Peil as Solange LaFitte, and Don Correia as Theodore joined the Broadway cast.[80] A two-disc cast album of this production was recorded by PS Classics and was released on November 29, 2011.[81]

Brantley reviewed the Broadway revival for The New York Times, writing: "Somewhere along the road from Washington to Broadway, the Kennedy Center production of Follies picked up a pulse. ... I am happy to report that since then, Ms. Peters has connected with her inner frump, Mr. Raines has found the brittle skeleton within his solid flesh, and Ms. Maxwell and Mr. Burstein have only improved. Two new additions to the cast, Jayne Houdyshell and Mary Beth Peil, are terrific. This production has taken on the glint of crystalline sharpness."[82] The production's run was extended, and its grosses exceeded expectations, but it did not recoup its investment.[83]

The Broadway production won the Drama League Award, Distinguished Production of a Musical Revival for 2011-12[84] and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Musical, Outstanding Actor in a Musical (Burstein) and Outstanding Costume Design (Barnes).[85] Out of seven Tony Award nominations, including Best Revival of a Musical, it won only one, for Barnes' costumes.[86]

2012 Los Angeles

The 2011 Broadway and Kennedy Center production transferred to the Ahmanson Theatre, Los Angeles, California, in a limited engagement, from May 3, 2012 through June 9. The majority of the Broadway cast reprised their roles, with the exception of Bernadette Peters, who had prior concert commitments and was replaced by Victoria Clark in the role of Sally, a role she has previously played in New York.[87][88] Other new cast members included Carol Neblett as Heidi, Sammy Williams as Theodore and Obba Babatunde as Max.[89]

2013 Toulon Opera House (France)

For its first production in France, Follies was presented at the Toulon Opera House in March, 2013. This English-language production, using the full original orchestration, was directed by Olivier Bénézech and conducted by David Charles Abell. The cast featured Charlotte Page (Sally), Liz Robertson (Phyllis), Graham Bickley (Ben), Jérôme Pradon (Buddy), Nicole Croisille (Carlotta), Julia Sutton (Hattie) and Fra Fee (Young Buddy).[90]

2016 Australian Concert Version

A concert version at the Melbourne Recital Centre,[91][92] staged with a full 23-piece orchestra and Australian actors Philip Quast (Ben), David Hobson (Buddy), Lisa McCune (Sally), Anne Wood (Phyllis), Rowan Witt (Young Buddy), Sophie Wright (Young Sally), Nancy Hayes (Hattie), Debra Byrne (Carlotta), and Queenie van de Zandt (Stella).[93] The production was directed by Tyran Parke and produced by StoreyBoard Entertainment.

2017 London revival

A London revival was performed in the Olivier Theatre at the National Theatre (22 August until 4 November 2017 - later extended to 3 January 2018, as extensions are common practice at the National Theatre). The production was directed by Dominic Cooke, choreographed by Bill Deamer and starred Peter Forbes as Buddy, Imelda Staunton as Sally, Janie Dee as Phyllis, Philip Quast as Ben[94][95] and Tracie Bennett as Carlotta. Full casting was announced on 9 June.[96] This production notably goes back to the original run of a one-act performance. The production was broadcast live to cinemas worldwide on 16 November through the National Theatre Live programme.[97]

The production returned to the Olivier Theatre on 14 February 2019, playing until 26 March. Janie Dee and Peter Forbes returned as Phyllis and Buddy, while Joanna Riding and Alexander Hanson replaced Staunton and Quast as Sally and Ben. Bennett also reprised her Olivier-nominated performance. A recording of the National Theatre production was released on 18 January 2019.[98]

The 2017 production was nominated for 10 Laurence Olivier Awards and won 2 for Best Musical Revival and Best Costume Design (by Vicki Mortimer).

