Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture cohied with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists.

Floriculture crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers. As distinguished from nursery crops, floriculture crops are generally herbaceous. Bedding and garden plants consist of young flowering plants (annuals and perennials) and vegetable plants. They are grown in cell packs (in flats or trays), in pots, or in hanging baskets, usually inside a controlled environment, and sold largely for gardens and landscaping. Pelargonium ("geraniums"), Impatiens ("busy lizzies"), and Petunia are the best-selling bedding plants. The many cultivars of Chrysanthemum are the major perennial garden plant in the United States.

Flowering plants are largely sold in pots for indoor use. The major flowering plants are poinsettias, orchids, florist chrysanthemums, and finished florist azaleas. Foliage plants are also sold in pots and hanging baskets for indoor and patio use, including larger specimens for office, hotel, and restaurant interiors.

Cut flowers are usually sold in bunches or as bouquets with cut foliage. The production of cut flowers is specifically known as the cut flower industry. Farming flowers and foliage employs special aspects of floriculture, such as spacing, training and pruning plants for optimal flower harvest; and post-harvest treatment such as chemical treatments, storage, preservation and packaging. In Australia and the United States some species are harvested from the wild for the cut flower market.

A retail greenhouse shows some of the diversity of floricultural plants

See also


  • Floriculture researchers test pink poinsettias | CALS News Center Floriculture researchers test pink poinsettias | News from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
  • Floriculture, Nursery - Rural Migration News | Migration Dialogue
  • "Floriculture News" (PDF). No. 64. The Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. May 2005. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
    Cactus display
    An example of floriculture: Cactus planting
Cactus display
An example of floriculture: Cactus planting

Further reading

External links


A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. Crop may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state. Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. A crop is usually expanded to include macroscopic fungus (e.g. mushrooms), or alga (algaculture).

Most crops are harvested as food for humans or fodder for livestock. Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering, e.g. ginseng).

Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops. Horticulture crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees). Floriculture crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers. Industrial crops are produced for clothing (fiber crops), biofuel (energy crops, algae fuel), or medicine (medicinal plants).

Cut flowers

Cut flowers are flowers or flower buds (often with some stem and leaf) that have been cut from the plant bearing it. It is usually removed from the plant for decorative use. Typical uses are in vase displays, wreaths and garlands. Many gardeners harvest their own cut flowers from domestic gardens, but there is a significant floral industry for cut flowers in most countries. The plants cropped vary by climate, culture and the level of wealth locally. Often the plants are raised specifically for the purpose, in field or glasshouse growing conditions. Cut flowers can also be harvested from the wild.

The cultivation and trade of flowers is a specialization in horticulture, specifically floriculture.

Duin- en Bollenstreek

The Duin- en Bollenstreek (Dutch for "Dune and Bulb Region") is a region in the western Netherlands, that features coastal dunes and the cultivation of flower bulbs. Situated at the heart of historical Holland nearby the city Leiden, South Holland, and boundered by The Hague and Haarlem, the combination of beaches, flower fields, lakes and history makes this area attractive to tourists.

East Godavari district

East Godavari district is a district in Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Its district headquarters is at Kakinada. As of Census 2011, it became the most populous district of the state with a population of 5,151,549. Rajahmundry and Kakinada are the two largest cities in the Godavari districts in terms of population.

In the Madras Presidency, the District of Rajahmundry was created in 1823. It was reorganised in 1859 and was bifurcated into Godavari and Krishna districts. During British rule, Rajahmundry was the headquarters of Godavari district, which was further bifurcated into East Godavari and West Godavari districts in 1925. When the Godavari district was divided, Kakinada became the headquarters of East Godavari. After Nov 1956's Andhra Pradesh was formed by combining parts of Naizam, Ceded and Circars, in 1959, the Bhadrachalam revenue division, consisting of Bhadrachalam and Naguru Taluqs (2 Taluqas in 1959 but later subdivided into Wajedu, Venkatapruram, Charla, Dummugudem, Bhadrachalam, Nellipaka, Chinturu, Kunavaram, and Vara Rama Chandra Puram mandals) of East Godavari district were merged into the Khammam district. After June 2014's reorganisation and division of Andhra Pradesh, the Mandals of Bhadrachalam (with the exception of Bhadrachalam Temple), Nellipaka, Chinturu, Kunavaram and Vara Rama Chandra Puram were re-added back to East Godavari District.

