Floral emblem

In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas. Some countries have a country-wide floral emblem; others in addition have symbols representing subdivisions. Different processes have been used to adopt these symbols – some are conferred by government bodies, whereas others are the result of informal public polls. The term floral emblem, which refers to flowers specifically, is primarily used in Australia and Canada. In the United States, the term state flower is more often used.

National flowers



The national flower of Mauritius is Trochetia boutoniana.[1] Lotus Nelumbo nucifera.


The national flower of the Seychelles is Angraecum eburneum, the tropicbird orchid (known locally as orkid payanke).[2]

South Africa

The national flower of South Africa is the King Protea (Protea cynaroides).[3]


The national flower for Tunisia is jasmine. It was chosen as a symbol for the 2010 revolution.



The national flower and floral emblem of Bangladesh is the shapla (Bengali: শাপলা), (Nymphaea nouchali)[4][5] See also: National Emblem of Bangladesh.



Cambodia's national flower, the romduol

Cambodia formally adopted the romduol (Khmer: រំដួល) as its national flower in the year 2005 by a royal decree.[7] The royal decree designates the taxon as Mitrella mesnyi, however this is a taxonomically illegitimate synonym for Sphaerocoryne affinis.[8]


Arabian jasmin, Tunisia 2010
Jasminum sambac, the national flower of Indonesia and the Philippines.

There are three types of floral emblems that symbolize Indonesia:

  • the puspa bangsa (national flower) of Indonesia is melati (Jasminum sambac)
  • the puspa pesona (flower of charm) is anggrek bulan (Moon Orchid, Phalaenopsis amabilis)[6]
  • the puspa langka (rare flower) is padma raksasa rafflesia (Rafflesia arnoldii).

All three were chosen on World Environment Day in 1990.[9] and enforced by law through Presidential Decree (Keputusan Presiden) No. 4 1993,[10] On the other occasion Bunga Bangkai (Titan arum) was also added as puspa langka together with Rafflesia.

Melati (jasminum sambac), a small white flower with sweet fragrance, has long been considered as a sacred flower in Indonesian tradition, as it symbolizes purity, sacredness, graceful simplicity and sincerity. For example, on her wedding day, a traditional Indonesian bride's hair is often adorned with arrangements of jasmine, while the groom's kris is often adorned with a lock of jasmine. However, jasmine is also often used as floral offering for spirits and deities, and also often present during funerals which gave it its mystical and sacred properties. Moon Orchid was chosen for its beauty, while the other two rare flowers, Rafflesia arnoldii and Titan arum were chosen to demonstrate uniqueness and Indonesian rich biodiversity.

Each of the 33 provinces of Indonesia also has a native plant as its provincial flower.


The poppy anemone, Israel's national flower.

The Israeli national flower is the poppy anemone (Anemone coronaria; calanit metzuya in Hebrew), chosen in 2013 to replace Cyclamen persicum.[11][12]


The national flower is the plumeria (champa),[6] despite it being no longer endemic.


Hibiscus Brilliant
National flower of Malaysia, the Chinese Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis).

The national flower of Malaysia is the bunga raya (Chinese Hibiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis).[6][13]


The national flower of the Maldives is the pink polyantha rose (Rosa polyantha) called fiyaathoshi finifenmaa.[14]



The rhododendron, the National flower of the himalayan Republic of Nepal.

North Korea


The Philippines adopted the sampaguita (Arabian jasmine, Jasminum sambac) in 1934 as its national flower because it symbolises purity and cleanliness due to its colour and sweet smell.[6] It is popularly strung into garlands that are presented to visitors and dignitaries, and is a common offering to religious images.


Sri Lanka

Nymphaea nouchallii0
Nymphaea nouchali is the national flower of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka – Nil mānel,(නිල් මානෙල්) blue-star water-lily (Nymphaea stellata).[17][18] Although nil means ‘blue’ in Sinhala, the Sinhalese name of this plant is often rendered as "water-lily" in English.