Characters and original cast

The characters and original cast:

Character Broadway 1971 [99] Lincoln Center
1985 [32]
London
1987 [42]
Paper Mill Playhouse
1998 [100]
Broadway Revival
2001 [101]
London Revival
2002 [102]
City Center Encores!
2007 [103]
Kennedy Center
2011 [104]
Broadway Revival
2011 [105]
Ahmanson Theater
2012 [106]
Royal Albert Hall
2015 [107]
Australian Concert
2016 [108]
London Revival
2017 [96]
London Revival

2019

Buddy Plummer Gene Nelson Mandy Patinkin David Healy Tony Roberts Treat Williams Henry Goodman Michael McGrath Danny Burstein Peter Polycarpou David Hobson Peter Forbes
Sally Durant Plummer Dorothy Collins Barbara Cook Julia McKenzie Donna McKechnie Judith Ivey Kathryn Evans Victoria Clark Bernadette Peters Victoria Clark Ruthie Henshall Lisa McCune Imelda Staunton Joanna Riding
Benjamin Stone John McMartin George Hearn Daniel Massey Laurence Guittard Gregory Harrison David Durham Victor Garber Ron Raines Alexander Hanson Philip Quast Philip Quast Alexander Hanson
Phyllis Rogers Stone Alexis Smith Lee Remick Diana Rigg Dee Hoty Blythe Danner Louise Gold Donna Murphy Jan Maxwell Christine Baranski Anne Wood Janie Dee
Young Buddy Harvey Evans Jim Walton Evan Pappas Billy Hartung Joey Sorge Matthew Cammelle Curtis Holbrook Christian Delcroix Jos Slovick Rowan Witt Fred Haig Henry Hepple
Young Sally Marti Rolph Liz Callaway Deborah Poplett Danette Holden Lauren Ward Emma Clifford Katie Klaus Lora Lee Gayer Amy Ellen Richardson Sophie Wright Alex Young Gemma Sutton
Young Ben Kurt Peterson Howard McGillin Simon Green Michael Gruber Richard Roland Hugh Maynard Colin Donnell Nick Verina Alistair Brammer Lachlan Graham Adam Rhys-Charles Ian McIntosh
Young Phyllis Virginia Sandifur Daisy Prince Gillian Bevan Meredith Patterson Erin Dilly Kerry Jay Jenny Powers Kirsten Scott Laura Pitt-Pulford Jenni Little Zizi Strallen Christine Tucker
Stella Deems Mary McCarty Phyllis Newman Lynda Baron Phyllis Newman Carol Woods Shezwae Powell Joanne Worley Terri White Anita Dobson Queenie van de Zandt Dawn Hope
Carlotta Campion Yvonne De Carlo Carol Burnett Dolores Gray Ann Miller Polly Bergen Diane Langton Christine Baranski Elaine Paige Betty Buckley Debra Byrne Tracie Bennett
Heidi Schiller Justine Johnston Licia Albanese Adele Leigh Carol Skarimbas Joan Roberts Julia Goss Lucine Amara Rosalind Elias Carol Neblett Charlotte Page Cheryl Barker Josephine Barstow Felicity Lott/Josephine Barstow
Hattie Walker Ethel Shutta Elaine Stritch Margaret Courtenay Kaye Ballard Betty Garrett Joan Savage Mimi Hines Linda Lavin Jayne Houdyshell Lorna Luft Nancye Hayes Di Botcher Claire Moore
Dimitri Weismann Arnold Moss Andre Gregory Leonard Sachs Eddie Bracken Louis Zorich Russell Dixon Philip Bosco David Sabin Alistair McGowan Robert Grubb Gary Raymond
Solange LaFitte Fifi D'Orsay Liliane Montevecchi Maria Charles Liliane Montevecchi Jane White Anna Nicholas Yvonne Constant Régine Zylberberg Mary Beth Peil Stefanie Powers Natali Gamsu Geraldine Fitzgerald
Emily Whitman Marcia Stringer Betty Comden Pearl Carr Natalie Mosco Marge Champion Myra Sands Anne Rogers Susan Watson Anita Harris Patti Newton Norma Attallah Myra Sands
Theodore Whitman Charles Welch Adolph Green Teddy Johnson Donald Saddler Tony Kemp Robert Fitch Terrence Currier Don Correia Sammy Williams Roy Hudd Bert Newton Billy Boyle
Max Deems John J. Martin N/A Peter Cormican Nick Hamilton Gerry Vichi Frederick Strother Obba Babatundé N/A N/A Adrian Grove
Roscoe Michael Bartlett Arthur Rubin Paul Bentley Vahan Khanzadian Larry Raiken Paul Bentley Arthur Rubin Michael Hayes Russell Watson David Rogers Smith Bruce Graham
Young Heidi Victoria Mallory Erie Mills Michelle Todd Ingrid Ladendorf Brooke Sunny Moriber Philippa Healey Leena Chopra Leah Horowitz Sarah Bakker Madeleine Featherby Alison Langer
Kevin Ralph Nelson N/A Stephen Campanella N/A Clyde Alves Clifton Samuels N/A Matt Holly Jordan Shaw
Sandra Crane Sonja Levkova N/A Laura Kenyon Nancy Ringham N/A Diane J. Findlay Florence Lacey N/A N/A Gemma Page Caroline Fitzgerald
Dee Dee West Helon Blount N/A Billie Thrash Dorothy Stanley N/A Dorothy Stanley Colleen Fitzpatrick N/A Katie Kermond Liz Izen
Young Stella N/A Pamela Jordan Allyson Tucker Keisha Marina Atwell Ashlee Fife Erin N. Moore Lucy James Imogen Moore Leisha Mollyneux Vanessa Fisher
Young Carlotta N/A Jillana Urbina Sally Mae Dunn N/A Jennifer Mathie Pamela Otterson N/A N/A Emily Langham Lindsay Atherton
Young Hattie Mary Jane Houdina N/A Krista Lepore Kelli O’Hara N/A Cameron Adams Jenifer Foote N/A Katrina Bickerton Aimee Hodnett Lisa Ritchie
Young Emily N/A Pascale Faye Carol Bentley N/A Denise Payne Danielle Jordan N/A N/A Anouska Eaton Rosanna Bates
Young Dee Dee N/A Karen Lifshey Roxane Barlow N/A Natalie King Smith Leslie Donna Flesner N/A N/A Christine Tucker Anouska Eaton
Young Solange N/A Jean Marie Jacqueline Hendy N/A Shannon Marie O’Bryan Suzanne Hylenski Ashley Yeater Angel Reda N/A N/A Sarah-Marie Maxwell
Young Sandra N/A Julie Connors Dottie Earle N/A Jenifer Foote Kiira Schmidt N/A N/A Kate Parr

