Flight International (or simply Flight) is a weekly magazine focused on aerospace, published in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1909 as "A Journal devoted to the Interests, Practice, and Progress of Aerial Locomotion and Transport", it is the world's oldest continuously published aviation news magazine.
Flight International is published by Reed Business Information. Competitors include Jane's Information Group and Aviation Week. Former editors of, and contributors to, Flight include H. F. King, Bill Gunston and John W. R. Taylor.
Flight International cover, 9 April 2019
|Circulation||43,000 (June 2007)|
|Company||Reed Business Information Ltd|
The creator, founder, and first editor of Flight was Stanley Spooner (1856–1940). He was also the creator, and editor of The Automotor Journal which was originally titled The Automotor Journal and Horseless Vehicle.From around 1900 the journal had a separate section relating to aviation and aeronautical matters. The April the 25th 1908 issue of The Automotor Jornal , included a diagram of patent drawings of a plane made by the Wright Brothers.Stanley kept in contact with them via his friend Griffith Brewer. Eventually, Spooner decided that a journal focused solely on matters relating to flying should be published. And so Flight magazine was created as an offshoot of The Automotor Journal
Claiming to be the first aeronautical weekly in the world, Flight first appeared on 2 January 1909 as the official journal of the Aero Club of the United Kingdom (later the Royal Aero Club). In April 1934, Flight was acquired by Iliffe and Sons Ltd who were proprietors and printers of technical magazines, one of which included The Autocar. On 4 January 1962 the magazine was renamed Flight International.
Founded in 1909, Flight (now Flight International) the British produced global aerospace weekly and the world's oldest continuously published aviation news magazine, was another publisher of specialist information which appeared as wartime paper restrictions allowed to keep enthusiasts up to date in aircraft design and performance.
PJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines (Russian: ПАО "Аэрофло́т – Росси́йские авиали́нии", PAO Aeroflot—Rossiyskiye avialinii), commonly known as Aeroflot (English: or (listen)) (Russian: Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet", pronounced [ɐɛrɐˈfɫot]), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation. The air carrier is an open joint stock company that operates domestic and international passenger and services, mainly from its airline hub at Sheremetyevo International Airport.
Aeroflot is one of the oldest airlines in the world, tracing its history back to 1923. During the Soviet era, Aeroflot was the Soviet national airline and the largest airline in the world. Following the dissolution of the USSR, the carrier has been transformed from a state-run enterprise into a semi-privatised company which ranked 19th most profitable airline in the world in 2007. Aeroflot is still considered the de facto national airline of Russia. It is 51%-owned by the Russian Government. As of September 2013, the Aeroflot Group had 30,328 employees. By the end of 2017, Aeroflot controlled roughly 40% of the air market in Russia.The company has embarked on a fleet modernisation programme, extensive route restructuring and an image overhaul. The airline joined SkyTeam in April 2006, becoming the 10th member of the alliance.Air Mauritius
Air Mauritius Limited, operating as Air Mauritius, is the flag carrier airline of Mauritius. The airline is headquartered at the Air Mauritius Centre in Port Louis, Mauritius. Its main hub is Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport.Airbus A350 XWB
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by the European aerospace manufacturer Airbus. The A350 is the first Airbus aircraft with both fuselage and wing structures made primarily of carbon fibre reinforced polymer. Its variants seat 315 to 369 passengers in typical seating layouts. The A350 is positioned to succeed the A340 and to compete with the Boeing 787 and 777.
The A350 was originally conceived in 2004 as a pairing of the A330's fuselage with new aerodynamics features and engines. In 2006, Airbus redesigned the aircraft in response to negative feedback from several major prospective customers, producing the "A350 XWB" (eXtra Wide Body). Development costs are estimated at €11 billion (US$15 billion or £9.5 billion). As of February 2019, Airbus had received 893 orders for A350s from 51 customers worldwide. The prototype A350 first flew on 14 June 2013 from Toulouse, France. Type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency was received in September 2014 and certification from the Federal Aviation Administration two months later. On 15 January 2015, the A350-900 entered service with its launch operator Qatar Airways; the A350-1000 did so on 24 February 2018 with the same airline.Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is the world's largest passenger airliner, a wide-body aircraft manufactured by Airbus.