This beautiful aquatic flower appears in the Sigiriya frescoes and has been mentioned in ancient Sanskrit, Pali and Sinhala literary works. Buddhist lore in Sri Lanka claims that this flower was one of the 108 auspicious signs found on Prince Siddhartha's footprint.[19][20]

The Republic Of China (Taiwan)

The national flower was officially designated as the plum blossom by the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China on July 21, 1964.[21] The plum blossom, known as the meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā), is symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum trees often bloom most vibrantly even during the harshest winters.[22][23] The triple grouping of stamens represents Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People, while the five petals symbolize the five branches of the government.[21][22]


The national flower for Thailand is Golden Shower Tree (Cassia fistula), locally known as dok khuen or rachapruek.[6]




Milk thistle flowerhead
Milk thistle flowerhead















United Kingdom

Milk thistle flowerhead
Milk thistle flowerhead


North America

Antigua and Barbuda

The national flower of Antigua and Barbuda is Agave karatto, also known as ‘dagger log’ or ‘batta log’.[32]

The Bahamas

The national flower of the Bahamas is the Yellow Elder (Tecoma stans).[33]


The national flower of Barbados is the known locally as the Pride of Barbados (Caesalpinia pulcherrima).[34]


The national flower of Belize is the Black Orchid (Prosthechea cochleata)[35]


The maple leaf is widely used as a symbol for Canada. The maple tree was officially recognized as Canada's arboreal emblem in 1996.[36]

The official Provincial and Territorial floral emblems are:

Many Canadian flags and coat of arms have floral emblems on them. The flag of Montreal has four floral emblems. On the right side of the flag of Saskatchewan overlapping both green and gold halves is the western red lily, the provincial floral emblem. The coat of arms of Port Coquitlam has the City's floral emblem, the azalea displayed on a collar. The coat of arms of Prince Edward Island displays Lady's Slippers, the floral emblem of the Island. The coat of arms of Nova Scotia has the trailing arbutus or mayflower, the floral emblem of Nova Scotia, added when the arms were reassumed in 1929.

Costa Rica

The national flower of Costa Rica is the guaria morada (Guarianthe skinneri).[51]


The national flower of Dominica is Sabinea carinalis, commonly known as Carib Wood or Bois Caraibe.[52]

Dominican Republic

Pereskia quisqueyana
The Bayahibe Rose, national flower of the Dominican Republic.

The Dominican Republic's national flower was the flower of the caoba (mahogany tree, Swietenia mahagoni). In 2011, the mahogany was dubbed the national tree, vacating the national flower spot for the Bayahibe rose (Pereskia quisqueyana) in order to bring attention to its conservation.[53]


The national flower of Guatemala is the monja blanca (Lycaste skinneri var. alba).[54]


Hibiscus flower TZ
Hibiscus, the national flower of Haiti


The national flower of Honduras is the orchid Rhyncolaelia digbyana. [57]


The national flower of Jamaica is the lignum vitae (Guaiacum officinale).[58]


The national flower of Mexico is the dahlia (dahlia pinnata).

United States

In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed legislation to make the rose[59] the floral emblem of the United States.[60] In the United States, state flowers and trees have been adopted as symbols by state legislatures.


Golden Wattle, the floral emblem of Australia since 1988
Kowhai flowers
New Zealand's floral emblem, the Kowhai


The Acacia pycnantha (Golden Wattle)was officially proclaimed the floral emblem of Australia on 1 September 1988.[61]

French Polynesia

The Tahitian gardenia (tiare flower) is the national flower of Tahiti, French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.


The national flower is tagimaucia (Medinilla waterhousei), a vine with red and white flowers endemic to the highlands of the island of Taveuni.

New Zealand

New Zealand does not have an official national flower, but the Silver Fern (foliage) is acknowledged as its national emblem.[62] The Kowhai (Sophora spp., native trees with yellow cascading flowers) is usually regarded as the national flower. Other plant emblems are: Koru (a curled fern symbol) and the crimson-flowered Pohutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa), also called New Zealand's Christmas tree.


The heilala (Garcinia sessilis) is Tonga's national flower. The name of Tonga's beauty pageant, the Heilala Festival, is taken from this flower. Resorts, as well as products, are also often named after this flower, such as the Heilala Lodge and Heilala Vanilla. The flower is also used in Tonga for medicinal and ornamental purposes.