Critical response

In the foreword to "Everything Was Possible", Frank Rich wrote: "From the start, critics have been divided about Follies, passionately pro or con but rarely on the fence... Is it really a great musical, or merely the greatest of all cult musicals?" (Chapin, p. xi) Ted Chapin wrote, "Taken as a whole, the collection of reviews Follies received was as rangy as possible." (Chapin, p. 300) In his The New York Times review of the original Broadway production, Clive Barnes wrote: "...it is stylish, innovative, it has some of the best lyrics I have ever encountered, and above all it is a serious attempt to deal with the musical form." Barnes also called the story shallow and Sondheim's words a joy "...even when his music sends shivers of indifference up your spine."[109]

Walter Kerr wrote in The New York Times about the original production: "Follies is intermissionless and exhausting, an extravaganza that becomes so tedious... because its extravaganzas have nothing to do with its pebble of a plot."[110] On the other hand, Martin Gottfried wrote: "Follies is truly awesome and, if it is not consistently good, it is always great."[111]

Time Magazine wrote about the original Broadway production: "At its worst moments, Follies is mannered and pretentious, overreaching for Significance. At its best moments—and there are many—it is the most imaginative and original new musical that Broadway has seen in years."[112]

Frank Rich, in reviewing the 1985 concert in The New York Times, wrote: "Friday's performance made the case that this Broadway musical... can take its place among our musical theater's very finest achievements."[113] Ben Brantley, reviewing the 1998 Paper Mill Playhouse production in The New York Times, concluded that it was a "...fine, heartfelt production, which confirms Follies as a landmark musical and a work of art..."[114]

The Time Magazine reviewer wrote of the 2001 Broadway revival: "Even in its more modest incarnation, Follies has, no question, the best score on Broadway." He noted, though, that "I'm sorry the cast was reduced from 52 to 38, the orchestra from 26 players to 14...To appreciate the revival, you must buy into James Goldman's book, which is peddling a panoramically bleak take on marriage." Finally, he wrote: "But Follies never makes fun of the honorable musical tradition to which it belongs. The show and the score have a double vision: simultaneously squinting at the messes people make of their lives and wide-eyed at the lingering grace and lift of the music they want to hear. Sondheim's songs aren't parodies or deconstructions; they are evocations that recognize the power of a love song. In 1971 or 2001, Follies validates the legend that a Broadway show can be an event worth dressing up for."[115]