Airbus studies started in 1988 and the project was announced in 1990 to challenge the dominance of the Boeing 747 in the long haul market.
The A3XX project was presented in 1994; Airbus launched the €9.5 billion ($10.7 billion) A380 programme on 19 December 2000.
The first prototype was unveiled in Toulouse on 18 January 2005,
with its first flight on 27 April 2005.
It obtained its EASA and FAA type certificates on 12 December 2006.
Difficulties in electrical wiring caused a two-year delay and the development cost ballooned to €18 billion.
It was first delivered to Singapore Airlines on 15 October 2007 and entered service on 25 October.
Production peaked at 30 per year in 2012 and 2014. However, Airbus concedes that its $25 billion investment for the aircraft cannot be recouped.
On 14 February 2019, after Emirates reduced its last orders in favour of the A350 and the A330neo, Airbus announced that A380 production would end by 2021.The full-length double-deck aircraft has a typical seating capacity of 525, though it is certified for up to 853 passengers.
It is powered by four Engine Alliance GP7200 or Rolls-Royce Trent 900 turbofans providing a range of 8,000 nmi (14,800 km).
As of July 2019, Airbus has received 290 firm orders and delivered 239 aircraft; Emirates is the biggest A380 customer with 123 ordered, of which 112 have been delivered.Berlin Tegel Airport
Berlin Tegel "Otto Lilienthal" Airport (German: Flughafen Berlin-Tegel „Otto Lilienthal“) (IATA: TXL, ICAO: EDDT) is the main international airport of Berlin, the federal capital of Germany. It formerly served West Berlin. The airport is named after Otto Lilienthal and is the fourth busiest airport in Germany, with 20.5 million passengers in 2017 and about 22 million in 2018. The airport is a hub for Eurowings as well as a base for EasyJet. It features flights to several European metropolitan and leisure destinations as well as some intercontinental routes. It is situated in Tegel, a section of the northern borough of Reinickendorf, 8 km (5.0 mi) northwest of the city centre of Berlin. Tegel Airport is notable for its hexagonal main terminal building around an open square, which makes walking distances as short as 30 m (98 ft) from the aircraft to the terminal exit.Boeing 757
The Boeing 757 is a mid-sized, narrow-body short to medium range, twin-engine airliner that was designed and built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the manufacturer's largest single-aisle passenger aircraft and was produced from 1981 to 2004. The twinjet has a two-crew member glass cockpit, turbofan engines of sufficient power to allow takeoffs from relatively short runways and higher altitudes, a conventional tail and, for reduced aerodynamic drag, a supercritical wing design. Intended to replace the smaller three-engine 727 on short and medium routes, the 757 can carry 200 to 295 passengers for a maximum of 3,150 to 4,100 nautical miles (5,830 to 7,590 km), depending on variant. The 757 was designed concurrently with a wide-body twinjet, the 767, and, owing to shared features, pilots can obtain a common type rating that allows them to operate both aircraft.
The 757 was produced in two fuselage lengths. The original 757-200 entered service in 1983; the 757-200PF, a package freighter (PF) variant, and the 757-200M, a passenger-freighter combi model, debuted in the late 1980s. The stretched 757-300, the longest narrow-body twinjet ever produced, began service in 1999. Passenger 757-200s have been modified to special freighter (SF) specification for cargo use, while military derivatives include the C-32 transport, VIP carriers, and other multi-purpose aircraft. Private and government operators have also customized the 757 for research and transport roles. All 757s are powered by Rolls-Royce RB211 or Pratt & Whitney PW2000 series turbofans.
Eastern Air Lines and British Airways placed the 757 in commercial service in 1983. The narrow-body twinjet succeeded earlier single-aisle airliners, and became commonly used for short and mid-range domestic routes, shuttle services, and transcontinental U.S. flights. After regulators granted approval for extended flights over water (ETOPS) in 1986, airlines also began using the aircraft for intercontinental routes. Major customers for the 757 included U.S. mainline carriers, European charter airlines, and cargo companies.
