Floor hockey

Floor hockey is a family of indoor hockey games. 5 variations exist: three variations in the style of ice hockey, and the other two in the style of bandy, one of which is called floorball in English speaking regions. Two of these variations involve the use of wheeled skates and are categorized as roller sports under the title of roller hockey. Quad hockey uses quad skates and looks similar to bandy, while inline hockey uses inline skates and is of the ice hockey variation. All styles and codes are played on dry, flat floor surfaces such as a gymnasium or basketball court. As in other hockey codes, players on each team attempt to shoot a ball or puck into a goal using sticks, usually with a curved end.[1] Floor hockey games differ from street hockey in that the games are more structured, and two use wheeled skates. The variations which do not involve wheeled skates are sometimes used for training children to play ice hockey[2] and bandy in a training format known as dryland training.


Floor hockey codes derived from ice hockey were first officially played in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1875, but the game's official creation is credited to Canada's Sports Hall of Fame inductee, Samuel Perry Jacks, better known as "Sam Jacks".[3] Jacks is the individual credited with both the creation of the official skateless game derived from ice hockey and codifying its first set of rules in 1936. At the time, Jacks was working as assistant physical director at the West End YMCA in Toronto. His achievement was later recognized by the United Nations.

Floor hockey is a physical fitness sport in many public schools for physical education class.[4]

A version of ringette was introduced as a sport in the Winter Special Olympics in 1932. In 1970, the Special Olympics added team floor hockey as an event, with the distinction of it being the only team sport under its purview.[5]

The Canadian Ball Hockey Association (CBHA) was formed in 1991 to provide more formal leagues of ball-based floor hockey.[6] The CBHA runs leagues for men, women, and juniors, and organizes National Championships for each division.[7]

In 2003, the National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association Hockey Committee released a baseline set of rules for intramural floor hockey for college campuses across the United States.


Floor hockey equipment differs between each code. Some codes use an indoor puck, a ring made of felt or other material ( Gym Ringette ) while others use a lightweight plastic ball, or a heavier ball. Some codes require standard ice hockey, field hockey or bandy sticks, while others use lightweight plastic. In gym ringette plastic bladeless sticks are used while the Special Olympics version of floor hockey uses wooden ones. The types of checking and protective equipment allowed also vary.


One variation, especially popular in Europe, is floorball. Floorball uses a lightweight plastic ball and sticks made of plastic and carbon fiber. Limited checking is permitted.

Another variation, cosom hockey, uses plastic sticks and pucks, while gym ringette uses circular rings and sticks with no blade.

Power hockey is a floor hockey game similar to floorball that has been designed for players using electric wheelchairs. Knee pads are required for the goal keeper


Although floor hockey is made up of several different codes, there are some basic rules which are typically followed regardless of code.

With the exception of gym ringette, games start with a face-off, where a player from each team have an equal chance to gain possession. The face-off is also used to resume play after goals, and to start each period.

A goal is scored when the entire puck or ball crosses the plane of the goal line, unless it is intentionally kicked in by the attacking team.

The team with the most goals at the end of the game is declared the winner. If the game is tied, the games usually proceed into overtime in order to determine a winner. Overtime rules vary, but typically include extra time and/or penalty shootout.

Penalties for illegal actions are enforced. A player committing a major infraction is required to sit out of the game for two minutes, resulting a power play, but a minor infraction may result in a free hit. Penalties are typically given for the following actions:

  • Tripping – Using the body or stick to intentionally cause a player to fall
  • Hooking – Using the curved end of the stick to impede a player’s forward progress by pulling him or her back
  • Slashing – Using the stick to hit an opposing player's body
  • Interference – Using the body to move a player from his current position on the floor or preventing him from playing the ball or puck
  • High Sticking – Allowing the curved end of the stick to come above your waist
  • Pushing Down – Using the stick to push an opponent down
  • Checking from behind – Hitting a player from behind

Due to the limited padding worn by players, body checking is typically disallowed in floor hockey games,[8] although shoulder-to-shoulder checking is allowed.


  1. ^ “Floor Hockey Rules,” http://sportsvite.com/sports/FloorHockey/rules
  2. ^ "floor hockey". Webster's Sports Dictionary. Springfield, Mass.: G&G Merriam Company. 1976. p. 158.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Academic Edition, s.v. “Ice Hockey”
  5. ^ "Floor Hockey: Sport History". Special Olympics – Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012.
  6. ^ “Canadian Ball Hockey Association History,” The Canadian Ball Hockey Association, http://cbha.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1&Itemid=2
  7. ^ “CBHA Who We Are”, The Canadian Ball Hockey Association, http://cbha.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6&Itemid=7
  8. ^ “NIRSA Floor Hockey Basics,” Last modified 2010, The National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association, http://www.nirsa.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Sports/IntramuralRules/im_floorhockey.htm
2001 Special Olympics World Winter Games

2001 Special Olympics World Winter Games was the 7th edition of the Winter Special Olympics World Games.It is a multi-sporting event that was held from March 4 2001 to March 11 2001.It was hosted by Anchorage, Alaska which is the State of United States.Cross Country Skiing, Alpine Skiing, Speed Skating, Floor Hockey, Snowshoeing and Snowboarding were the sporting events that took place at the Winter Special Olympics.Above 2750 athletes and coaches from 80 countries participated at the Games.The Local Organizing Committee raised about 17 million for the Games while more than 6000 people worked as volunteers for the Games.

This event is set to be the largest sporting event held in the history of Alaska.

2005 Special Olympics World Winter Games

The 2005 Special Olympics Winter World Games were hosted at Nagano in Nippon and were the first Special Olympics World Games held in Asia. Nagano became the first city in the world to host the Olympics, Paralympics and Special Olympics World Games.

2017 Special Olympics World Winter Games

The 2017 Special Olympic World Winter Games officially called 11th Special Olympics World Winter Games is a Special Olympics, a multi-sports event that was held in Austria from March 14 through March 25, 2017.


Floorball is a type of floor hockey with five players and a goalkeeper in each team. Men and women play indoors with 96–115.5 cm-long (37.8–45.5 in) sticks and a 22–23 cm-circumference (8.7–9.1 in) plastic ball with holes. Matches are played in three twenty-minute periods. Floorball was included in the World Games for the first time in 2017 in Wroclaw, Poland. Sweden were the first World Games gold medal winners.

Its origins can be traced back to Michigan Lake in the 1960s where a game called Cosom Hockey was developed, although the present type of floorball was invented in Sweden in the 1970s. Floorball is most popular where it has been developed the longest, such as the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. It is gaining popularity in Australia, New Zealand, India, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, the United States. and the United Kingdom.As of 2014, there are over 300,133 registered floorball players worldwide. Professional leagues include Finland's Salibandyliiga and Sweden's Svenska Superligan.

The sport is organized internationally by the International Floorball Federation (IFF). Events include an annual Euro Floorball Cup for club teams and the biennial World Floorball Championships with separate divisions for men and women. While the IFF contains 58 members, Norway, the Czech Republic, Finland, Sweden, and Switzerland have consistently placed 1st, 2nd, or 3rd at the World Floorball Championships.

The sport is relatively new and therefore evolving. The basic rules were established in 1979 when the first floorball club in the world, Sala IBK from Sala, was founded in Sweden. Official rules for matches were first written down in 1981.

Hastings High School (Minnesota)

Hastings High School is one of the oldest operating public high schools in the U.S. state of Minnesota. It is in Hastings, and is part of Independent School District 200.

