Fodder

Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. "Fodder" refers particularly to food given to the animals (including plants cut and carried to them), rather than that which they forage for themselves (called forage). Fodder (/ˈfɒdər/) is also called provender (/ˈprɒvəndər/) and includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, and sprouted grains and legumes (such as bean sprouts, fresh malt, or spent malt). Most animal feed is from plants, but some manufacturers add ingredients to processed feeds that are of animal origin.

The worldwide animal feed industry produced 873 million tons of feed (compound feed equivalent) in 2011,[1] fast approaching 1 billion tonnes according to the International Feed Industry Federation,[2] with an annual growth rate of about 2%. The use of agricultural land to grow feed rather than human food can be controversial; some types of feed, such as corn (maize), can also serve as human food; those that cannot, such as grassland grass, may be grown on land that can be used for crops consumed by humans. In many cases the production of grass for cattle fodder is a valuable intercrop between crops for human consumption, because it builds the organic matter in the soil. When evaluating if this soil organic matter increase mitigates climate change, both permanency of the added organic matter as well as emissions produced during use of the fodder product have to be taken into account. Some agricultural byproducts fed to animals may be considered unsavory by human consumers.

Fodder factory02
A fodder factory set up by an individual farmer to produce customised cattle feed

Common plants specifically grown for fodder

Round hay bale at dawn02
Round hay bales
Newton of Cawdor stack of bales - geograph.org.uk - 545290
Newton of Cawdor stack of bales, sweet-smelling fodder stored for winter
African boy transporting fodder by bicycle edit
Cut green fodder being transported to cattle in Tanzania

Types of fodder

Health concerns

Fodder growing
Barley is a crop sometimes grown for fodder

In the past, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad cow disease") spread through the inclusion of ruminant meat and bone meal in cattle feed due to prion contamination. This practice is now banned in most countries where it has occurred. Some animals have a lower tolerance for spoiled or moldy fodder than others, and certain types of molds, toxins, or poisonous weeds inadvertently mixed into a feed source may cause economic losses due to sickness or death of the animals. The US Dept. of Health and Human Services regulates drugs of the Veterinary Feed Directive type that can be present within commercial livestock feed.

Production of sprouted grains as fodder

Fodder Solutions
On site system in the U.S.
Fodder Solutions Grow Deck
A "grow deck" commercial sprouting system

Fodder in the form of sprouted cereal grains such as barley, and legumes can be grown in small and large quantities. Hydroponic systems can grow up to tons of sprouts to each day; year round in a carefully controlled environment.[6]

Sprouted grains can increase the nutritional value of the grain compared with feeding the ungerminated grain to stock.[7] In addition, they use less water than traditional forage, making them ideal for drought conditions. Under hydroponic conditions, sprouted fodder at 150 mm tall with a 50 mm root mat is at its peak for animal feed. Although products such are barley are grain, when sprouted they are approved by the American Grassfed Association to be used as livestock feed.

See also

References

  1. ^ "allaboutfeed.net". allaboutfeed.net. allaboutfeed.net. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  2. ^ "IFIF". IFIF.org. IFIF. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  3. ^ Valorization of agricultural wastewater streams into an alternative protein source duckweed.
  4. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-09-27. Retrieved 2015-09-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Logsdon, Gene (2004). All Flesh Is Grass. Ohio University: Swallow Press. Chapter 20. ISBN 0-8040-1069-2.
  6. ^ Sneath, Roger; McIntosh, Felicity (October 2003). "Review of Hydroponic Fodder Production for Beef Cattle". www.mla.com.au. Meat & Livestock Australia Limited. ISBN 1740365038. Retrieved 7 June 2018. Hydroponic sprouts may have profitable application in intensive, small-scale livestock situations with high value outputs, where land and alternative feed costs are high, and where the quality changes (eg less starch, more lysine, vitamins, etc) due to sprouting are advantageous to the particular livestock.
  7. ^ Sneath, Roger; McIntosh, Felicity (October 2003). "Review of Hydroponic Fodder Production for Beef Cattle". www.mla.com.au. Meat & Livestock Australia Limited. p. 15. ISBN 1740365038. Retrieved 7 June 2018.