Production of the 757 ended in October 2004, after 1,050 had been built for 54 customers. The 757-200 was by far the most popular model, with 913 built. Diminished sales amid an airline industry trending toward smaller jetliners led Boeing to end production without a direct replacement, in favor of the 737 family. The last 757 was delivered to Shanghai Airlines in November 2005. In July 2017, 666 of the narrow-body twinjets were in airline service; Delta Air Lines was the largest operator with 127 aircraft.
The airliner has recorded eleven hull-loss accidents, including eight fatal crashes, as of June 2019.Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, mid- to long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was Boeing's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft has two turbofan engines, a conventional tail, and, for reduced aerodynamic drag, a supercritical wing design. Designed as a smaller wide-body airliner than earlier aircraft such as the 747, the 767 has a seating capacity for 181 to 375 people, and a design range of 3,850 to 6,385 nautical miles (4,431 to 7,348 mi; 7,130 to 11,825 km), depending on variant. Development of the 767 occurred in tandem with a narrow-body twinjet, the 757, resulting in shared design features which allow pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate both aircraft.
The 767 is produced in three fuselage lengths. The original 767-200 entered service in 1982, followed by the 767-300 in 1986 and the 767-400ER, an extended-range (ER) variant, in 2000. The extended-range 767-200ER and 767-300ER models entered service in 1984 and 1988, respectively, while a production freighter version, the 767-300F, debuted in 1995. Conversion programs have modified passenger 767-200 and 767-300 series aircraft for cargo use, while military derivatives include the E-767 surveillance aircraft, the KC-767 and KC-46 aerial tankers, and VIP transports. Engines featured on the 767 include the General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney JT9D and PW4000, and Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofans.
United Airlines first placed the 767 in commercial service in 1982. The aircraft was initially flown on domestic and transcontinental routes, during which it demonstrated the reliability of its twinjet design. The 767 became the first twin-engined airliner to be used on extended overseas flights in 1985. The aircraft was then used to expand non-stop service on medium- to long-haul intercontinental routes. In 1986, Boeing initiated studies for a higher-capacity 767, ultimately leading to the development of the 777, a larger wide-body twinjet. In the 1990s, the 767 became the most frequently used airliner for transatlantic flights between North America and Europe.
The 767 is the first twinjet wide-body type to reach 1,000 aircraft delivered. As of August 2019, Boeing has received 1,254 orders for the 767 from 74 customers with 1,161 delivered. A total of 742 of these aircraft were in service in July 2018. The most popular variant is the 767-300ER with 583 delivered. Delta Air Lines is the largest operator with 77 aircraft. Competitors have included the Airbus A300, A310, and A330-200. Non-passenger variants of the 767 remain in production as of 2019 while the passenger variant's successor, the 787, entered service in 2011.Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and has a typical seating capacity of 314 to 396 passengers, with a range of 5,240 to 8,555 nautical miles (9,704 to 15,844 km). Commonly referred to as the Triple Seven, its distinguishing features include large-diameter turbofan engines, long raked wings, six wheels on each main landing gear, fully circular fuselage cross-section, and a blade-shaped tail cone. Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was designed to replace older wide-body airliners and bridge the capacity difference between Boeing's 767 and 747. As Boeing's first fly-by-wire airliner, it has computer-mediated controls. It was also the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely with computer-aided design.
The 777 is produced in two fuselage lengths as of 2018. The original 777-200 variant entered commercial service in 1995, followed by the extended-range 777-200ER in 1997. The stretched 777-300, which is 33.25 ft (10.1 m) longer, followed in 1998. The initial 777-200, extended-range -200ER, and -300 versions are equipped with General Electric GE90, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or Rolls-Royce Trent 800 engines. They have since been collectively referred to as 777 Classics. The extended-range 777-300ER and ultra long-range 777-200LR variants entered service in 2004 and 2006 respectively, while the 777F, a freighter version, debuted in February 2009; these second-generation variants all feature high-output GE90 engines and extended raked wingtips. The 777-200LR is one of the world's longest-range airliners, able to fly more than halfway around the globe and holds the record for the longest distance flown non-stop by a commercial aircraft. In November 2013, Boeing announced the development of the third-generation of the 777, the 777X, consisting of the 777-8 and 777-9 variants. The 777X features composite wings with folding wingtips and General Electric GE9X engines plus further technologies developed for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, and is scheduled to enter service by 2020.