Giles Conservation Park

Giles Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located approximately 10 km (6.2 mi) east of the state capital of Adelaide. It was declared in 2007 and has an area of 109 ha (270 acres). Previously, the land was the eastern portion of the Horsnell Gully Conservation Park. It was named after the family of Charles Giles who is reported as being a pioneer in the fields of horticulture and floriculture in South Australia.The conservation park features remnant native vegetation and native animals such as Western grey kangaroos and koalas. It features one walking trail that is part of the Mount Lofty to Norton Summit portion of the Heysen and Yurrebilla trails. The official brochure suggests that the conservation park offers ‘excellent opportunities for bushwalking, birdwatching, photography, painting and nature study."The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area.

Horticulture industry

The horticulture industry embraces the production, processing and shipping of and the market for fruits and vegetables. As such it is a sector of agribusiness and industrialized agriculture. Industrialized horticulture sometimes also includes the floriculture industry.

Among the most important fruits are:


semi-tropical fruits like lychee, guava or tamarillo

citrus fruits

soft fruits (berries)


stone fruitsImportant vegetables include:


sweet potatoes


onions and

cabbageIn 2013, the global fruit production was estimated at 676.9 million tonnes (666,200,000 long tons; 746,200,000 short tons). Global vegetable production (including melons) was estimated at 879.2 million tonnes (865,300,000 long tons; 969,200,000 short tons) with China and India being the two top producing countries.

Japanese Argentines

Japanese Argentines or Japanese Argentinians (Spanish: nipo-argentinos; Japanese: 日系アルゼンチン人 Nikkei Aruzenchin-jin), are Argentine citizens of Japanese ancestry, comprising Japanese immigrants and their descendants born in Argentina. Japanese migration to Argentina began in 1908 with the arrival of immigrants from Okinawa and Kagoshima. The first Japanese entered the country via Brazil, and succeeding groups of immigrants tended to reach Argentina through the neighboring nations. In the pre-war years, Japanese Argentines were concentrated in urban small businesses, especially dry cleaning and cafes in Buenos Aires ( see es: Café El Japonés) , while some worked as domestic servants, factory workers, and longshoremen. A minority of Japanese Argentines also engaged in horticulture, floriculture, and fishery. There is an important Japanese community in the city of Belén de Escobar where they settled and specialised in floriculture.

Between the 1960s and 1970s, more Japanese immigrants arrived in the country. Many were attracted by the economic opportunities in agriculture. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs there are 23,000 nikkei and 11,711 Japanese nationals in Argentina for a total of 34,711 people.

Kolaghat (community development block)

Kolaghat (earlier referred to as Panskura II block) is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Tamluk subdivision of Purba Medinipur district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Leaf spot

Leaf spots are round blemishes found on the leaves of many species of plants, mostly caused by parasitic fungi or bacteria.

A typical spot is "zonal", meaning it has a definite edge and often has a darker border. When lots of spots are present, they can grow together and become a blight or a blotch. Fungal spots are usually round or free-form in shape.In most cases, leaf spots are considered to be only a cosmetic problem, but they can have economic effects on nurseries or in floriculture.


Lisse (pronunciation ) is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 16.05 km2 (6.20 sq mi) of which 0.36 km2 (0.14 sq mi) is water. Its population was 22,743 in 2017. Located within the municipal boundary is also the community De Engel

Malewa River

The Malewa River rises in the western slopes of the Aberdare Range in Kenya and flows south and west into Lake Naivasha in the Great Rift Valley.

Lake Naivasha is an important source of water in a semi-arid environment, and supports export-oriented horticulture and floriculture businesses as well as tourism. Malewa River water quality has deteriorated because of more human activities in the upper catchment. Long-term effects of this on the percentage of rainfall getting into Lake Naivasha are not clear. Possibly in low-rainfall years the percentage will drop because of water abstraction, while in high-rainfall years the percentage will go up because of cultivated soils having a lower water-holding capacity and the introduction of more 100% runoff surfaces like tarmac roads and iron sheets, etc.

Mehta Group

The Mehta Group of Companies commonly referred to as the Mehta Group is a conglomerate based in Mumbai, India, with subsidiaries in the United States, Canada, Kenya and Uganda. The group employs in excess of 15,000 people worldwide and has an asset base in excess of US$350 million, as of April 2010. The group's businesses include investments in sugar, cement, packaging, floriculture, engineering, electrical cable, consulting, management, insurance, International Trade and International Finance.

Ornamental plant

Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of ornamental plants is called floriculture, which forms a major branch of horticulture.

Pichincha Province

Pichincha (Spanish pronunciation: [piˈtʃintʃa]) is a province of Ecuador located in the northern sierra region; its capital and largest city is Quito. It is bordered by Imbabura and Esmeraldas to the north, Cotopaxi and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas to the south, Napo and Sucumbíos to the east, and Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas to the west.

Prior to 2008, the canton Santo Domingo de los Colorados was part of the Pichincha Province. It has since become its own province, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas.