South America


Erythrina crista-galli2
The national flower of Argentina, and Uruguay.

The national flower of Argentina is the flower of the ceibo tree (Erythrina crista-galli), also known as seibo or bucaré[63]


Bolivian national flowers are the kantuta (Cantua buxifolia) and patujú (Heliconia rostrata).


The national flower of Brazil is the flower of the Golden Trumpet Tree (Handroanthus albus).


  • Chile – Copihue (Lapageria rosea)
Lapageria rosea1
Copihue, the national flower of Chile


Cattleya trianae is the national flower of Colombia and is the orchid which flowers in May. The May flower was chosen because the colors are the same as those of the Colombian flag.



The national flower of Peru is the cantuta (also spelled kantuta or qantuta, from Quechua qantu). It can be found at the high valleys of the Andean territory, in Peru and Bolivia.



Called faya lobi ("fiery love") in Sranantongo, the ixora coccinea is a commonly considered a symbol of Suriname.


Cattleya mossiae2
Cattleya mossiae, Venezuela.


Subnational flowers

Country Subdivision Name Pictures Notes
 Canada Alberta Wild Rose[64]
British Columbia Pacific Dogwood Cornus nuttallii 08546
Manitoba Prairie Crocus
New Brunswick Purple Violet
Newfoundland and Labrador Pitcher plant The pitcher plant was officially declared as the provincial flower in 1954, but had appeared on the colony's coinage as early as the 1880s. It can be found in the marshlands of the province feeding on insects that fall into its leaves and drown.
Northwest Territories Mountain Avens
Nova Scotia Mayflower
Nunavut Purple Saxifrage
Ontario White Trillium Trillium grandiflorum 042316
Prince Edward Island Pink Lady's Slipper
Quebec Blue Flag Iris The Blue Flag Iris replaced the Madonna Lily in 1999, since the lily was not native to Quebec.
Saskatchewan Western Red Lily
Yukon Fireweed EpilobiumAngustifolium 6184
 Sweden Småland Linnaea borealis Linnaea borealis 1190 The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus, sw. Carl von Linné (1707–1778), often called the father of taxonomy or "The flower-king", was born in Älmhult in Småland. He gave the Twinflower its Latin name based on his own (Latin: Linnaea borealis), because of his particular fondness of it. The flower has become Småland's provincial flower.
 China  Hong Kong Bauhinia blakeana The Bauhinia, the national flower of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The blossom, native to the territory was chosen as the logo of the Urban Council in 1965 and was later incorporated into the flag and emblem of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China after the 1997 transfer of sovereignty.
 Macau Nelumbo nucifera Sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera A stylised depiction of the flower can be seen in the territory's flag.
 Ireland County Offaly Bog-rosemary[65] Andromeda polifolia bloom
 Pakistan Proposed Flag of Islamabad Capital Territory.svg Islamabad Capital Territory Paper mulberry
Paper Mulberry leaf
Red rose
The floral emblems of the four constituting provinces of Pakistan; however, they are all unofficial and are not recognised by the new Federal Government of Pakistan.
Flag of Balochistan.svg Balochistan Date palm
Tulipa sylvestris
Phoenix dactylifera1
Lajvar (3)
Flag of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.svg Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Afghan pine
Tulipa clusiana
Kızılçam ağacı - Pinus brutia 02
Tulipa clusiana1ScottZona
Flag of Punjab.svg The Punjab Tamarix aphylla
Datura metel
Flag of Sindh.svg Sindh Vachellia nilotica
Acacia nilotica subsp. cupressiformis
Nerium oleander flowers leaves
Flag of Gilgit Baltistan.svg Gilgit–Baltistan Quercus ilex
Quercus ilex.002 - Monfrague
Aquilegia alpina1JUSA
Flag of Azad Kashmir.svg Azad Jammu and Kashmir Platanus orientalis
Rhododendron ponticum
Platanus orientalis tree
Rhododendron pontica-1
 Spain Catalonia Weaver's Broom[66]
(Spartium junceum)
Usually along with red poppies
Galicia Gorse flower[67]
(Ulex europaeus)



United Kingdom

Tudor Rose
The Tudor rose is a combination of the red rose of Lancaster and the white rose of York.