Brantley, reviewing the 2007 Encores! concert for The New York Times, wrote: "I have never felt the splendid sadness of Follies as acutely as I did watching the emotionally transparent concert production...At almost any moment, to look at the faces of any of the principal performers...is to be aware of people both bewitched and wounded by the contemplation of who they used to be. When they sing, in voices layered with ambivalence and anger and longing, it is clear that it is their past selves whom they are serenading."[116]

Recordings

There have been five recordings of Follies released: the original 1971 Broadway cast album; Follies in Concert, Avery Fisher Hall (1985); the original London production (1987); and the Paper Mill Playhouse (1998).[117][118] The cast recording of the 2011 Broadway revival, by PS Classics, was officially released on November 29, 2011, and also was in pre-sale prior to the store release. PS Classics co-founder Tommy Krasker said: "We've never had the kind of reaction that we've had for Follies. Not only has it already outsold every other album at our website, but the steady stream of emails from customers has been amazing."[81] This recording includes "extended segments of the show's dialogue." The theatermania.com reviewer wrote that "The result is an album that, more so than any of the other existing recordings, allows listeners to re-experience the heartbreaking collision of past and present that's at the core of the piece."[119] The recording of the 2011 revival was nominated for a Grammy Award in the Musical Theater Album category.[120] The 2017 London revival cast was recorded after the production closed in January 2018, and was released in early 2019.[121][122]

Film adaptation

Tony Award-winning playwright and Oscar-nominated screenwriter John Logan has expressed interest in writing a film adaptation of Follies.[123]

Awards and nominations

Original Broadway production

Year Award Category Nominee Result
1971 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Choreography Michael Bennett Won
Outstanding Lyrics Stephen Sondheim Won
Outstanding Music Won
Outstanding Costume Design Florence Klotz Won
Outstanding Set Design Boris Aronson Won
Outstanding Performance Alexis Smith Won
Outstanding Director Harold Prince and Michael Bennett Won
New York Drama Critics' Circle Best Musical Won
1972 Tony Award Best Musical Nominated
Best Book of a Musical James Goldman Nominated
Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical Alexis Smith Won
Dorothy Collins Nominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical Gene Nelson Nominated
Best Original Score Stephen Sondheim Won
Best Direction of a Musical Harold Prince and Michael Bennett Won
Best Choreography Michael Bennett Won
Best Scenic Design Boris Aronson Won
Best Costume Design Florence Klotz Won
Best Lighting Design Tharon Musser Won

Original London production

Year Award Category Nominee Result
1987 Laurence Olivier Award[124] Musical of the Year Won
Actress of the Year in a Musical Julia McKenzie Nominated

2001 Broadway revival

Year Award Category Nominee Result
2001 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival of a Musical Nominated
Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical Polly Bergen Nominated
Outstanding Orchestrations Jonathan Tunick Nominated
Tony Award Best Revival of a Musical Nominated
Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical Blythe Danner Nominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical Polly Bergen Nominated
Best Costume Design Theoni V. Aldredge Nominated
Best Orchestrations Jonathan Tunick Nominated

2011 Broadway revival

Year Award Category Nominee Result
2012 Tony Award Best Revival of a Musical Nominated
Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical Danny Burstein Nominated
Ron Raines Nominated
Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical Jan Maxwell Nominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical Jayne Houdyshell Nominated
Best Costume Design Gregg Barnes Won
Best Lighting Design Natasha Katz Nominated
Best Sound Design Kai Harada Nominated
Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival of a Musical Won
Outstanding Actor in a Musical Danny Burstein Won
Outstanding Actress in a Musical Jan Maxwell Nominated
Bernadette Peters Nominated
Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical Elaine Paige Nominated
Outstanding Director of a Musical Eric Schaeffer Nominated
Outstanding Choreography Warren Carlyle Nominated
Outstanding Set Design Derek McLane Nominated
Outstanding Costume Design Gregg Barnes Won
Outstanding Sound Design Kai Harada Nominated
Grammy Award Best Musical Theater Album Nominated