The 777 first entered commercial service with United Airlines on June 7, 1995. The 777 has received more orders than any other wide-body airliner; as of August 2019, more than 60 customers had placed orders for 2,049 aircraft of all variants, with 1,609 delivered. The most common and successful variant is the 777-300ER with 810 delivered and 844 orders; Emirates operates the largest 777 fleet, with 163 passenger and freighter aircraft as of July 2018. The sixth 777 hull loss occurred in October 2016; the Asiana Airlines Flight 214 accident in July 2013 was its first fatal crash in 18 years of service, and the shootdown of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 in July 2014 is its deadliest crash as of January 2019.
The 777 ranks as one of Boeing's best-selling models; by 2018 it had become the most-produced Boeing wide-body jet, surpassing the Boeing 747. Airlines have acquired the type as a comparatively fuel-efficient alternative to other wide-body jets and have increasingly deployed the aircraft on long-haul transoceanic routes. Direct market competitors include the Airbus A330-300, the Airbus A350 XWB, and the out-of-production A340 and McDonnell Douglas MD-11. The Boeing 787 Dreamliner, which entered service in 2011, shares some design features with the new 777X models.Boeing 787 Dreamliner
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner or Boeing 787 is an American long-haul, mid-size wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Its variants seat 242 to 330 passengers in typical two-class seating configurations. It is the first airliner with an airframe constructed primarily of composite materials. The 787 was designed to be 20% more fuel-efficient than the Boeing 767, which it was intended to replace. The 787 Dreamliner's distinguishing features include mostly electrical flight systems, raked wingtips, and noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles.
The aircraft's initial designation was the 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005. The first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 8, 2007, at Boeing's Everett factory. Development and production of the 787 has involved a large-scale collaboration with numerous suppliers worldwide. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing Everett Factory in Everett, Washington, and at the Boeing South Carolina factory in North Charleston, South Carolina. Originally planned to enter service in May 2008, the project experienced multiple delays. The airliner's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009, and flight testing was completed in mid-2011. Boeing has reportedly spent $32 billion on the 787 program.
Final US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) type certification was received in August 2011 and the first 787-8 was delivered in September 2011. It entered commercial service on October 26, 2011, with launch customer All Nippon Airways. The stretched 787-9 variant, which is 20 feet (6.1 m) longer and can fly 450 nautical miles (830 km) farther than the -8, first flew in September 2013. Deliveries of the 787-9 began in July 2014; it entered commercial service on August 7, 2014, with All Nippon Airways, with 787-9 launch customer Air New Zealand following two days later. As of August 2019, the 787 had orders for 1,464 aircraft from 72 identified customers.The aircraft has suffered from several in-service problems related to its lithium-ion batteries, including fires on board during commercial service. These systems were reviewed by both the FAA and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau. The FAA issued a directive in January 2013 that grounded all 787s in the US and other civil aviation authorities followed suit. After Boeing completed tests on a revised battery design, the FAA approved the revised design and lifted the grounding in April 2013; the 787 returned to passenger service later that month.Bombardier CRJ100/200
The Bombardier CRJ100 and CRJ200 (formerly known as the Canadair CRJ100 and CRJ200) is a family of regional airliners that was designed and manufactured by Bombardier Aerospace between 1991 and 2006. The CRJ was Canada's second civil jet airliner after the Avro Canada C102 Jetliner.
It was based on the Bombardier Challenger 600 series business jets. An initial effort to produce an enlarged 36-seat version of the aircraft, known as the Challenger 610E, was terminated during 1981. Shortly after Canadair's privatisation and sale to Bombardier, work on a stretched derivative was reinvigorated; during early 1989, the Canadair Regional Jet program was formally launched. On 10 May 1991, the first of three CRJ100 prototypes conducted its maiden flight. The type first entered service during the following year with its launch customer, German airline Lufthansa.