Kirby Sports Center

Kirby Sports Center is a 3,500-seat multi-purpose arena in Easton, Pennsylvania. It was built in 1973 and is home to the Lafayette College Leopards basketball team. It hosted the 2000 Patriot League men's basketball tournament.Dedicated on June 2, 2000, the $35 million Allan P. Kirby Sports Center includes a new, 110,000-square-foot (10,000 m2) intramural and recreational sports facility attached to the previously existing Kirby Field House. The field house itself received a $2.5 million facelift and interior renovations.The new portion of the center, featuring a distinctive atrium overlooking Fisher Field, includes the Kamine Gymnasium, which includes three 50-by-84-foot courts for basketball, floor hockey, and other sports and an elevated 1/10-mile jogging track. The Buck Courts include six courts for racquet sports, two for squash and four that can be configured for squash or racquetball. A 6,600-square-foot (610 m2) fitness center and weight room includes a full strength-training circuit, spacious free-weight area, and more than 30 cardiovascular machines. There is also a 35-foot (11 m) climbing wall, an aerobics area, and several offices.Built in 1973, the original field house, which contains Ruef Natatorium, is home to several varsity sports teams. It replaced Alumni Gymnasium, an Art Deco building located to the southeast of Fisher Field built in 1924. It has been enhanced to include a new sports medicine area and a new equipment room and renovated locker rooms and administrative offices. The lobby and Athletic Hall of Fame exhibitry have been modernized.Major support for the sports center was provided by the F.M. Kirby Foundation, which made a $32.5 million gift to Lafayette, the largest gift ever received by a college, university, or other non-profit organization in the Lehigh Valley.The current director for the Kirby Sports Center is Jodie Frey who is also the Associate Dean of Students.

The venue should not be confused with the F.M. Kirby Center, an arts and entertainment complex in Wilkes-Barre.

List of Minnesota State High School League State Championships

Fall Activities

Girls Tennis

Boys Soccer

Girls Soccer

Boys Cross Country Running

Girls Cross Country Running

Girls Volleyball

Adapted Soccer


Girls Swimming and Diving

Winter Activities


Boys Alpine Skiing

Girls Alpine Skiing

Boys Nordic Skiing

Girls Nordic Skiing

Girls Hockey

Dance Team


Girls Gymnastics

Boys Hockey

Boys Swimming and Diving

Girls Basketball

Boys Basketball

Adapted Floor Hockey

Spring Activities

Adapted Bowling

Girls Lacrosse

Boys Lacrosse

Adapted Softball

Boys Golf

Girls Golf

Boys Tennis

Girls Softball

Boys Track and Field

Girls Track and Field


Lowe Farm

Lowe Farm is a growing farming community in southern Manitoba, Canada. It is located in the Rural Municipality of Morris, 10 minutes west of Morris, Manitoba, on highway #23. It was founded in the 1880s, when John Lowe (born February 20, 1824) managed a campaign to attract immigrants, particularly farmers and farm laborers for Manitoba. Lowe Farm became a model farm and a testing ground for farming innovations and later developed into a village.

Like many towns in Southern Manitoba, it has no stop lights, though it does have three churches, a Credit Union, a Recreation Centre, a privately owned grocery store, farm supply, gas station, a Cafe, an elementary/junior high school. and community park. Lowe Farm has 3 baseball diamonds, 2 in the park and one on the school playground where a baseball program is run. The town is laid out in a reverse L-shape.

Lowe Farm School has 121 students, there are 14 staff members. The parents have been developing a Natural Playground over the last 2 years that consists of a toboggan hill and swings. The school has been integrating technology by using smartboards, netbooks, desktops, and LCD projectors into their everyday experiences. The students are very engaged, participating in leadership activities like buddy reading, computer buddies, gym helpers, canteen helpers, and book order volunteers. They also participate in inter-school sports like basketball, volleyball, cross-country, badminton, floor hockey, and softball. The student council organizes events like Fall Frolics, Spirit Week, School Newspaper, Talent Show, and Oreo dunking. They also organize sales of school clothing.

Lowe Farm continues to grow with a new influx of immigration. The school population has increased in the five months prior to February 2016 by 27%, from 84 students to 107.

Metro Sports Center

Metro Sports Center is a multi-purpose athletic facility located in Evansville, Indiana. The facility has one turfed walled indoor soccer field,fine volleyball court, oel,multi-sport court for volleyball, basketball, dodgeball, roller derby or floor hockey. There is also a private room for parties and meetings and two tenant spaces upstairs. Metro provides a climate controlled area for youth and adult sports programs, youth and adult parties as well as time slots for facility rentals.

Metropolitan Yeshiva High School Athletic League

The Metropolitan Yeshiva High School Athletic League (MYHSAL), or Yeshiva League, is a high school athletic league consisting of 36 Modern/Centrist Orthodox and one Conservative Yeshivas in the New York Metropolitan Area. It includes the sports of Basketball, Hockey, Volleyball, Soccer, Baseball, and Softball. The league, and pages rticularly its sport of Floor Hockey, was described by the New York Times in a 2017 piece. Jared Kushner played hockey in the league while attending the Frisch School.

Mexico at the Special Olympics World Games

México has competed at the Special Olympics World Games 11 times.

Newcastle Wildcats

The Newcastle Wildcats are a university ice hockey team representing Newcastle University in the United Kingdom. NUIHC are a member club of the British Universities Ice Hockey Association (BUIHA) and ice three teams across all three tiers of UK university competition.The club is notable for now being the 3rd oldest amongst modern British university ice hockey programmes (having been founded in 1994) and for the fact that it was the first to introduce mixed gender participation into a full-contact university sport.

The Wildcats operate a successful beginners' training programme to develop new players. Partially as a result of this, Newcastle University was the most represented institution in terms of player registration within the BUIHA for three seasons with the Wildcats preferring to ice teams consisting almost totally of Newcastle students and mostly shunning the popular practice of pooling players from the maximum possible number of institutions. Since their inception, the Wildcats have mainly been based at Whitley Bay Ice Rink, alongside the semi-professional Whitley Warriors, rivals Northumbria Flames and, at one time, the Newcastle Vipers of the Elite Ice Hockey League. Both Newcastle University and Northumbria Clubs often played at the Metro Radio Arena during hockey evenings hosted by the Vipers, indeed the Vipers included the game between the two University teams as part of their 'farewell evening' when they left the city centre rink.

Power hockey

Power Hockey is a competitive, fast-paced hockey game based on the use of a power wheelchair. The foundation of the sport derives from ice hockey and floor hockey, but with adapted rules to enable people with disabilities, who use a power wheelchair, to play and be active in a competitive team setting. The sport is also referred to as Electric Wheelchair Hockey or Electric Wheelchair Floorball in various parts of the world.


Rosthern is a town at the juncture of Highway 11 and Highway 312 in the central area of Saskatchewan, Canada. It is located roughly halfway between the cities of Prince Albert and Saskatoon.

SPORTS for Exceptional Athletes

SPORTS for Exceptional Athletes is a San Diego, California-based nonprofit athletic organization, created to provide enhanced opportunities for people with and without disabilities. The primary mission of SPORTS for Exceptional Athletes (S4EA) is to serve people with developmental disabilities within the age range of 5 years old through adults. By combining people with and without disabilities, S4EA hopes that participating athletes will interact and form lasting bonds of friendship through shared sports and recreational activities in S4EA's served communities. Although the organization's focus is primarily San Diego County, S4EA has grown from this base to satellite programs in Ventura and Temecula, California.

SPORTS for Exceptional Athletes offers a variety of sports, with the year divided into four sports seasons. These sports include: basketball, baseball, floor hockey, bowling, figure skating, golf, snowshoeing, judo, swimming, track & field, and more.

The organization—a 501(c)(3) California corporation—was founded in 2007 by a group of athletes, coaches, volunteers, and parents who split from Special Olympics Southern California to gain local control over disabled athletics programs

Today, SPORTS for Exceptional Athletes serves more than 1,400 athletes.

Sam Jacks

Samuel Perry Jacks (April 23, 1915 – May 14, 1975 in Glasgow, Scotland) was a Canadian inventor, creator of the sport of ringette and floor hockey. He was posthumously inducted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 2007.Jacks moved to Canada with his family in 1920 and in 1935 became the assistant physical director at the West End YMCA in Toronto. A year later, he invented floor hockey. He created the first set of rules for floor hockey, an achievement later recognized by the Youth Branch of the United Nations.From 1940 to 1945, he served with the Canadian Forces as a member of the 1st Parachute Battalion. After his military service, he met his future wife, Agnes . They married, lived in Toronto, and had three sons together, Barry, Bruce and Brian.