2017 London revival

Year Award Category Nominee Result
2017 Evening Standard Theatre Awards[125] Best Musical Nominated
Best Director Dominic Cooke Nominated
Best Musical Performance Janie Dee Nominated
2018 Laurence Olivier Awards[126] Best Musical Revival Won
Best Actress in a Musical Janie Dee Nominated
Imelda Staunton Nominated
Best Actress in a Supporting Role in a Musical Tracie Bennett Nominated
Best Director Dominic Cooke Nominated
Best Theatre Choreographer Bill Deamer Nominated
Best Set Design Vicki Mortimer Nominated
Best Costume Design Won
Best Lighting Design Paule Constable Nominated
Outstanding Achievement in Music The orchestra, Nicholas Skilbeck, and Nigel Lilley Nominated
WhatsOnStage Awards[127] Best Musical Revival Nominated
Best Actress in a Musical Janie Dee Nominated
Best Supporting Actress in a Musical Tracie Bennett Nominated
Best Director Dominic Cooke Nominated
Best Set Design Vicki Mortimer Nominated
Best Costume Design Nominated
Best Lighting Design Paule Constable Nominated
Critics' Circle Theatre Awards[128] Best Director Dominic Cooke Won
Best Designer Vicki Mortimer Won

Notes

  1. ^ Hetrick, Adam. "Good Times and Bum Times": Broadway Revival of Follies Exceeds Expectations, But Doesn't Recoup" Playbill, January 24, 2012
  2. ^ a b Chapin, pp. xxii–xxvi, 7
  3. ^ Citron, Stephen. Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber: The New Musical, "Chapter:Prince and Company". Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber: The New Musical, Oxford University Press US, 2001, ISBN 0-19-509601-0, pp.159-160
  4. ^ a b c d Sondheim, Stephen, and Goldman, James."Act 1" Follies. Theatre Communications Group, 2001, ISBN 978-1-55936-196-5, pp. 2-3, 71
  5. ^ a b "Synopsis" mtishows.com. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  6. ^ Sondheim, p. 231
  7. ^ Banfield, Stephen. "'Follies'" Sondheim's Broadway Musicals, University of Michigan Press, 1993, ISBN 0472080830, p. 189
  8. ^ Hirsch, Foster. "A little Sondheim music". Harold Prince and the American Musical Theatre, CUP Archive, 1989, ISBN 0-521-33609-0, p. 95
  9. ^ Gamerman, Ellen."Bernadette Peters on ‘Follies’ and Puppies" The Wall Street Journal, September 3, 2011,
  10. ^ Gottfried, Martin. Flipping Over 'Follies'". The New York Times (books), April 25, 1971
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  30. ^ Chapin, pp. 309-310
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References

  • Chapin, Ted (2003). Everything Was Possible: The Birth of the Musical Follies. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-41328-5
  • Secrest, Meryle (1998). Stephen Sondheim: A Life. Dell Publishing, Alfred A. Knopf (reprint). ISBN 0-385-33412-5
  • Sondheim, Stephen and Goldman, James (2001). Follies. New York, New York: Theatre Communications Group. ISBN 978-1-55936-196-5
  • Sondheim, Stephen (2010). Finishing the Hat. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-43907-3

Further reading

  • Prince, Harold (1974). Contradictions: Notes on Twenty-six Years in the Theatre. Dodd, Mead. ISBN 978-0-396-07019-1
  • Ilson, Carol (2004). Harold Prince: A Director's Journey, Limelight Editions. ISBN 978-0-87910-296-8
  • Mandelbaum, Ken (1990). A Chorus Line and the Musicals of Michael Bennett. St. Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04280-6

External links

Blondie of the Follies

Blondie of the Follies is a 1932 American pre-Code comedy film directed by Edmund Goulding and written by Anita Loos and Frances Marion.

Diane of the Follies

Diane of the Follies is a 1916 American drama film directed by Christy Cabanne. The film is considered to be lost.

Disney on Ice

Disney On Ice, originally Walt Disney's World on Ice, is a series of touring ice shows produced by Feld Entertainment's Ice Follies And Holiday on Ice, Inc. under agreement with The Walt Disney Company. Aimed primarily at children, the shows feature figure skaters portraying the roles of Disney characters in performances derived from various Disney films.

Feld Entertainment licensed the rights to Disney material for ice shows and includes shared merchandising revenue between Disney and Ice Follies.

Fashions of 1934

Fashions of 1934 is a 1934 American pre-Code musical comedy film directed by William Dieterle with musical numbers created and directed by Busby Berkeley. The screenplay by F. Hugh Herbert and Carl Erickson was based on the story The Fashion Plate by Harry Collins and Warren Duff. The film stars William Powell, Bette Davis, Hugh Herbert and Frank McHugh, and has songs by Sammy Fain (music) and Irving Kahal (lyrics). (Sometime after the initial release, the title "Fashions of 1934" was changed to "Fashions", replacing the original title with an insert card stating "William Powell in 'Fashions'").

