Floruit (UK: /ˈflɔːruɪt, ˈflɒruɪt/, US: /ˈflɔːrjuɪt/), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.[1][2] In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished.[1]

Etymology and use

Latin: flōruit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin verb flōreō, flōrēre "to bloom, flower, or flourish", from the noun flōs, flōris, "flower".[3][2]

Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such. It is used in genealogy and historical writing when a person's birth or death dates are unknown.[4] For example, if there are wills attested by John Jones in 1204 and 1229, and a record of his marriage in 1197, a record concerning him might be written as "John Jones (fl. 1197–1229)".

The term is often used in art history when dating the career of an artist. In this context, it denotes the period of the individual's artistic activity.[5]

In some cases, it can be replaced by the words "active between [date] and [date]", depending on context and if space or style permits.

See also


  1. ^ a b "floruit". Oxford English Living Dictionaries: English. Oxford University Press. 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b flo·ru·it. American Heritage Dictionary (5th [online] ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2017 [2011]. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  3. ^ Cassell's Latin Dictionary
  4. ^ Adeleye, Gabriel; Kofi Acquah-Dadzie; Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough (1999). World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions: a Resource for Readers and Writers. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 147. ISBN 0-86516-423-1. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  5. ^ Johnson, W. McAllister (1990), Art History: Its Use and Abuse, University of Toronto Press, p. 307, ISBN 0-86516-423-1, retrieved 1 June 2010
Abraham II (Nestorian patriarch)

Abraham II was Patriarch of the Church of the East from 837 to 850. He was a monk at Beth Abe and was later appointed a bishop of Hdatta before being elected to the patriarchate. Brief accounts of Abraham's patriarchate are given in the Ecclesiastical Chronicle of the Jacobite writer Bar Hebraeus (floruit 1280) and in the ecclesiastical histories of the Nestorian writers Mari (twelfth-century), ʿAmr (fourteenth-century) and Sliba (fourteenth-century). The following account of Abraham's patriarchate is given by Bar Hebraeus:

Sabrishoʿ II was succeeded by Abraham II, from the monastery of Beth ʿAbe, who was a man pure and chaste in body but not learned, and not up to the task of governing the church. His nephew Ephrem, his sister's son, and another son by a concubine used their power perversely. During his time the Christians were in sore straits, as the Arabs demolished several churches in Basra.

Bjørn (floruit 856–58)

Bjørn (Latin: Berno) was a Viking chieftain. He is the earliest known Scandinavian who was not a relative of the Danish kings to enter the service of a Frankish king, in his case Charles the Bald, king of West Francia. He is sometimes tenuously identified with the Swedish king Björn Ironside.

In July 856 a Viking chieftain named Sidroc entered the River Seine to pillage. On 19 August he was joined by a fleet commanded by Bjørn. Come winter Sidroc left Frankish waters while Bjørn built a fortified camp on an island called Oscellus, probably Oissel. The Vikings proceeded to raid as far as Bayeux and Évreux, and the entire region showed little resistance to their movements throughout 857. (The Annales Fontanellenses, an important source for these events, incorrectly date them to 855.)The surviving sources do not record Bjørn's reasons for visiting King Charles at Verberie early in 858. In the words of the Annales Bertiniani, the preeminent West Frankish annals for the period: “Bjørn, leader of the faction of pirates of the Seine, pursuing King Charles came to the palace in Veberie, and giving him his hands, swore fidelity to him.” Bjørn had probably been offered tribute (danegeld) in return for submitting to the act of commendation (the giving of hands and swearing of fealty). In November the bishops of West Francia, meeting in a synod at Quercy, sent a letter, probably authored by Hincmar, to Louis the German, the king of East Francia, in which the raising of tribute to pay off the Vikings is mentioned. Probably this refers to Bjørn and his men, since no other Vikings are known to have made their peace with the Franks at about this time.According to the Annales Fontanellenses Charles the Bald besieged Oissel late in 859 (actually 858). Since Bjørn is never again mentioned by name in the annals it is probable that he remained loyal to Charles and did not rejoin the army that remained at the island stronghold. The Annales Bertiniani confirm that Charles only besieged the island after Bjørn's commendation.


Cerball (modern spelling: Cearbhall) is an Irish language male given name and may refer to:

Cerball mac Dúnlainge (died 888), King of Osraige

Cerball mac Muirecáin (died 909), King of Leinster

Cearbhall Óg Ó Dálaigh (floruit 1630), poet

Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh (1911–1978), President of Ireland


Circa (from Latin, meaning 'around, about') – frequently abbreviated c., ca. or ca and less frequently circ. or cca. – signifies "approximately" in several European languages and as a loanword in English, usually in reference to a date. Circa is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known.

When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty.


1732–1799: Both years are known precisely.

c. 1732 – 1799: The beginning year is approximate; the end year is known precisely.

1732 – c. 1799: The beginning year is known precisely ; the end year is approximate.

c. 1732 – c. 1799: Both years are approximate.