Each of the four countries of the United Kingdom has a traditional floral emblem.

County flowers

A county flower is a flowering plant chosen to symbolise a county. They exist primarily in the United Kingdom, but some counties in other countries also have them.

One or two county flowers have a long history in England – the red rose of Lancashire dates from the Middle Ages, for instance. However, the county flower concept was only extended to cover the whole United Kingdom in 2002, as a promotional tool by a charity. In that year, the plant conservation charity Plantlife ran a competition to choose county flowers for all counties, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.

Plantlife's scheme is loosely based on Britain's historic counties, and so some current local government areas are not represented by a flower, and some of the counties included no longer exist as administrative areas. Flowers were also chosen for thirteen major cities: Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham and Sheffield. The Isles of Scilly was also treated as a county (distinct from Cornwall) for the purpose of the scheme. The Isle of Man was included, even though it is not a county, but a self-governing territory outside of the United Kingdom with an existing national flower: the ragwort or cushag.[71] The Channel Islands were not included.

A total of 94 flowers was chosen in the competition. 85 of the 109 counties have a unique county flower, but several species were chosen by more than one county. Foxglove or Digitalis purpurea was chosen for four counties – Argyll, Birmingham, Leicestershire and Monmouthshire – more than any other species. The following species were chosen for three counties each:

And the following species were chosen for two counties:

In addition, Sticky Catchfly Lychnis viscaria was chosen for both Edinburgh and Midlothian, the county containing Edinburgh.

For most counties, native species were chosen, but for a small number of counties, non-natives were chosen, mainly archaeophytes. For example, Hampshire has a Tudor rose as its county flower, even though it is not a native species.

Unofficial flowers


No plant or flower seems to be among the current official symbols.[72] Some flowering plants from the area include Althaea armeniaca, Armenian Basket, Muscari armeniacum, Armenian Poppy, Armenian vartig (vargit), and Tulipa armena.


Azerbaijan currently has no official national flower. Traditionally, various regions have different designations where national symbols are concerned. The city of Shusha named the Khari Bulbul (Ophrys caucasica) the floral emblem of the Nagorno-Karabakh.[73]


MeihuaShan 1
Plum blossom, or meihua (梅花).

China currently has no official national flower. Traditionally, various regions have different designations where national symbols are concerned.

In 1903, the Qing Dynasty named the peony (牡丹) the floral emblem of the nation. The peony has long been considered a flower of wealth and honor in China.

The puppet state Manchukuo followed Japan's model of dual floral emblems: the "spring orchid" (Cymbidium goeringii) for the Emperor and the imperial household, and the sorghum blossom (Sorghum bicolor) for the state and the nation.

The plum blossom, meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā), has also been one of the most beloved flowers in Chinese culture. The Republic of China government named the plum blossom as the national flower in 1964.[21] The plum blossom is symbol for resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, because plum blossoms often bloom most vibrantly even amidst the harsh winter snow.[21][22][23]

The People's Republic of China, which has controlled mainland China since 1949, has no official floral emblem. There have been several petitions in recent years to officially adopt one. However, the government has not taken any action yet. A poll in 2005 showed that 41% of the public supports peony as the national flower while 36% supported the plum blossom.[74] Some scholars have suggested that the peony and plum blossoms may be designated as dual national flowers. In addition, the orchid, jasmine, daffodil and chrysanthemum have also been held as possible floral symbols of China.


Denmark has no official floral emblem. The daisy won an unofficial competition on a national flower in the 1980s, but it was not officially adopted. In 1936, the Danish foreign office responded to Argentina that it would be the red clover, due to its significance in agriculture. The letter is obscure and was soon forgotten.[75] Denmark has never used a floral emblem.