Florenz Ziegfeld Jr.

Florenz Edward Ziegfeld Jr. (March 21, 1867 – July 22, 1932), popularly known as Flo Ziegfeld, was an American Broadway impresario, notable for his series of theatrical revues, the Ziegfeld Follies (1907–1931), inspired by the Folies Bergère of Paris. He also produced the musical Show Boat. He was known as the "glorifier of the American girl". Ziegfeld is a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame.

Folies Bergère

The Folies Bergère (French pronunciation: ​[fɔ.li bɛʁ.ʒɛʁ]) is a cabaret music hall, located in Paris, France. Located at 32 rue Richer in the 9th Arrondissement, the Folies Bergère was built as an opera house by the architect Plumeret. It opened on 2 May 1869 as the Folies Trévise, with light entertainment including operettas, comic opera, popular songs, and gymnastics. It became the Folies Bergère on 13 September 1872, named after nearby rue Bergère. The house was at the height of its fame and popularity from the 1890s' Belle Époque through the 1920s.

Revues featured extravagant costumes, sets and effects, and often nude women. In 1926, Josephine Baker, an African-American expatriate singer, dancer and entertainer, caused a sensation at the Folies Bergère by dancing in a costume consisting of a skirt made of a string of artificial bananas and little else.

The institution is still in business, and is still a strong symbol of French and Parisian life.

Folly

In architecture, a folly is a building constructed primarily for decoration, but suggesting through its appearance some other purpose, or of such extravagant appearance that it transcends the range of garden ornaments usually associated with the class of buildings to which it belongs.

Eighteenth-century English landscape gardening and French landscape gardening often featured mock Roman temples, symbolising classical virtues. Other 18th-century garden follies represented Chinese temples, Egyptian pyramids, ruined abbeys, or Tatar tents, to represent different continents or historical eras. Sometimes they represented rustic villages, mills, and cottages to symbolise rural virtues. Many follies, particularly during times of famine, such as the Irish potato famine, were built as a form of poor relief, to provide employment for peasants and unemployed artisans.

In English, the term began as "a popular name for any costly structure considered to have shown folly in the builder", the OED's definition, and were often named after the individual who commissioned or designed the project. The connotations of silliness or madness in this definition is in accord with the general meaning of the French word "folie"; however, another older meaning of this word is "delight" or "favourite abode". This sense included conventional, practical, buildings that were thought unduly large or expensive, such as Beckford's Folly, an extremely expensive early Gothic Revival country house that collapsed under the weight of its tower in 1825, 12 years after completion. As a general term, "folly" is usually applied to a small building that appears to have no practical purpose or the purpose of which appears less important than its striking and unusual design, but the term is ultimately subjective, so a precise definition is not possible.

Football Follies

Football Follies are collections of American football bloopers performed by National Football League players. Produced by NFL Films, these collections also spoof parts of popular culture. Mel Blanc joined in the fun in 1976 with The Son of Football Follies, and returned (in one of his final efforts) in 1989 for The Super Duper Football Follies. In addition, Jonathan Winters was featured in 1987's The NFL TV Follies, intended as a parody of the relationship between football and television.

The series of films currently airs on NFL Network, usually as filler programming when a live game is airing on another network (most commonly Sunday or Monday Night Football).

Fox Movietone Follies of 1929

Fox Movietone Follies of 1929, also known as Movietone Follies of 1929 and The William Fox Movietone Follies of 1929, is a black-and-white and color American musical film released by Fox Film Corporation.

Ice Follies

The Ice Follies, formerly known as the Shipstads & Johnson Ice Follies, was a touring ice show featuring elaborate production numbers, similar in concept to Ice Capades. It was founded in 1936 by Eddie and Roy Shipstad, and Oscar Johnson. In later years, Olympic skaters such as Donald Jackson, Barbara Berezowski, Peggy Fleming, and Janet Lynn were in the cast. Ice Follies also featured novelty acts such as Frick and Frack and Richard Dwyer, who was billed as "Mr. Debonair".The production company is now called Ice Follies and Holiday on Ice, Inc., a subsidiary of Feld Entertainment which produces the shows under the Disney on Ice and "... on Ice" titles. Feld formed the new subsidiary from the Ice Follies and U.S. Holiday on Ice touring companies.