The province is home to many rose plantations, which make up the bulk of Ecuador's floriculture industry.


A polytunnel (also known as a polyhouse, hoop greenhouse or hoophouse, grow tunnel or high tunnel) is a tunnel typically made from steel and covered in polythene, usually semi-circular, square or elongated in shape. The interior heats up because incoming solar radiation from the sun warms plants, soil, and other things inside the building faster than heat can escape the structure. Air warmed by the heat from hot interior surfaces is retained in the building by the roof and wall. Temperature, humidity and ventilation can be controlled by equipment fixed in the polytunnel or by manual opening and closing of vents. Polytunnels are mainly used in temperate regions in similar ways to glass greenhouses and row covers. Besides the passive solar heating that every polytunnel provides, every variation of auxiliary heating (from hothouse heating through minimal heating to unheated houses) is represented in current practice. The nesting of row covers and low tunnels inside high tunnels is also common.

Polytunnels can be used to provide a higher temperature and/or humidity than that which is available in the environment but can also protect crops from intense heat, bright sunlight, winds, hailstones, and cold waves. This allows fruits and vegetables to be grown at times usually considered off season; market gardeners commonly use polytunnels for season extension. Beyond season extension, polytunnels are also used to allow cold-hardy crops to overwinter in regions where their hardiness isn't quite strong enough for them to survive outdoors. Temperature increases of only 5° to 15° above outdoor ambient, coupled with protection from the drying effect of wind, are enough to let selected plant varieties grow slowly but healthily instead of dying. The effect is to create a microclimate that simulates the temperatures of a location several hardiness zones closer to the equator (and protects from wind as well).

Every factor influencing a crop can be controlled in a polytunnel. Polytunnels are often used in floriculture and plant nurseries, as the revenue value of the plants can justify the expense.

In recent years the true adaptability of polytunnel structures has been realised by adapting them to suit livestock housing. Its now common place in the UK to see polytunnels used for housing sheep, alpacas, goats, calves and poultry.


Rajahmundry, officially known as Rajamahendravaram, is a city located in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is located on the banks of Godavari River.. In the Madras Presidency, the District of Rajahmundry was created in 1823. It was reorganised in 1859 and was bifurcated into Godavari and Krishna districts. During British rule, Rajahmundry was the headquarters of Godavari District, which was further bifurcated into East Godavari and West Godavari districts in 1925. When the Godavari District was bifurcated, Kakinada became the headquarters of East Godavari and Eluru became headquarters of West Godavari. It is administered under Rajahmundry revenue division. The city is known for its Floriculture, History, Culture, Agriculture, Economy, Tourism, Industrial potential and its Heritage. It is known as the Cultural Capital of Andhra Pradesh.

Sahid Matangini (community development block)

Sahid Matangini is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Tamluk subdivision of Purba Medinipur district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Sudhir Ruparelia

Sudhir Ruparelia (born 17 January 1956) is a Ugandan business magnate and investor. He is the chairman and majority shareholder in the companies of the Ruparelia Group. His investments are mainly in the areas of banking, insurance, education, broadcasting, real estate, floriculture, hotels, and resorts.

According to Forbes in 2015, he was the 27th wealthiest individual in Africa, with an estimated net worth of US$800 million. On 20 October 2016, the Bank of Uganda, which regulates all banks in Uganda, took control of Crane Bank, the largest subsidiary of the Ruparelia Group, due to a significant decline in capital and potential run on the bank.

Tropical horticulture

Tropical horticulture is a branch of horticulture that studies and cultivates plants in the tropics, i.e., the equatorial regions of the world. The field is sometimes known by the portmanteau "TropHort".

Tropical horticulture includes plants such as perennial woody plants (arboriculture), ornamentals (floriculture), vegetables (olericulture), and fruits (pomology) including grapes (viticulture). The origin of many of these crops is not in the tropics but in temperate zones. Their adoption to tropical climatic conditions is an objective of breeding. Many important crops, however, are indigenous to the tropics. The latter embrace perennial crops such as oil palm, vegetables including okra, field crops such as rice and sugarcane, and particularly fruits including pineapple, banana, papaya, and mango.

Since the tropics represent 36 percent of the earth's surface and 20 percent of its land surface, the potential of tropical horticulture is huge. In contrast to temperate regions, environmental conditions in the tropics are defined less by seasonal temperature fluctuations and more by seasonality of precipitation. Thus the climate in the greater part of the tropics is characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, although such variation is reduced in locations closer to the equator (±5° latitude). Temperature conditions in the tropics are affected by elevation, in which contrasting warmer and colder climate areas in the tropics can be differentiated, and highland areas in the tropics can consequently be more favourable for production of temperate plant species than are lowland areas.

Types of gardens
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Plant morphology
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