No flower has been officially declared as a national symbol. Unofficially the rose and the orchid are claimed to hold that title.[76]


Both Blue Egyptian Lotus and White Egyptian Lotus are regarded as Egypt's national flowers, and they appear in many Ancient Egyptian paintings and monuments.


2007 Sakura of Fukushima-e 007 rotated
Cherry blossoms
Imperial Seal of Japan
Chrysanthemum morifolium

Japan's national government has never formally named a national flower, as with other symbols such as the green pheasant, which was named as national bird by a non-government body in 1947. In 1999, the national flag and anthem were standardised by law.

A de facto national flower for Japan for many is the sakura (cherry blossom), while a stylised depiction of a Chrysanthemum morifolium is used as the official emblem of the imperial family (Imperial Seal of Japan). The paulownia blossom was also used by the imperial family in the past, but has since been appropriated by the Prime Minister and the government in general (Government Seal of Japan).


While the Netherlands does not have an official national flower, the tulip is widely considered to be its national flower.[77]


While Vietnam does not have an official flower, four plants are traditional regarded as the four graceful plants, namely: the lotus, the pine, bamboo, and the chrysanthemum.[6][78] The lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is generally regarded as the unofficial national flower of Vietnam,[79] as portrayed, for example, on their postage stamps.[80] In Vietnamese tradition, the lotus is regarded as the symbol of purity, commitment and optimism for the future.[6]

See also


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  16. ^ North Korea Quarterly. Institute of Asian Affairs. 1988. ...Rose of Sharon is no longer the national flower, as in South Korea, but "mongnan" (magnolia). It is because [the rose of Sharon] cannot be grown for next generations with seeds, while [magnolia] can be.
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  18. ^ Zeylanica (Nymphaea stellata)
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  22. ^ a b c National Flag, Anthem and Flower
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External links

Anigozanthos manglesii

Anigozanthos manglesii, commonly known as the red-and-green kangaroo paw, Mangles kangaroo paw, Kurulbrang(Noongar) is a plant species endemic to Western Australia, and the floral emblem of that state.

The flower has become symbolic of the region. The display between August and November is remarkable for the high standing flowers occurring in urban and coastal regions. The species is not threatened, but is protected under state legislation. A license is required for collection from the wild. It is desirable as a cut flower, possessing an unusual form and striking colours that last well.

Athabaska Herald

Athabaska Herald of Arms (Héraut Athabaska in French) is the title of one of the officers of arms at the Canadian Heraldic Authority in Ottawa. Like the other heralds at the Authority, the name is derived from that of a Canadian river. The design of the badge of office of Athabaska Herald of Arms is based on the floral emblem of the province of Alberta, the wild rose. It is placed over two traditional Athapascan copper knives, honouring this native linguistic group and the great river and region of Northwestern Canada, which share various spellings of this name. The office of Athabaska Herald of Arms was created in 1988 at the same time as the Canadian Heraldic Authority, although it is currently vacant.

Coat of arms of South Australia

The Coat of arms of South Australia is the official symbol of the state of South Australia. It was granted by Queen Elizabeth II on 19 April 1984. They replaced a coat of arms granted to the State in 1936 by King Edward VIII.

The shield has the piping shrike within a golden disc (officially said to represent the rising sun) on a blue background. The piping shrike is the unofficial bird emblem of South Australia and also appears on the State Badge. The crest is the Sturt's desert pea, the floral emblem of South Australia, on top of a wreath of the State colours. The coat of arms has no supporters. The compartment, or base, is a grassland with symbols of agriculture and industry, and a motto with the name "South Australia".

Dendrobium bigibbum

Dendrobium bigibbum, commonly known as the Cooktown orchid or mauve butterfly orchid, is an epiphytic or lithophytic orchid in the family Orchidaceae. It has cylindrical pseudobulbs, each with between three and five green or purplish leaves and arching flowering stems with up to twenty, usually lilac-purple flowers. It occurs in tropical North Queensland, Australia and New Guinea.

There are four varieties of this orchid, each of which has previously been considered a separate species.

Epacris impressa

Epacris impressa, also known as common heath, is a plant of the heath family, Ericaceae, that is native to southeast Australia (the states of Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and New South Wales). French botanist Jacques Labillardière collected the species in 1793 and described it in 1805. Four forms have been identified, but no subspecies are recognised. Growing in heathland, shrubland or open forest, it is generally a small shrub around 0.5 to 1 m (1 ft 8 in to 3 ft 3 in) tall, with small stiff leaves. The red, pink or white tube-like flowers appear from late autumn to early spring. Honeyeater birds, particularly the eastern spinebill, feed upon the nectar of the flowers. It regenerates after bushfire by seed or by resprouting.

A highly regarded garden plant, the common heath was first cultivated in England in 1825; over seventy named cultivars have been developed, most of which have now vanished. A pink-flowered form, often referred to as "pink heath", is the floral emblem of the state of Victoria. Epacris impressa has proven a difficult plant to propagate reliably, which has limited its use in horticulture and revegetation. It grows best in well-drained but moist soil in a semishaded position.

Flag of Saskatchewan

The provincial flag of Saskatchewan features the armorial bearings (coat of arms) in the upper quarter nearest the staff, with the floral emblem, the western red lily (Lilium philadelphicum), in the fly. The upper green half of the flag represents the northern Saskatchewan forest lands, while the gold lower half symbolizes the southern, prairie wheat-fields. The flag is constructed in the proportions 1:2.

Jit Sin Independent High School

Jit Sin Independent High School (日新独立中学), a member of Jit Sin, is a Chinese independent high school located in Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. It provides various education levels from junior 1 to 3, senior 1 to 3. The school also offers Unified Examination Certificate (UEC) for both junior and senior students and optional choice of Penilaian Menengah Rendah for juniors and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia for seniors.

List of Australian floral emblems

This is a list of Australian floral emblems. It encompasses the national flower and the official flowers of the constituent states.

After the Federation of Australia that took place in 1901, the upsurge in nationalism led to the search for an official national floral emblem. Archibald Campbell had founded the Wattle Club in Victoria in 1899 to promote interest in and profile of the wattle as a unique Australian flower. The New South Wales waratah was considered alongside the wattle Acacia pycnantha, although lost out to the latter in 1912. The economist and botanist R. T. Baker proposed that the waratah's endemism to the Australian continent made it a better choice than the wattle, as well as the prominence of its flowers. The South Australian Evening News also supported the bid, but to no avail.In New South Wales, the New South Wales waratah was proclaimed as the official floral emblem of the state in 1962 by the then governor Sir Eric Woodward, after being used informally for many years.The Cooktown Orchid (Vappodes phalaenopsis), was the official floral emblem of Queensland since 19 November 1959.In November 1960, Anigozanthos manglesii was adopted as the floral emblem of Western Australia in a proclamation made by then Premier of Western Australia David Brand, to promote tourist interest in the State's wildflowers. He had been advised by the State's Tourist Development Authority.The South Australian Policy adopted Sturt's Desert Pea (Swainsona Formosa) as the Floral Emblem of South Australia on 23 November 1961.The Tasmanian Government proclaimed Eucalyptus globulus as their State floral emblem on 5 December 1962, however it is rarely seen as an official or popular emblem. This led to the Tasmanian Branch of the then SGAP promoting the attractive flower Eucryphia lucida as an alternative in 1966.The Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha) was officially proclaimed the Floral Emblem of Australia on 1 September 1988.Australia's state flowers have been featured on series of postage stamps twice—a set of six stamps in July 1968, each showing the flowers of one state, and a series of seven stamps, showing the six state flowers and the golden wattle, in March 2014. The Sturt's Desert Pea and Golden Wattle were also featured on a series of coil definitives in 1970.

Lists of national symbols

These are themes of lists of national symbols.

List of national flags

List of national colours

Gallery of country coats of arms

List of national anthems

List of national animals

List of national birds

Floral emblem

List of national founders

List of national fruits

List of national instruments (music)

List of national poets

List of national trees

List of national dances

National symbols of Australia

National symbols of Australia are the official symbols used to represent Australia.