Didda (floruit 1003 CE), was the ruler of Kashmir from 958 CE to 1003 CE, first as a Regent for her son and various grandsons, and from 980 as sole ruler and monarch. Most knowledge relating to her is obtained from the Rajatarangini, a work written by Kalhana in the twelfth century.

Ealdgyth (wife of Edmund Ironside)

Ealdgyth (circa 992 – after 1016), modern English Edith may have been the name of the wife of Sigeferth son of Earngrim, thegn of the Seven Burghs, and later of King Edmund Ironside. She was probably the mother of Edmund's sons Edward the Exile and Edmund Ætheling.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Sigeferth and his brother Morcar, described as "foremost thegns of the Seven Burghs" were killed at an assembly of the English nobility at Oxford. Ealdorman Eadric Streona is said to have killed them "dishonourably" after having invited them to his rooms. The Seven Burghs, otherwise unknown, are presumed to have been the Five Burghs and Torksey and York. Following the killings, King Æthelred the Unready had the property of Sigeferth and Morcar seized and ordered that Sigeferth's widow, whose name the Chronicle does not record, should be detained at Malmesbury Abbey. The chronicle of John of Worcester calls her Ealdgyth.In the late summer of 1015, at some time between 15 August and 8 September, Edmund Ironside raised a revolt against his father King Æthelred. Either then, or perhaps even earlier, he removed Sigeferth's widow from Malmesbury, against his father's wishes, and married her. Sigeferth and Morcar's friends and allies supported Edmund after this. While two charters issued by Edmund which mention his wife survive from about this time, neither of them contain her name in the surviving texts.It is generally, but not universally, supposed that Ealdgyth, if that was her name, was the mother of Edmund Ironside's sons. These were Edmund, who died young in exile, and Edward the Exile, who returned to England late in the reign of his uncle King Edward the Confessor and died soon afterwards. Whether she went into exile with her children following Edmund's death in 1016 is unknown.

One reason advanced for supposing that John of Worcester may have been mistaken in naming this woman Ealdgyth is that Sigeferth's brother Morcar had also been married to a woman named Ealdgyth. This Ealdgyth was the daughter of Ælfthryth, and niece of Ælfhelm, Ealdorman of York and Wulfric Spot. While Ealdgyth is a common female name in the period, this coincidence has raised the suspicion that the Worcester chronicler has confused Sigeferth's widow with his sister-in-law.

Eanbald (floruit 798)

Eanbald (died c. 808) was an eighth century Archbishop of York and correspondent of Alcuin.

Godwine II (bishop of Rochester)

Godwine was a medieval Bishop of Rochester. He was consecrated around 1013. He died between 1046 and 1058.

Halfdan (floruit 782–807)

Halfdan (floruit 782–807) was a leading person among the Danes and the first known Scandinavian to enter Frankish service. Onomastics links him to the Danish royal family since the name "Halfdan" was commonly employed both historically (as attested by the Annales Fuldenses under the year 873) and in the legendary royal lineage.Halfdan was the envoy sent by King Sigfred to the court of the Frankish emperor Charlemagne in 782, as recorded in the Frankish chronicle Annales regni Francorum. An anonymous Saxon poet praising Charlemagne in Latin epic verse mentions Halfdan's commendation to the emperor in the year 807:

Although the Saxon poet wrote much later in the century, his poem is generally based on trustworthy sources like the Annales regni Francorum and this section is probably derived from a now lost earlier source. There is no record of Halfdan after 807 and he probably died not long thereafter, possibly already old at the time. A conversion to Christianity on Halfdan's part is not recorded, nor is a gift of land or a fief, but his son Hemming did convert and was probably ruling Frisia in 837. It is possible that this Frisian fief had been inherited from his father. If the identification of Hemming as a son of Halfdan is correct, then Halfdan was also the father of Anulo, Harald Klak and Reginfrid, all of whom were, for brief periods, co-rulers of Denmark.


Koenwald (floruit 928–958) was an Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Worcester, probably of Mercian origin.


Leofwynn of Bishopstone also known as Lewinna or Leofwynn, was a 7th-century female saint of Anglo-Saxon England, floruit 664–673 AD. She was active under King Ecgberht of Kent, and died in 669 AD.

In 1058, a monk named Balger, from the Flemish monastery of Bergues, travelling by boat down the coast, was blown into nearby Seaford during a nocturnal storm on Easter Saturday, and stole her reliquary from the local minster church (perhaps Lewes).

Richard Strode (floruit 1512)

Richard Strode (floruit 1512) was in 1512 a Member of Parliament for Plympton Erle, Devon and was also involved in the tin mining industry. He is best known for having instigated Strode's case, one of the earliest and most important English legal cases dealing with parliamentary privilege.

Rulers of Bamburgh

From the destruction of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria by the Vikings in 867 to the early eleventh century, Bamburgh and the surrounding region (the former Bernicia), the northern part of Northumbria, was ruled for a short period by shadowy kings, then by a series of ealdormen (Latin duces, Old English eorl, modern English earl) and high-reeves (from Old English heah-gerefa). Several of these men ruled all Northumbria.