The show was a variety show that included a chorus line called The Ice Folliettes, which led to synchronized figure skating, that famously precisely performed a kick line and pinwheel on ice.

Mice Follies (1954 film)

Mice Follies is the 85th one-reel animated Tom and Jerry short, created in 1953, directed by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera and produced by Fred Quimby with music by Scott Bradley (mainly incorporating Tchaikovsky's Sleeping Beauty Waltz). The cartoon was animated by Kenneth Muse, Ed Barge, Irven Spence and Ray Patterson with backgrounds by Robert Gentle. It was released on September 4, 1954 by Metro Goldwyn Mayer. For The Looney Tunes short see released in 1960 of the same name.

New Amsterdam Theatre

The New Amsterdam Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 214 West 42nd Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues in the Theater District of Manhattan, New York City, off of Times Square. It was built in 1902–1903 and was designed by the architecture firm of Henry Hertz and Hugh Tallant; the Roof Garden, where more risqué productions were presented, and which no longer exists, was added in 1904, designed by the same firm. The remainder of the building was utilized for offices.From 1913 to 1927, the theatre was the home of the Ziegfeld Follies, whose producer, Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr., maintained an office in the building, and operated a nightclub on the roof. George White's Scandals and Eva LeGallienne's Civic Repertory Theatre were subsequent tenants. It was used as a movie theatre beginning in 1937, closed in 1985, and was leased by The Walt Disney Company and renovated by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer in 1995–97 to be the flagship for Disney Theatrical Productions presentations on Broadway.Both the Beaux-Arts exterior and the Art Nouveau interior of the building are New York City landmarks, having been designated in 1979. In addition, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

Along with the Hudson and Lyceum Theatres, also built in 1903, the New Amsterdam is one of the oldest surviving Broadway venues.

Our Gang Follies of 1936

Our Gang Follies of 1936 is a 1935 Our Gang short comedy film directed by Gus Meins. Produced by Hal Roach and released to theaters by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, it was the 140th Our Gang short to be released and the first of several musical entries in the series.

Palmerston Forts

The Palmerston Forts are a group of forts and associated structures, around the coast of Britain.

The forts were built during the Victorian period on the recommendations of the 1860 Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom, following concerns about the strength of the French Navy, and strenuous debate in Parliament about whether the cost could be justified. The name comes from their association with Lord Palmerston, who was Prime Minister at the time and promoted the idea.

The works were also known as Palmerston's Follies, partly because the first ones, around Portsmouth, had their main armament facing inland to protect Portsmouth from a land-based attack, which gave the impression that they faced the wrong way to defend from a French attack. Also because they were considered of questionable military value and one definition of "folly" is "a costly ornamental building with no practical value". They were criticized because by the time they were completed, any threat had passed, largely due to the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, and because the technology of the guns had become out-of-date. They were the most costly and extensive system of fixed defences undertaken in Britain in peacetime.Some sixty years previously, there had been a similar period of defence works construction, when a couple of hundred circular towers were built for the same purpose (mainly along the Sussex, Kent and Suffolk coast to protect London) called Martello Towers, but these had become outdated.

The new defences were built to defend a number of key areas of the British, Irish and Channel Island coastline, in particular areas around military bases, including:

A complete list is available online.

The Goldwyn Follies

The Goldwyn Follies is a 1938 Technicolor film written by Ben Hecht, Sid Kuller, Sam Perrin and Arthur Phillips, with music by George Gershwin, Vernon Duke, and Ray Golden, and lyrics by Ira Gershwin. Some sources credit Kurt Weill as one of the composers, but this is apparently incorrect. The Goldwyn Follies was the first Technicolor film produced by Samuel Goldwyn.

The movie, which features Adolphe Menjou, Vera Zorina, Edgar Bergen (with Charlie McCarthy), Andrea Leeds, Kenny Baker, Ella Logan, Helen Jepson, Bobby Clark and the Ritz Brothers, depicts a movie producer who chooses a simple girl to be "Miss Humanity" and to critically evaluate his movies from the point of view of the ordinary person. The style of the film is very similar to other musicals of its era, including the "Gold Diggers" series and others. The film is an effective satire on Hollywood and have some excellent numbers choreographed by George Balanchine.

Songs include:

"Our Love is Here to Stay"

"I Was Doing All Right"

"Spring Again"

"Love Walked In"

"I Love to Rhyme"This was the last film score written by George Gershwin before his death on 11 July 1937. The Goldwyn Follies was released on 20 February 1938. The movie was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Score and for Best Interior Decoration.

The Great Ziegfeld

The Great Ziegfeld is a 1936 American musical and drama film directed by Robert Z. Leonard and produced by Hunt Stromberg. It stars William Powell as the theatrical impresario Florenz "Flo" Ziegfeld Jr., Luise Rainer as Anna Held, and Myrna Loy as Billie Burke.

The film, shot at MGM Studios in Culver City, California in the fall of 1935, is a fictionalized tribute to Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. and a cinematic adaption of Broadway's Ziegfeld Follies, with highly elaborate costumes, dances and sets. Many of the performers of the theatrical Ziegfeld Follies were cast in the film as themselves, including Fanny Brice and Harriet Hoctor, and the real Billie Burke acted as a supervisor for the film. The "A Pretty Girl Is Like a Melody" set alone was reported to have cost US$220,000 (US$3,972,134 in 2018 dollars), featuring a towering rotating volute of 70 ft (21 m) diameter with 175 spiral steps, weighing 100 tons. The music to the film was provided by Walter Donaldson, Irving Berlin, and lyricist Harold Adamson, with choreographed scenes. The extravagant costumes were designed by Adrian, taking some 250 tailors and seamstresses six months to prepare them using 50 pounds (23 kg) of silver sequins and 12 yards (11 m) of white ostrich plumes. Over a thousand people were employed in the production of the film, which required 16 reels of film after the cutting.

One of the biggest successes in film in the 1930s and the pride of MGM at the time, it was acclaimed as the greatest musical biography to be made in Hollywood and still remains a standard in musical film making. It won three Academy Awards, including Best Picture for producer Hunt Stromberg, Best Actress for Luise Rainer, and Best Dance Direction for Seymour Felix, and was nominated for four others. Although the film still is praised for its lavish production and as a symbol of glamour and excess during the Golden Age of Hollywood, today The Great Ziegfeld is generally seen less favorably and is considered by many critics to be excessively showy and too lengthy at over three hours.

MGM made two more Ziegfeld films – one entitled Ziegfeld Girl (1941), starring James Stewart, Judy Garland, Hedy Lamarr, and Lana Turner, which recycled some footage from The Great Ziegfeld, and in 1946, Ziegfeld Follies by Vincente Minnelli. In 1951, it produced a Technicolor remake of Show Boat, which Ziegfeld had presented as a stage musical.

The Will Rogers Follies

The Will Rogers Follies is a musical with a book by Peter Stone, lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, and music by Cy Coleman.

It focuses on the life and career of famed humorist and performer Will Rogers, using as a backdrop the Ziegfeld Follies, which he often headlined, and describes every episode in his life in the form of a big production number. The Rogers character also performs rope tricks in between scenes. The revue contains snippets of Rogers' famous homespun style of wisdom and common sense and tries to convey the personality of this quintessentially American figure whose most famous quote was "I never met a man I didn't like."

Ziegfeld Follies

The Ziegfeld Follies was a series of elaborate theatrical revue productions on Broadway in New York City from 1907 to 1931, with renewals in 1934 and 1936. They became a radio program in 1932 and 1936 as The Ziegfeld Follies of the Air.

Ziegfeld Follies (film)

Ziegfeld Follies is a 1945 American musical comedy film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and directed by Lemuel Ayers, Roy Del Ruth, Robert Lewis, Vincente Minnelli, Merrill Pye, George Sidney, and Charles Walters. It stars many of MGM leading talents, including Fred Astaire, Lucille Ball, Lucille Bremer, Fanny Brice (the only member of the ensemble who was a star of the original Follies), Judy Garland, Kathryn Grayson, Lena Horne, Gene Kelly, James Melton, Victor Moore, William Powell, Red Skelton, and Esther Williams.

Producer Arthur Freed wanted to create a film along the lines of the Ziegfeld Follies Broadway shows, and so, the film is composed of a sequence of unrelated lavish musical numbers and comedy sketches. Filmed in 1944, 1945 and 1946, it was released in 1946, to considerable critical and box-office success.

The film was entered into the 1947 Cannes Film Festival.

Musicals by Stephen Sondheim
Awards for Follies

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