National symbols of Haiti

This is a list of official National symbols of Haiti

Flag of Haiti

Coat of Arms of Haiti

National bird: Hispaniolan trogon

National anthem: "La Dessalinienne"

National mottos: "Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité", "L'union fait la force"

National colours: Red and blue

National floral emblem: unnoficial Hibiscus official is the Laurier, also known as the Oleander

National tree: Royal palm

National sport: Soccer

Pyrogenic flowering

Pyrogenic flowering is the fire-stimulated flowering of plants in heathland and other fire-prone habitats. It is associated with species which have transient seed banks, as opposed to canopy or persistent soil seed banks. These species are mostly monocots, but it is also observed in several species of woody dicots.One of the most well known species to display this life cycle are those in the Waratah (Telopea) genus. With Telopea speciosissima being the floral emblem of the Australian state of New South Wales.


A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.


Strelitzia is a genus of five species of perennial plants, native to South Africa. It belongs to the plant family Strelitziaceae. The genus is named after the duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, birthplace of Queen Charlotte of the United Kingdom. A common name of the genus is bird of paradise flower / plant, because of a resemblance of its flowers to birds-of-paradise. In South Africa it is commonly known as a crane flower and is featured on the reverse of the 50 cent coin. It is the floral emblem of the City of Los Angeles; two of the species, Strelitzia nicolai and Strelitzia reginae, are frequently grown as house plants.

Tecoma stans

Tecoma stans is a species of flowering perennial shrub in the trumpet vine family, Bignoniaceae, that is native to the Americas. Common names include yellow trumpetbush, yellow bells, yellow elder, ginger-thomas. Tecoma stans is the official flower of the United States Virgin Islands and the floral emblem of The Bahamas.

Telopea Park

Telopea Park is one of the oldest parks in Canberra, Australia. The name of the park is from Walter Burley Griffin's original plan for Canberra where he planned Telopea Park at the end of Sydney Avenue. The park is named after the floral emblem of New South Wales, also known as the Waratah. Griffin planned that the state capital city avenues were terminated with a park named after the generic botanical name for a native plant from that particular state. The park covers 0.079 km².The park was established in 1922 and is very long and thin, with many large native and introduced trees. A stormwater drain runs along the middle of the park, which is crossed by several bridges. The park has barbecue areas and playground equipment, and is a popular destination. It was listed by the ACT Heritage Council in 2012.The park is bounded by Telopea Park West (street) and Telopea Park East (street) on either side, with Manuka Oval at the southern end, across New South Wales crescent, and Bowen drive on the Northern End, near Lake Burley Griffin. The park is between the suburbs of Barton and Kingston close to Lake Burley Griffin.

Telopea speciosissima

Telopea speciosissima, commonly known as the New South Wales waratah or simply waratah, is a large shrub in the plant family Proteaceae. It is endemic to New South Wales in Australia and is the floral emblem of that state. No subspecies are recognised, but the closely related Telopea aspera was only recently classified as a separate species.

T. speciosissima is a shrub to 3 or 4 m (9.8 or 13.1 ft) high and 2 m (6.6 ft) wide, with dark green leaves. Its several stems arise from a pronounced woody base known as a lignotuber. The species is well renowned for its striking large red springtime inflorescences (flowerheads), each including hundreds of individual flowers. These are visited by the eastern pygmy possum (Cercartetus nanus), birds such as honeyeaters (Meliphagidae), and various insects.

The floral emblem for its home state of New South Wales, Telopea speciosissima has featured prominently in art, architecture, and advertising, particularly since Australian federation. Commercially grown in several countries as a cut flower, it is also cultivated in home gardens, requiring good drainage yet adequate moisture, but is vulnerable to various fungal diseases and pests. A number of cultivars with various shades of red, pink and even white flowers are available. Horticulturists have also developed hybrids with T. oreades and T. mongaensis which are more tolerant of cold, shade, and heavier soils.

The Gardens of the American Rose Center

The AMERICAN ROSE CENTER at Shreveport, Louisiana has been the home and headquarters of the American Rose Society since 1974, when the non-profit organization moved from Columbus, Ohio, and before that, from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The Society was founded in 1892 at Harrisburg.

The American Rose Center consists of 118 acres of rose gardens, pine forests and woodlands. From the American Rose Center Mission & Vision statement: "Presenting the Rose, America's National Floral Emblem, in a natural setting of majestic pines and companion plants - for pleasure, education, and for the preservation and understanding of the beauty and significance of our favorite flower, the Rose." "The AMERICAN ROSE CENTER is headquarters for the administrative offices of the AMERICAN ROSE SOCIETY. AMERICA'S ROSE GARDEN is designed to present the glory of the Rose for all who visit. The gardens demonstrate the use of roses in the landscape, and are grounds for research, preservation of varieties and good horticultural practices. The Klima Education & Visitor Center is a prime venue for programs, exhibits and events; the Schorr Library preserves a valuable collection of books and publications of rose literature and the history of the rose. The garden's outreach offers learning opportunities in a living garden. All ability-accessible facilities of the American Rose Center serve the organizational, horticultural and educational mission of the Society and the Rose, for members, visitors, students and rose enthusiasts of all ages, now and for the future."

In 2017, the Society created a Master Plan for the total restoration of the gardens; that restoration is underway as the GREAT GARDEN RESTORATION PROJECT. A garden design was provided by Jackson & Perkins Rose Company which resembles the gears of a vintage watch. In keeping with that design, the gardens will tell the history of the rose in time - its theme: "the History of the Rose in America." Other major changes as part of the Master Plan: 1) the American Rose Society Board of Directors recently voted to change the name of the gardens to AMERICA'S ROSE GARDEN, the home of America's National Floral Emblem, the Rose; 2) to become a Botanical Garden featuring roses; 3) to be a site of the International Rose Trials where new roses are evaluated and awarded prizes; and 4) to seek status on the US Register of Historic Places.

Included in the telling of the "History of the Rose in America" will be the stories of great roses, such as 'Peace', the world's favorite. It was created in France and "smuggled" to the US at the close of World War II. Not only beautiful and fragrant, 'Peace' has been the parent of many roses through hybridization. The History will tell the story of the "Yellow Rose of Texas", a rose that traversed the country with early settlers of America. The History will tell the story of the Grandiflora class of roses, that began with the famous apricot beauty, 'Queen Elizabeth,' and the Miniflora class that was added in the 1990s to distinguish roses that were smaller than hybrid teas and floribundas, but larger than miniatures. The History will tell of "Rose Rustlers" whose mission was to locate and preserve old lost roses found in cemeteries and old homesteads. The gardens will feature McFarland Plaza, dedicated to the "Father of the American Rose Society" J. Horace McFarland, an early leader, editor and publisher for the organization.

Today, there are thousands of beautiful roses to see—the gardens feature roses of all types: the most modern hybrid tea roses, miniature roses, single petaled roses, heritage roses and species. There is much more to come as the Great Garden Restoration Project progresses and the new "clockworks" gardens are installed. The gardens are recognized as the largest park in the United States dedicated to roses. Annual events include: Easter Egg Hunt; Evening of Wine & Roses; Allen Owings Horticulture Symposium; quarterly Green Thumb horticultural/educational series; Angel of Hope Candlelight and Healing Ceremony annually on December 6th; and Christmas in Roseland held in the gardens in December for the past 35 years.

The gardens are located just west of Shreveport at 8877 Jefferson Paige Road, off Interstate 20, Exit 5 near Greenwood, Louisiana.

The American Rose Society Administration offices are open Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.

America's Rose Garden and Hering Gift Shop are open daily March 1 through October 31:

Garden Season (March 1 through October 31) 9-5, Monday through Saturday; 1-5 Sunday, except for federal holidays.

Off Season: 9-5 Monday through Friday, except for federal holidays. Admission is free; donations are accepted; $5 per person is suggested.

Wahlenbergia gloriosa

Wahlenbergia gloriosa, commonly known as royal bluebell is a perennial herb in the bluebell family Campanulaceae. It has egg-shaped leaves near the base of its stem, linear leaves higher up and usually a single purple flower with a tube-shaped base. The flower is the floral emblem of the Australian Capital Territory.



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