Further reading

  • Zhou, Yiqin. Compar[ison of] Fresh or Ensiled Fodders (e.g., Grass, Legume, Corn) on the Production of Greenhouse Gases Following Enteric Fermentation in Beef Cattle. Rouyn-Noranda, Qué.: Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 2011. N.B.: Research report.

External links

Animal feed

Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry. There are two basic types: fodder and forage. Used alone, the word "feed" more often refers to fodder.

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (Finnish: [ˈɑrtːuri ˈilmɑri ˈʋirtɑnen] (listen); 15 January 1895 – 11 November 1973) was a Finnish chemist and recipient of the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method".He invented AIV silage which improved milk production and a method of preserving butter, the AIV salt, which led to increased Finnish butter exports.

Cannon fodder

Cannon fodder is an informal, derogatory term for combatants who are regarded or treated by government or military command as expendable in the face of enemy fire. The term is generally used in situations where combatants are forced to deliberately fight against hopeless odds (with the foreknowledge that they will suffer extremely high casualties) in an effort to achieve a strategic goal; an example is the trench warfare of World War I. The term may also be used (somewhat pejoratively) to differentiate infantry from other forces (such as artillery troops, air force or the navy), or to distinguish expendable low-grade or inexperienced combatants from supposedly more valuable veterans.

The term derives from fodder, as food for livestock. Soldiers are the metaphorical food for enemy cannon fire.

Canon Fodder

Canon Fodder is a 2000 AD series created by Mark Millar and Chris Weston. It features the adventures of the eponymous character Canon Fodder, the sole survivor of the Priest Patrol, a bizarre cross between the police and the church who patrol the streets of a future London after Judgment Day has cause the dead to rise, and a breakdown of society.

Chaff

Chaff ( or ) is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material such as scaly parts of flowers, or finely chopped straw. Chaff is indigestible by humans, but livestock can eat it and in agriculture it is used as livestock fodder, or is a waste material ploughed into the soil or burned.

Crop

A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. Crop may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state. Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. A crop is usually expanded to include macroscopic fungus (e.g. mushrooms), or alga (algaculture).

Most crops are harvested as food for humans or fodder for livestock. Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering, e.g. ginseng).

Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops. Horticulture crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees). Floriculture crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers. Industrial crops are produced for clothing (fiber crops), biofuel (energy crops, algae fuel), or medicine (medicinal plants).

Diatomaceous earth

Diatomaceous earth ( ) – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 μm to more than 1 mm, but typically 10 to 200 μm. Depending on the granularity, this powder can have an abrasive feel, similar to pumice powder, and has a low density as a result of its high porosity. The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80–90% silica, with 2–4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay minerals) and 0.5–2% iron oxide.Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled protist (chrysophytes). It is used as a filtration aid, mild abrasive in products including metal polishes and toothpaste, mechanical insecticide, absorbent for liquids, matting agent for coatings, reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber, anti-block in plastic films, porous support for chemical catalysts, cat litter, activator in blood clotting studies, a stabilizing component of dynamite, a thermal insulator, and a soil for potted plants and trees like bonsai.

Fodder Scam

The Fodder Scam was a corruption scandal that involved the embezzlement of about ₹9.4 billion (equivalent to ₹36 billion or US$520 million in 2018) from the government treasury of the eastern Indian state of Bihar. Among those implicated in the theft and arrested were then Chief Minister of Bihar, Lalu Prasad Yadav, as well as former Chief Minister, Jagannath Mishra. The scandal led to the end of Lalu's reign as Chief Minister. There is also allegation on Dr. Dineshwar Prasad Sharma of receiving 300 crore and 60 lakh Rupees, respectively, from S. N. Sinha. On 23 December, 2017 Lalu Prasad Yadav was convicted by a special CBI court while Jagannath Misra was acquitted. The theft spanned for many years, and allegedly involved numerous Bihar state's administrative and elected officials across multiple administrations of the Indian National Congress and the Janata Dal parties. The corruption scheme involved the fabrication of "vast herds of fictitious livestock" for which fodder, medicines and animal husbandry equipment was supposedly procured. Although the scandal broke in 1996, the theft had been in progress, and increased in size, for over two decades. Besides the magnitude and duration of the theft, the scam was and continues to be covered in Indian media due to the extensive nexus between tenured bureaucrats, elected politicians and businesspeople that it revealed, and as an example of the Mafia Raj that has penetrated several state-run economic sectors in the country.