King Egbert I (867–872)

King Ricsige (872/3–876)

King Egbert II (876–878 or after 883?)

Earl Eadwulf of Bamburgh (fl. c. 890 – 913), called 'king of the north Saxons' by the Annals of Ulster

Ealdred I of Bamburgh 913 – c. 933, father of Osulf I of Bamburgh

Æthelstan of England (c. 933 – 939), overlord of all Northumbria

Adulf mcEtulfe (died 934), possibly 'Æthelwulf son of Eadwulf', named 'King of the Northern Saxons' by the Annals of Clonmacnoise.

Edmund I of England (939), possibly overlord of Northumbria

Olaf Guthfrithson (939–941), possibly ruled all of Northumbria

Amlaíb Cuarán (941–944), possibly ruled all of Northumbria

Edmund I of England (944–946), possibly overlord of Northumbria

Osulf I of Bamburgh (floruit 946–963) son of Ealdred I of Bamburgh

Eadwulf I 'Evil-Child' of Bamburgh (floruit 963–973)

Waltheof of Bamburgh (floruit 994), son of Osulf I of Bamburgh

Uhtred 'the Bold' of Northumbria (1006–16), ruled all Northumbria, son of Waltheof of Bamburgh

Eadwulf II 'Cudel' of Bamburgh (died 1019), son of Waltheof of Bamburgh

Ealdred II of Bamburgh (died 1038) son of Uhtred 'the Bold' of Northumbria

Eadwulf III of Bamburgh (died 1041) son of Uhtred 'the Bold' of Northumbria

Bernicia united to the rest of Northumbria during this period (1041–65).

Osulf II of Bamburgh (1065–67) son of Eadwulf III of Bamburgh

Bernicia united to the rest of Northumbria after 1067.

Tree of Jesse

The Tree of Jesse is a depiction in art of the ancestors of Christ, shown in a tree which rises from Jesse of Bethlehem, the father of King David and is the original use of the family tree as a schematic representation of a genealogy. It originates in a passage in the biblical Book of Isaiah which describes metaphorically the descent of the Messiah, and is accepted by Christians as referring to Jesus. The various figures depicted in the lineage of Jesus are drawn from those names listed in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke.

The subject is often seen in Christian art, particularly in that of the Medieval period. The earliest example dates from the 11th century and in an illuminated manuscript. There are many examples in Medieval psalters, because of the relation to King David, son of Jesse, and writer of the Psalms. Other examples are in stained glass windows, stone carvings around the portals of medieval cathedrals and painting on walls and ceilings. The Tree of Jesse also appears in smaller art forms such as embroideries and ivories.


Tírechán was a 7th-century Irish bishop from north Connacht, specifically the Killala Bay area, in what is now County Mayo.


The Unruochings (French: Unrochides; German: Unruochinger) were a Frankish noble family who established themselves in Italy. The family is named for the first member to come to prominence, Unruoch II of Friuli (floruit early 9th century).

The family members held various titles in northern Italy, including Margrave and Duke of Friuli, one of the lordships established on the eastern Marches of the Frankish Empire. The March of Friuli was considerably larger than modern Friuli, covering much of the modern Veneto and as far west as the Province of Brescia in Lombardy.

The family's main landholdings, however, were in modern France, north of the River Seine, and southern Belgium. The family monastery, the centre of their power, was at Cysoing, near Tournai.

King Berengar I of Italy belonged to this family. Berengar left no male heirs, but the descendants of his daughter Gisela and Adalbert I of Ivrea including their son Berengar II of Italy, Berengar II's son Adalbert, and Adalbert's son Otto-William, Duke of Burgundy, are counted among the Unruochings.

Noted members of the family in the direct line included:

Unruoch II of Friuli (floruit early 9th century)

Berengar the Wise (died 835)

Eberhard of Friuli (died 866)

Unruoch III of Friuli (died c. 874)

Berengar I of Italy (died 924)

Virga Jesse (Bruckner)

Virga Jesse (The branch from Jesse), WAB 52, is a motet by the Austrian composer Anton Bruckner. It sets the gradual Virga Jesse floruit for unaccompanied mixed choir.

Æthelred II of East Anglia

Æthelred (floruit c. 875) was King of East Anglia.

No textual evidence of his reign is known, but numismatic evidence points to his reign being in the 870s, perhaps together with Oswald of East Anglia, whose coins are known from the same period.

Æthelwold (bishop of Dorchester)

Æthelwald (floruit 934x945–949x950) was Bishop of Dorchester.

Æthelwald was consecrated between 934 and 945. He died between 949 and 950.Æthelwald witnessed a number of charters under kings Edmund and Eadred. The date at which he became bishop is very uncertain, but it is reasonably sure that he died in about 950 when Bishop Oskytel begins to witness charters.

Key topics
Astronomic time
Geologic time
Genetic methods
Linguistic methods
Related topics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.