Jacks initially worked at the West End YMCA in Toronto but in 1948 was asked to become director of parks and recreation for the city of North Bay, Ontario. He was instrumental in developing the first Northern Ontario Playground Hockey Association (NOPHA) which encouraged youth to play hockey on outdoor rinks.

Jacks's most well known achievement was his invention of the sport of ringette. Ringette was created to both address and remedy two ongoing problems: the observation and criticism regarding the Northern Ontario Recreation Directors Association (NORDA)'s tendency to place most of its time, resources, and focus on running sports programs aimed at the male population to the exclusion of the female population, and the association's continual lack of success in gaining and maintaining participation in the two winter based team sports available to girls at that time: broomball and girls ice hockey.

Street hockey

Street hockey (also known as dek hockey, ball hockey, road hockey) is a variation of the sport of ice hockey where the game is played outdoors on foot, or with inline or roller skates using a ball or puck. Both ball and puck are typically designed to be played on non-ice surfaces. The object of the game is to score more goals than the opposing team by shooting the ball or puck into the opposing team's net. Street hockey in pickup form is generally played under the following guidelines since there are no "official rules" for local pickup hockey:

Physical contact between players is extremely limited to avoid injury.

Minimal or no hockey equipment is worn by the runners, depending on players' preferences.

Players agree whether or not to allow slap shots and raising of the stick, both of which can incur serious injury to players, as there is minimal or no equipment worn.

Players determine whether to use a hockey ball, a tennis ball, or a street hockey puck.

There is no referee except when agreed upon by both teams.In its most pure form, street hockey is always played on an outdoor surface (very often a street, parking lot, tennis court or other asphalt surface), which the genesis of the name street hockey. Teams can be selected by various methods but usually are selected by captains via alternate selection of available players. Alternatively, all the players put their sticks in a pile and the sticks are tossed out of the pile to opposing sides. In more organized forms, it is played in rinks which often were designed for roller hockey and can be indoor or outdoor rinks. There are also rinks built specifically for hockey played on foot, and they are referred to as dek hockey or ball hockey rinks. Such rinks can also be used for roller hockey games.

Yeshivat Akiva

Yeshivat Akiva is an N-12 Modern Orthodox Zionist day school, serving Southeast Michigan. It opened in 1964 as an elementary school and shortly thereafter added a middle school (in 1967) and high school (starting in 1971, with a 10th grade). From the start the school has had a strong connection to Israel and for the first two decades the school's 12th grade took place in Israel. The first high school class graduated in 1974. The school's early motto was "The best of two worlds," which was later reworded as "The best of both worlds."

The school's original name was Akiva Hebrew Day School. In 1982, the school was renamed Yeshivat Akiva-Akiva Hebrew Day School-Stollman Education Center. It is currently known as Farber Hebrew Day School-Yeshivat Akiva and uses the motto "A foundation in Torah, a lifetime of success." The latest name change came as part of a major endowment by the Audrey & William Farber Family.

Øyer-Tretten IF

Øyer-Tretten Idrettsforening is a multi-sports club from Øyer, Norway.

It was founded on 29 November 1990 as a merger between Øyer IL (founded on 23 November 1913 and based in Granrudmoen) and Tretten IL (founded on 31 May 1920 and based in Tretten). It has sections for alping skiing, Nordic skiing, orienteering, gymnastics, association football, handball and floor hockey.

Olympic silver medalist Ole Stenen represented Øyer IL in his time, and skier Erling Jevne is the best known post-merger club member. Another skier Håvard Moheim made four World Cup starts without collecting World Cup points.FA Premiership player Abdisalam Ibrahim has played for Øyer-Tretten, but moved to another part of Norway at age 11.

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