As of May 2013, the trial was completed in 44 cases out of a total of 53 cases. More than 500 accused have been convicted and awarded punishments by various courts.

Fodder on My Wings

Fodder on My Wings is an album by singer/pianist/songwriter Nina Simone. It is part of her later works, and can be regarded alongside Baltimore (1978) as one of her better achievements of that period. It is however a rather obscure album and not widely distributed. The album is one of Simone's most introspective and personal works, with songs about her father's death and her (not always pleasant) stay in Liberia, Trinidad and Switzerland. There is some confusion about the actual title of the album and the song with almost the same title on the album, being called "Fodder on My Wings", "Fodder in My Wings", "Fodder in Her Wings" interchangeably.

Fokker Scourge

The Fokker Scourge (or Fokker Scare) occurred during the First World War from August 1915 to early 1916, when the Imperial German Flying Corps (Die Fliegertruppen), equipped with Fokker Eindecker fighters, gained an advantage over the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the French Aéronautique Militaire.

The Fokker was the first service aircraft to be fitted with a machine gun synchronised to fire through the arc of the propeller without striking the blades. The tactical advantage of aiming the gun by aiming the aircraft and the surprise of its introduction were factors in its success.This period of German air superiority ended with the arrival in numbers of the French Nieuport 11 and British Airco DH.2 fighters, which were capable of challenging the Fokkers, although the last Fokkers were not finally replaced until August–September 1916.The term "Fokker Scourge" was coined by the British press in mid-1916, after the Eindeckers had been outclassed by the new Allied types. Use of the term coincided with a political campaign to end a perceived dominance of the Royal Aircraft Factory in the supply of aircraft to the Royal Flying Corps, a campaign that was begun by the pioneering aviation journalist C. G. Grey and Noel Pemberton Billing M.P., founder of Pemberton-Billing Ltd (Supermarine from 1916) and a great enthusiast for aerial warfare.

Forage

Forage is a plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.

Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage. The term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennial, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop.

Hay

Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut and dried to be stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for large grazing animals raised as livestock, such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. However, it is also fed to smaller domesticated animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs. Even pigs may be fed hay, but they do not digest it as efficiently as herbivores.

Hay can be used as animal fodder when or where there is not enough pasture or rangeland on which to graze an animal, when grazing is not feasible due to weather (such as during the winter), or when lush pasture by itself would be too rich for the health of the animal. It is also fed when an animal is unable to access pasture, e.g. the animal is being kept in a stable or barn.

Lalu Prasad Yadav

Lalu Prasad (born 11 June 1948) is an Indian politician from the state of Bihar. He is the President of the Rashtriya Janata Dal, former Chief Minister of Bihar, former UPA Minister of Railways, and former Member of Parliament of the 15th Lok Sabha.