The initial variant, the CRJ100, was soon joined by another model, designated as the CRJ200. It was largely identical to the CRJ100, except for the installation of more efficient turbofan engines, which gave the aircraft lower fuel consumption, increased cruise altitude and cruise speed. During the 1990s, various additional versions and models of the type were developed and put into service. During the late 1990s, a substantially enlarged derivative of the airliner, referred to as the CRJ700, was developed; it was soon joined by the even larger CRJ900 and CRJ1000. During 2006, production of both the CRJ100 and CRJ200 came to an end; the majority of produced airliners have remained in revenue service to date. Additionally, several airlines have modernised their fleets to support extended service.Bombardier CRJ700 series
The Bombardier CRJ700, CRJ900, and CRJ1000 are a family of regional jet airliners designed and manufactured by Canadian transportation conglomerate Bombardier; the trio of aircraft has been collectively marketed by the company as the CRJ Series. Their design was derived from the smaller CRJ100 and 200 airliners.
During the 1990s, Bombardier initiated development on the CRJ-X, a programme to produce enlarged derivatives of its popular CRJ100/200 family. Officially launched in 1997, the CRJ700's maiden flight took place on 27 May 1999; it was soon followed by the stretched CRJ900 variant. Several additional variants of the type were subsequently introduced, including the CRJ550 and the elongated CRJ1000. While production of the smaller CRJ100/200 range was discontinued during 2006, the larger CRJ Series models have continued to be produced into the 2010s. Competitors have included the Fokker 70/Fokker 100, the BAe 146 family, and the Embraer E-Jet family.
In Bombardier's lineup, the CRJ Series was formerly marketed alongside a family of larger jets, the C Series (now majority-owned by Airbus and marketed as the Airbus A220) and a twin-turboprop, the Q Series (now owned by De Havilland Canada and marketed as the Dash 8). During the late 2010s, Bombardier sought to sell off several of its aircraft programmes. The CRJ programme is to be acquired by Japanese corporation Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in a deal expected to close by the first half of 2020.Bombardier Global Express
The Bombardier Global Express is a large cabin, 6,000 nmi / 11,100 km range business jet designed and manufactured by Bombardier Aviation (formerly Bombardier Aerospace).
Announced in October 1991, it first flew on 13 October 1996, received its Canadian type certification on 31 July 1998 and entered service in July 1999.
Initially powered by two BMW-Rolls-Royce BR710s, it shares its fuselage cross section with the Canadair Regional Jet and Challenger 600 with a new wing and tail.
The shorter range Global 5000 is slightly smaller and the Global 6000 is updated and has been modified for military missions. The longer range Global 5500/6500 are powered by new Rolls-Royce Pearl engines with lower fuel burn and were unveiled in May 2018.
The larger and stretched Global 7500/8000 have longer ranges.Dornier 328
The Dornier 328 is a turboprop-powered commuter airliner. Initially produced by Dornier Luftfahrt GmbH, the firm was acquired in 1996 by Fairchild Aircraft. The resulting firm, named Fairchild-Dornier, manufactured the 328 family in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, conducted sales from San Antonio, Texas, United States, and supported the product line from both locations. A jet-powered version of the aircraft, the Fairchild Dornier 328JET, was also produced.Fokker 100
The Fokker 100 is a medium-sized, twin-turbofan jet airliner from Fokker, the largest such aircraft built by the company before its bankruptcy in 1996. The type possessed low operational costs and initially had scant competition in the 100-seat short-range regional jet class, contributing to strong sales upon introduction in the late 1980s.
However, an increasing number of similar airliners were brought to market by competitors during the 1990s, leading to a substantial decline in both sales and long-term prospects for the 100. Fokker also encountered financial difficulties and was bought up by Deutsche Aerospace AG, which in turn had financial troubles of its own, restricting its ability to support multiple regional airliner programmes. Accordingly, in 1997, production of the Fokker 100 was terminated after 283 airframes had been delivered.