He entered politics at Patna University as a student leader and was elected as then youngest member of the Lok Sabha in 1977 as a Janata Party candidate at the age of 29. He became Chief Minister of Bihar in 1990 but had to resign in 1997 following escalating corruption charges relating to the Fodder Scam. From 1997 to 2005 his wife Rabri Devi ruled as the Chief Minister of the state. His party came to power in 2015 Bihar Legislative Assembly election in partnership with Nitish Kumar of JD(U), but Nitish Kumar dumped Lalu's party from the power in July 2017 after the Enforcement Directorate and CBI lodged several criminal cases against Lalu, his wife Rabri, his son and former deputy Chief Minister, Tejashwi Yadav, in another disproportionate assets and railway tender bribery scam during Lalu's stint as the Railway Minister.On 3 October 2013, he was sentenced to five years of rigorous imprisonment and ₹25 lakh (US$36,000) fine for his role in the first Fodder Scam by the CBI court, then again for 3.5 years in a second fodder scam case on the same day, 23 December 2017 when his member of parliament daughter Misa Bharti was also officially charged by Enforcement Directorate in disproportionate assets, while 3 more fodder scam cases against him are also pending in the court. Yadav was found guilty in third fodder scam case in January, 2018. In March, 2018, the Special CBI Court convicted him in the fourth fodder scam case which is related to swindling of Rs. 3.13 crore from the Dumka treasury. In the Dumka Treasury case a total of Rs 60 lakh fine imposed (Rs 30 lakh under PC act and Rs 30 lakh under IPC) and 14 years' imprisonment (7 years under IPC and 7 years under Prevention of Corruption Act) was sentenced on Lalu Prasad Yadav in to run consecutively.

Mangelwurzel

Mangelwurzel or mangold wurzel (from German Mangel/Mangold, "chard" and Wurzel, "root"), also called mangold, mangel beet, field beet,, fodder beet and (archaic) root of scarcity is a cultivated root vegetable. It is a variety of Beta vulgaris, the same species that also contains the red beet (beetroot) and sugar beet varieties. The cultivar group is named Crassa Group. Their large white, yellow or orange-yellow swollen roots were developed in the 18th century as a fodder crop for feeding livestock.

Memories (1995 film)

Memories (also Otomo Katsuhiro's Memories) is a 1995 Japanese animated science fiction anthology film with Katsuhiro Otomo as executive producer, and based on three of his manga short stories. The film is composed of three shorts: Magnetic Rose (彼女の想いで, Kanojo no Omoide), directed by Studio 4°C co-founder Kōji Morimoto and written by Satoshi Kon; Stink Bomb (最臭兵器, Saishū-heiki), directed by Tensai Okamura of Darker than Black fame and written by Otomo, and Cannon Fodder (大砲の街, Taihō no Machi), written and directed by Otomo himself.

Prabhat Khabar

Prabhat Khabar is a Hindi language newspaper published daily in Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal. The newspaper is circulated in several states in India, including Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and some parts of Orissa. It was founded in August 1984 in Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand. The newspaper is notable for reporting social issues and revealing scams, such as the Fodder Scam. The newspaper began reporting the Fodder Scam in 1992. Despite receiving threats, the newspaper wrote 70 reports on the scam and had four or five reporters reporting the story.

Silage

Silage is fermented, high-moisture stored fodder which can be fed to cattle, sheep and other such ruminants (cud-chewing animals) or used as a biofuel feedstock for anaerobic digesters. It is fermented and stored in a process called ensilage, ensiling or silaging, and is usually made from grass crops, including maize, sorghum or other cereals, using the entire green plant (not just the grain). Silage can be made from many field crops, and special terms may be used depending on type: oatlage for oats, haylage for alfalfa; but see below for the different British use of the term haylage.

Silage is made by one or more of the following methods: placing cut green vegetation in a silo or pit; piling the vegetation in a large heap and compressing it down so as to purge as much oxygen as possible, then covering it with a plastic sheet; or by wrapping large round bales tightly in plastic film.

Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands. Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).

Stover

Stover is the leaves and stalks of field crops, such as corn (maize), sorghum or soybean that are commonly left in a field after harvesting the grain. It is similar to straw, the residue left after any cereal grain or grass has been harvested at maturity for its seed. It can be directly grazed by cattle or dried for use as fodder. Stover has attracted some attention as a potential fuel source, and as biomass for fermentation or as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. Stover from various crops can also be used in mushroom compost preparation.The word 'stover' derives from the English legal term 'estovers', referring to the right of tenants to cut timber.

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