By July 2017, a total of 113 Fokker 100 aircraft remained in airline service with 25 airlines around the world. Although airlines are currently retiring the aircraft, there are still large numbers in operation in both Australia and Iran.Kenya Airways
Kenya Airways Ltd., more commonly known as Kenya Airways, is the flag carrier airline of Kenya. The company was founded in 1977, after the dissolution of East African Airways. Their head office is located in Embakasi, Nairobi, with its hub at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport.The airline was owned by the Government of Kenya until April 1995 (1995-04), and it was privatised in 1996, becoming the first African flag carrier to successfully do so. Kenya Airways is currently a public-private partnership. The largest shareholder is the Government of Kenya (48.9%), 38.1% is owned by KQ Lenders Company 2017 Ltd. (in turn owned by a consortium of banks), followed by KLM, which has a 7.8% stake in the company. The rest of the shares are held by private owners; shares are traded on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange, and the Uganda Securities Exchange.The airline became a member of SkyTeam in June 2010 (2010-06), and is also a member of the African Airlines Association since 1977.Kuwait Airways
Kuwait Airways (Arabic: الخطوط الجوية الكويتية, al-Xuṭūṭ al-Jawwiya al-Kuwaitiyah) is the national carrier of Kuwait, with its head office on the grounds of Kuwait International Airport, Al Farwaniyah Governorate. It operates scheduled international services throughout the Middle East, to the Indian subcontinent, Europe, Southeast Asia and North America, from its main base at Kuwait International. Kuwait Airways is a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization.L-3 Flight International Aviation
Vertex Aerospace Flight International Aviation is an airline based in Newport News, Virginia, USA. It is a Part 135 carrier operating contact charters for US government agencies. Flight International has provided the DoD with realistic threat simulation, AIC training, tracking exercises, and targets for surface and aerial gunnery for more than 35 years. Its main base is Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport with a detachment based at North Island Naval Air Station, CA. .Paris Air Show
The Paris Air Show (French: Salon international de l'aéronautique et de l'espace de Paris-Le Bourget, Salon du Bourget) is the largest air show and aerospace-industry exhibition event in the world, measured by number of exhibitors and size of exhibit space. In second place is UK's Farnborough, followed by Dubai Air Show or Singapore Airshow.
The latest was the 52nd Air Show, held from 19 to 25 June 2017, attended by 3,450 journalists, 142,000 professionals and 180,000 general public visitors.
It claims to be the world's calendar-oldest air show.
Established in 1909, it has been held every odd year since 1949 at Paris–Le Bourget Airport in north Paris, France.
It is a large trade fair, demonstrating military and civilian aircraft, and is attended by many military forces and the major aircraft manufacturers, often announcing major aircraft sales.
It starts with four professional days and is then opened to the general public followed from Friday to Sunday.
The format is similar to Farnborough and the ILA, both staged in even years.
It is organised by the French aerospace industry's primary representative body, the Groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales (GIFAS).Vega (rocket)
Vega (Italian: Vettore Europeo di Generazione Avanzata, meaning "Advanced generation European carrier rocket"), is an expendable launch system in use by Arianespace jointly developed by the Italian Space Agency and the European Space Agency. Development began in 1998 and the first launch took place from the Guiana Space Centre on 13 February 2012.It is designed to launch small payloads — 300 to 2,500 kg satellites for scientific and Earth observation missions to polar and low Earth orbits. The reference Vega mission is a polar orbit bringing a spacecraft of 1,500 kilograms to an altitude of 700 kilometers.
The rocket, named after Vega, the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, is a single-body launcher (no strap-on boosters) with three solid rocket stages: the P80 first stage, the Zefiro 23 second stage, and the Zefiro 9 third stage. The upper module is a liquid rocket called AVUM. The improved version of the P80 stage, the P120C, will be used as the side boosters of the Ariane 6. Italy is the leading contributor to the Vega program (65%), followed by France (13%). Other participants include Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden.