Flavia (gens)

The three emperors of the Flavian dynasty (left) and later emperors, starting with Constantius Chlorus (right), bore the name Flavius.

Flavian dynasty Aurei
Const.chlorus01 pushkin

The gens Flavia was a plebeian family at Rome. Its members are first mentioned during the last three centuries of the Republic. The first of the Flavii to achieve prominence was Marcus Flavius, tribune of the plebs in 327 and 323 BC; however, no Flavius attained the consulship until Gaius Flavius Fimbria in 104 BC. The gens became illustrious during the first century AD, when the family of the Flavii Sabini claimed the imperial dignity.[1]

Under the Empire, the number of persons bearing this nomen becomes very large, perhaps due to the great number of freedmen under the Flavian dynasty of emperors. It was a common practice for freedmen to assume the nomina of their patrons, and so countless persons who obtained the Roman franchise under the Flavian emperors adopted the name Flavius, which was then handed down to their descendants.[1]

During the later period of the Empire, the name Flavius frequently descended from one emperor to another, beginning with Constantius, the father of Constantine the Great.[1] The name became so ubiquitous that it was sometimes treated as a praenomen, to the extent of being regularly abbreviated Fl., and it is even described as a praenomen in some sources, although it was never truly used as a personal name. The last emperor to take the name was eastern emperor Constantine IV, during the seventh century.

After the name fell into disuse among the Byzantine emperors, it was used as a title of legitimacy among the barbarian rulers of former Roman provinces, such as Spain, where the Visigoths and their Spanish successors used the title "Emperor of All Spain", and the kings of the barbarian successor kingdoms of Italy, such as the Ostrogoths and the Lombards also used it, with a special meaning as the "protector" of the Italian peoples under Lombard rule.

The vast majority of persons named Flavius during the later Empire could not have been descended from the Flavia gens; and indeed, the distinction between nomina and cognomina was all but lost, so that in many cases one cannot even determine with certainty whether it is a nomen or a cognomen. However, because it is impossible to determine which of these persons used Flavius as a gentile name, they have been listed below.[1]

Origin

The Flavii of the Republic claimed Sabine ancestry, and may have been related to the Flavii who lived at Reate during the first century AD, from whom the emperor Vespasian descended; but the gentilicium is also found in other parts of Italy, such as Etruria and Lucania.[1] The nomen Flavius is of Latin origin, and is derived from the surname Flavus, used by a number of gentes, and meaning "golden" or "golden-brown". It probably referred to the blond hair possessed by an early member of the family.[2][3]

In modern use, Flavius is a personal name, and widely used in romance languages, including Italian and Spanish Flavio (fem. Flavia), French Flavien (fem. Flavie), Portuguese Flávio (fem. Flávia), and Romanian Flavius or Flaviu (fem. Flavia).

Praenomina

The early Flavii used the praenomina Marcus, Quintus, Gaius, and Lucius. Of these, only Gaius and Lucius are known from the family of the Fimbriae. The name Gnaeus occurs once, but as the son of a freedman of the family, and thus does not seem to be representative of the gens. The Flavii Sabini appear to have restricted themselves to the praenomen Titus alone, and distinguished their sons by the use of different surnames, usually by giving the younger sons surnames derived from their maternal ancestors.

Branches and cognomina

The Flavii of the Republic used the cognomina Fimbria, Gallus, Lucanus, and Pusio.[1] Only the Fimbriae, whose surname refers to a fringe or border, represented a distinct family.[4][5] Gallus and Lucanus belong to a class of surnames derived from places of origin or association, referring to Gaul and Lucania, respectively, although Gallus, a very common surname, could also refer to a cockerel.[6][7] Pusio was originally a nickname indicating a little boy, and would have been bestowed on someone small or youthful.[8]

The Flavii Sabini, whose surname indicates Sabine ancestry, rose to prominence under the Empire. They were descended from Titus Flavius Petro, a soldier from Reate who fought under Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Within two generations they had attained such respectability that two of his grandsons held the consulship in consecutive years, AD 51 and 52; the younger of these marched to Rome at the head of an army in the year of the four emperors, AD 69, and claimed the imperial dignity as the emperor Vespasian. However, within less than thirty years, the family was largely destroyed through the workings of Vespasian's son, the emperor Domitian.[9][6] The Flavii Titiani may be descended from the Flavii Sabini through the consul Titus Flavius Clemens, a nephew of Vespasian; the first of this branch, Titus Flavius Titianus, who was governor of Egypt from AD 126 to 133, may have been his son.

As an imperial title

The emperor Claudius Gothicus claimed descent from the Flavian dynasty, and Constantine the Great in turn claimed descent from him via his father, Constantius Chlorus. As a result, Flavius was borne by all members of Constantine's dynasty.[10] Following its use by the Constantinian dynasty, the name assumed the attributes of an imperial title, much as Antoninus had been treated by the Severan dynasty, who followed the Antonines. It was borne by the Valentinian and Theodosian dynasties, and subsequently by barbarian rulers claiming to be their rightful successors.[11] From the sole rule of Honorius onward, the name was not used in official contexts during the fifth century, and the few surviving examples are of transcribed imperial letters, reflecting the entrenched association of the name with the imperial office in popular perception, rather than official nomenclature.[10] Under Justinian I, the name once again became part of the imperial nomenclature; it remained so under his successors until the time of Justinian II.[10]

Members

This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.
  • Marcus Flavius, tribune of the people in BC 327 and 323.[12][13]
  • Gnaeus Flavius, the son of a freedman, he was secretary to Appius Claudius Caecus, and served as aedile in 304 BC.
  • Flavius, or Flavius Lucanus, a Lucanian, who went over to Mago during the Second Punic War, and delivered the proconsul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, in return for the promise that the Lucanians should be free and retain their own constitution.[14][15][16]
  • Quintus Flavius, an augur who, according to Valerius Maximus, was accused by the aedile Gaius Valerius (perhaps the same who was curule aedile in BC 199). When fourteen tribes had already voted against Flavius, who again asserted his innocence, Valerius declared that he did not care whether the man was guilty or innocent, provided he secured his punishment; and the people, indignant at such conduct, acquitted Flavius.[17][18]
  • Quintus Flavius, of Tarquinii, murdered the slave Panurgus, who belonged to Gaius Fannius Chaereas, and who was to be trained as an actor by Quintus Roscius, the celebrated comedian.[19]
  • Lucius Flavius, an eques, who gave evidence against Verres in BC 70. He probably lived in Sicily, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits. He appears to be the same Lucius Flavius who is mentioned as procurator (that is, the agent or steward) of Gaius Matrinius in Sicily.[20]
  • Gaius Flavius, brother of Lucius, and likewise an eques, whom Cicero recommended in BC 46 to Manius Acilius, praetor of Sicily, as an intimate friend of Cicero's late son-in-law, Gaius Calpurnius Piso.[21]
  • Gaius Flavius Pusio, is mentioned by Cicero as one of the equites who opposed the tribune Marcus Drusus.[22]
  • Lucius Flavius, praetor in BC 58, and a supporter of Pompeius. He was also a friend of both Cicero and Caesar, and may have been the same Flavius whom Caesar entrusted with one legion and the province of Sicily in BC 49.[23][24][25]
  • Gaius Flavius, an eques of Asta, a Roman colony in Spain. He and other equites, who had belonged to the party of Pompeius, went over to Caesar in BC 45. It is uncertain whether he is the same Gaius Flavius who is mentioned among the enemies of Octavian, and who was put to death in BC 40, after the taking of Perusia.[26][27]
  • Gaius Flavius, a friend of Marcus Junius Brutus, whom he accompanied to Philippi in the capacity of praefectus fabrum. Flavius fell in the Battle of Philippi, and Brutus lamented over his death.[28][29][30][31]
  • Flavius Gallus, a military tribune serving under Marcus Antonius in his unfortunate campaign against the Parthians in BC 36. During Antonius' retreat, Gallus made an inconsiderate attack upon the enemy, for which he paid with his life.[32]

Flavii Fimbriae

  • Gaius Flavius Fimbria, the father of Gaius Flavius Fimbria, the consul of 104 BC.
  • Gaius Flavius C. f. Fimbria, consul in 104 BC; acquitted of extortion, despite significant evidence. With other consulars, took up arms against the revolt of Saturninus in 100. A clever jurist and powerful orator, his reputation had faded by Cicero's time, when his speeches were scarcely to be found.
  • Gaius Flavius C. f. C. n. Fimbria, one of the most violent partisans of Marius during the civil war against Sulla. Sent into Asia as legate to the consul Lucius Valerius Flaccus, he initiated a mutiny and murdered Flaccus in 85, assuming command of the army against Sulla. With much savagery, he subdued most of Asia, but when his men refused to fight Sulla directly in 84, he took his own life.
  • Flavius C. f. C. n. Fimbria, brother of the Marian partisan, was legate of Gaius Norbanus in the war against Sulla, BC 82. He and other officers of the party of Carbo were invited to a banquet by Publius Tullius Albinovanus, and then treacherously murdered.[33]
  • Lucius Flavius Fimbria, consul suffectus in AD 71, during the months of July and August.[34][35]

Flavii Sabini

  • Titus Flavius Petro, grandfather of the emperor Vespasian, was a native of the municipium of Reate, and served as a centurion in the army of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus at the Battle of Pharsalus, BC 48.[36]
  • Titus Flavius T. f. Sabinus, father of Vespasian, was one of the farmers of the tax of the quadragesima in Asia, which he collected with so much fairnes that many cities erected statues to his honour with the inscription, καλως τελωνησαντι. He afterwards carried on business as a money-lender among the Helvetii, and died in their country.[36]
  • Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Sabinus, the elder brother of Vespasian, was consul suffectus in AD 52, and praefectus urbi for most of Nero's reign. The emperor Vitellius offered to surrender the empire into his hands until the arrival of Vespasian, but the soldiers of each refused this arrangement, and Sabinus was murdered by Vitellius' troops, despite the emperor's attempts to save him.
  • Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Sabinus Vespasianus, the emperor Vespasian, was consul suffectus in AD 51, and proconsul in Africa and Judaea under Nero. He became emperor in AD 69, on the death of Vitellius, and reigned until his death in 79.
  • Flavia Domitilla, otherwise known as Domitilla the Elder, the wife of Vespasian.
  • Titus Flavius (T. f. T. n.) Sabinus, consul suffectus in AD 69, was probably a nephew of the emperor Vespasian. He was one of the generals appointed by the emperor Otho to oppose the forces of Vitellius, but after Otho's death, he submitted to the conqueror, and caused his troops in the north of Italy to submit to the generals of Vitellius.[37]
  • Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Sabinus, son of the consul of 52, and nephew of Vespasian, he was consul with his cousin, the emperor Domitian, in AD 82, but afterwards slain by the emperor on the pretext that the herald proclaiming his consulship had called him Imperator instead of consul.[38][39][40]
  • Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Clemens, son of the consul of 52, and nephew of Vespasian, he was consul with his cousin, the emperor Domitian, in AD 95. Although the emperor had intended Clemens' sons to succeed him in the empire, and renamed them Vespasian and Domitian, he had his cousin put to death during his consulship, according to Cassius Dio on a charge of atheism, implying that he had become a Christian.[41][42]
  • Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Sabinus Vespasianus, the emperor Titus, reigned from AD 79 to 81.
  • Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Domitianus, the emperor Domitian, emperor from AD 81 to 96.
  • Flavia Domitilla, otherwise known as Domitilla the Younger, the daughter of Vespasian.
  • Julia Flavia, daughter of the emperor Titus; she married her cousin, Titus Flavius Sabinus, consul in AD 82. He was murdered by Julia's uncle, the emperor Domitian, who then took his niece for a mistress.
  • Flavia Domitilla, daughter of Domitilla the Younger, and granddaughter of Vespasian; she married her cousin, Titus Flavius Clemens, consul in AD 95. He was murdered by Domitilla's uncle, the emperor Domitian, and Domitilla was exiled.

Flavii Titiani

Others

Neo-Flavian dynasty

Constantine and Helena. Mosaic in Saint Isaac's Cathedral
Constantine and Helena. Mosaic in Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Peterburg, Russia
  • Constantius Chlorus, afterwards Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius, emperor with Galerius from AD 305 to 306, and the father of Constantine the Great.
  • Flavia Julia Helena, the first wife of Constantius Chlorus, and mother of the emperor Constantine.
  • Flavia Maximiana Theodora, probably the daughter of Afranius Hannibalianus, and stepdaughter of Maximian; she was the second wife of Constantius Chlorus.
  • Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, otherwise known as Constantine the Great, emperor with Galerius and Licinius from AD 306 to 337.
  • Julius Constantius, eldest son of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, and brother of Constantine. He was named consul in AD 335, but put to death following the emperor's death in 337. His sons, Constantius Gallus and Julian, were spared, and would eventually be named heirs by their cousin, Constantius II, who had married their sister.
  • Flavius Dalmatius, son of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, and brother of Constantine; he held the censorship in AD 333, but was slain following the death of Constantine.
  • Flavius Hannibalianus, son of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, was granted the title Nobilissimus, but perished in the massacre of the Flavian dynasty following the death of his brother, Constantine.
  • Flavia Julia Constantia, daughter of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, and sister of Constantine, was given by him in marriage to his colleague, the emperor Licinius.
  • Anastasia, daughter of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, and sister of Constantine. She was to marry the senator Bassianus, but he was put to death in AD 316, for plotting against the emperor.
  • Eutropia, daughter of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, and sister of Constantine. She married Virius Nepotianus, and was the mother of Nepotianus, with whom she was put to death following a failed revolt against Magnentius in AD 350.
  • Fausta Flavia Maxima, daughter of Maximian, and second wife of Constantine; she was put to death in AD 326, shortly after the execution of her stepson, Crispus. The reasons are unclear, but rumors circulated of an affair between the empress and her stepson, or of a false allegation against Crispus by his stepmother, leading to his death.
  • Flavius Julius Crispus, son of Constantine, served his father in the war against Licinius, but was put to death in unclear circumstances in AD 326.
  • Constantina, the elder daughter of Constantine and Fausta, she was given in marriage first to her cousin Hannibalianus, and following his death in the dynastic purge of AD 337, to her cousin Constantius Gallus. She died in 354.
  • Helena, the younger daughter of Constantine and Fausta, she was given in marriage to her cousin, Julian, the future emperor. The couple was childless, and Helena suffered several miscarriages, which rumor blamed on the machinations of the empress Eusebia.
  • Flavius Claudius Constantinus, son of Constantine, and emperor with his brothers Constantius and Constans from AD 337 to 340.
  • Flavius Julius Constantius, son of Constantine, and emperor with his brothers Constantinus and Constans from AD 337 to 361.
  • Flavius Julius Constans, son of Constantine, and emperor with his brothers Constantinus and Constantius from AD 337 to 350.
  • Flavius Claudius Constantius Gallus, son of Julius Constantius, and grandson of the emperor Constantius Chlorus. Named Caesar by his cousin, Constantius II, following the death of Constans in AD 350. Gallus held the consulship from 352 to 354, but was suspected of attempting to claim the imperial dignity for himself, and put to death.
  • Flavius Claudius Julianus, son of Julius Constantius, and the last remaining heir of Constantius II following the downfall of Gallus; emperor from AD 360 to 366.
  • Flavius Dalmatius, son of Dalmatius the censor, and nephew of Constantine; he was proclaimed Caesar in 335, but slain by his soldiers following Constantine's death in 337.
  • Flavius Claudius Hannibalianus, son of Dalmatius the censor, and nephew of Constantine, who probably intended to place him at the head of a campaign against the Sassanid Empire, but this plan ended with the emperor's death in AD 337, and Hannibalianus was slain in the turmoil that followed.
  • Flavius Popillius Nepotianus, son of Eutropia, and nephew of Constantine, in AD 350 he revolted against Magnentius, but his small force, composed of ordinary citizens and gladiators, was quickly defeated by Magnentius' magister officiorum, Marcellinus. Nepotianus and his mother were put to death.
  • Flavia Maxima Constantia, daughter of Constantius II, and wife of the emperor Gratian.
  • Anastasia, daughter of Hannibalianus and Constantina.

Later emperors

  • Flavius Magnus Magnentius, an usurper who revolted against the emperor Constans, and was proclaimed emperor in AD 350. After his defeat by Constantius II in 353, he fell on his sword.
  • Flavius Jovianus, emperor from AD 363 to 364.
  • Flavius Valentinianus, or Valentinian the Great, emperor from AD 364 to 375. He associated his brother, Valens, with him in the empire, giving Valens the eastern provinces, while he retained the west.
  • Flavius Julius Valens, the brother of Valentinian I, emperor of the east from AD 364 to 378.
  • Flavius Gratianus, the elder son of Valentinian I, emperor of the west with his brother, Valentinian II, from AD 375 to 383.
  • Flavius Valentinianus, or Valentinian II, the younger son of Valentinian I, emperor of the west with his brother, Gratian, from AD 375 to 383, with Magnus Maximus from 383 to 388, then sole emperor of the west until his death in 392.
  • Flavius Theodosius, or Theodosius the Great, emperor of the east from AD 379 to 392, and sole emperor from 392 to 395.
  • Flavius Clemens Magnus Maximus, commander of the Roman army in Britain, he claimed the throne of the western empire on the death of Gratian, and was recognized as co-emperor with Valentinian II until his defeat by Theodosius in 388.
  • Flavius Victor, the son of Magnus Maximus, who appointed him co-emperor in AD 384. He was put to death by Theodosius following his father's defeat in 388.
  • Flavius Eugenius, elevated by Arbogast to the western empire following the death of Valentinian II in AD 392; he was defeated and killed by Theodosius in 394.
  • Flavius Honorius, the younger son of Theodosius; emperor of the west from AD 395 to 423.
  • Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus, or Justinian, nephew of Justin I, and emperor from AD 527 to 565.
  • Flavius Justinus, the nephew of Justinian, emperor from AD 565 to 574.
  • Flavius Tiberius Constantinus, emperor from AD 574 to 582.
  • Flavius Mauricius Tiberius, or Maurice, emperor from AD 582 to 602.
  • Flavius Phocas, emperor from AD 602 to 610.
  • Flavius Heraclius, emperor from AD 610 to 641.

Flavii in fiction

Flavianus

Flavianus is the adjectival form of the name and was used as a cognomen. It is sometimes anglicized as Flavian.

Flavian legions

Some Roman legions were called Flavia, as they had been levied by the Flavian emperors:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 169 ("Flavia Gens").
  2. ^ Chase, pp. 110, 130.
  3. ^ Cassell's Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. flavus.
  4. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 150, 151 ("Fimbria").
  5. ^ New College Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. fimbria.
  6. ^ a b Chase, pp. 113, 114.
  7. ^ New College Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. gallus.
  8. ^ New College Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. pusio.
  9. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 689, 690 ("Flavius Sabinus").
  10. ^ a b c Rösch, Onoma Basileias, pp. 49, 50.
  11. ^ Bussell, The Roman Empire, pp. xi, xiii, xiv.
  12. ^ Livy, viii. 22, 27.
  13. ^ Valerius Maximus, ix. 10. § 1.
  14. ^ Livy, xxv. 16.
  15. ^ Appian, Bellum Hannibalicum, 35.
  16. ^ Valerius Maximus, v. 1. ext. § 6.
  17. ^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 1. § 7.
  18. ^ Livy, xxxi. 50, xxxii. 50.
  19. ^ Cicero, Pro Quinto Roscio Comoedo, 11.
  20. ^ Cicero, In Verrem, i. 5, v. 7, 59.
  21. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, xiii. 31.
  22. ^ Cicero, Pro Cluentio, 56.
  23. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, i. 18, 19, ii. 1, x. 1; Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem, i. 2.
  24. ^ Asconius Pedianus, In Ciceronis Pro Milone, p. 47 (ed. Orelli).
  25. ^ Cassius Dio, xxxvii. 50, xxxviii. 50.
  26. ^ Caesar, De Bello Hispaniensis, 26.
  27. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, v. 49.
  28. ^ Cornelius Nepos, The Life of Atticus, 8.
  29. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 17.
  30. ^ Pseudo-Brutus, Epistulae ad Ciceronem, i. 6, 17.
  31. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Brutus", 51.
  32. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Marcus Antonius", 42, 43.
  33. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, i. 91.
  34. ^ AE 2003, 2060.
  35. ^ Gallivan, "The Fasti for A.D. 70–96", pp. 187, 188, 196, 213.
  36. ^ a b Suetonius, "The Life of Vespasian", 1.
  37. ^ Tacitus, Historiae, i. 77, ii. 36, 51.
  38. ^ Cassius Dio, lxv. 17.
  39. ^ Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, vii. 3.
  40. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Domitian", 10.
  41. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Domitian", 15.
  42. ^ Cassius Dio, lxvii. 14.
  43. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xv. 49, 54, 55, 70.
  44. ^ Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.
  45. ^ Cassius Dio, lxxi. 28.
  46. ^ PIR, vol. II, p. 68.
  47. ^ Cassius Dio, lxxx. 4.
  48. ^ Cassius Dio, lxxviii. 4, 7, 15.
  49. ^ Herodian, iv. 12.
  50. ^ Jerome, De Viris Illustribus, praefatio.
  51. ^ Latin Anthology, vol. iii, pp. 34–37, vol. iv., p. 86 (ed. Burmann), No. 291–295 (ed. Meyer).

Bibliography

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1870). "article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

Arcadius

Arcadius (Latin: Flavius Arcadius Augustus; Greek: Ἀρκάδιος; 1 January 377 – 1 May 408) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 395 to 408. He was the eldest son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Western Emperor Honorius. A weak ruler, his reign was dominated by a series of powerful ministers and by his wife, Aelia Eudoxia.

Basiliscus

Basiliscus (Latin: Flavius Basiliscus Augustus; Greek: Βασιλίσκος; d. 476/477) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 475 to 476. A member of the House of Leo, he came to power when Emperor Zeno was forced out of Constantinople by a revolt.

Basiliscus was the brother of Empress Aelia Verina, who was the wife of Emperor Leo I (457–474). His relationship with the Emperor allowed him to pursue a military career that, after minor initial successes, ended in 468, when he led the disastrous Roman invasion of Vandal Africa, in one of the largest military operations of Late Antiquity.

Basiliscus succeeded in seizing power in 475, exploiting the unpopularity of Emperor Zeno, the "barbarian" successor to Leo, and a plot organised by Verina that had caused Zeno to flee Constantinople. However, during his short rule, Basiliscus alienated the fundamental support of the Church and the people of Constantinople, promoting the Miaphysite christological position in opposition to the Chalcedonian faith. Also, his policy of securing his power through the appointment of loyal men to key roles antagonised many important figures in the imperial court, including his sister Verina. So, when Zeno tried to regain his empire, he found virtually no opposition, triumphantly entering Constantinople, and capturing and killing Basiliscus and his family.

The struggle between Basiliscus and Zeno impeded the Eastern Roman Empire's ability to intervene in the fall of the Western Roman Empire, which happened in early September 476. When the chieftain of the Heruli, Odoacer, deposed Western Emperor Romulus Augustus, sending the imperial regalia to Constantinople, Zeno had just regained his throne, and was in no position to take any action but appoint Odoacer dux of Italy, thereby ending the Western Roman Empire.

Constantius II

Constantius II (Latin: Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Greek: Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. His reign saw constant warfare on the borders against the Sasanian Empire and Germanic peoples, while internally the Roman Empire went through repeated civil wars and usurpations, culminating in Constantius' overthrow as emperor by his cousin Julian. His religious policies inflamed domestic conflicts that would continue after his death.

The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, Constantius was made Caesar by his father in 324. He led the Roman army in war against the Sasanian Empire in 336. A year later, Constantine I died, and Constantius became Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constans. He promptly oversaw the massacre of eight of his relatives, consolidating his hold on power. The brothers divided the empire among themselves, with Constantius receiving the eastern provinces. In 340, his brothers Constantine and Constans clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine dead and Constans as ruler of the west. The war against the Sasanians continued, with Constantius losing a major battle at Singara in 344. In 350, Constans was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius.

Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius waged a civil war against the usurper, defeating him at the battles of Mursa Major in 351 and Mons Seleucus in 353. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. In 351, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar to rule in the east, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother Julian, to the rank of Caesar.

As emperor, Constantius promoted Arian Christianity, persecuted pagans by banning sacrifices and closing pagan temples and issued laws discriminating against Jews. His military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. The war against the Sasanians, which had been in a lull since 350, erupted with renewed intensity in 359 and Constantius traveled to the east in 360 to restore stability after the loss of several border fortresses to the Sasanians. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two after Constantius' attempts to convince Julian to back down failed. No battle was fought, as Constantius became ill and died of fever on 3 November 361 in Mopsuestia, naming Julian as his rightful successor before his death.

Flavian

Flavian may refer to:

A member of the Flavian dynasty of Roman emperors, during the late 1st century AD, or their works

Heraclius

Heraclius (Latin: Flavius Heracles Augustus, Greek: Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Byzantine Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.

Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus but Constantinople was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy, and Heraclius was able to avoid total defeat. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military. Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. The Persian king Khosrow II was overthrown and executed by his son Kavadh II, who soon sued for a peace treaty, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territory. This way peaceful relations were restored to the two deeply strained empires.

Heraclius soon experienced a new event, the Muslim conquests. Emerging from the Arabian Peninsula, the Muslims quickly conquered the Sasanian Empire. In 634 the Muslims marched into Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius's brother Theodore. Within a short period of time, the Arabs conquered Mesopotamia, Armenia and Egypt.

Heraclius entered diplomatic relations with the Croats and Serbs in the Balkans. He tried to repair the schism in the Christian church in regard to the Monophysites, by promoting a compromise doctrine called Monothelitism. The Church of the East (commonly called Nestorian) was also involved in the process. Eventually this project of unity was rejected by all sides of the dispute.

Justinian I

Justinian I (; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός, translit. Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire".Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been known as the "last Roman" in mid 20th century historiography. This ambition was expressed by the partial recovery of the territories of the defunct Western Roman Empire. His general, Belisarius, swiftly conquered the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa. Subsequently, Belisarius, Narses, and other generals conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom, restoring Dalmatia, Sicily, Italy, and Rome to the empire after more than half a century of rule by the Ostrogoths. The prefect Liberius reclaimed the south of the Iberian peninsula, establishing the province of Spania. These campaigns re-established Roman control over the western Mediterranean, increasing the Empire's annual revenue by over a million solidi. During his reign, Justinian also subdued the Tzani, a people on the east coast of the Black Sea that had never been under Roman rule before. He engaged the Sasanian Empire in the east during Kavadh I's reign, and later again during Khosrow I's; this second conflict was partially initiated due to his ambitions in the west.

A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states. His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia.

List of ancient monuments in Rome

This is a list of ancient monuments from republican and imperial periods in the city of Rome, Italy.

Temple of the gens Flavia

The Temple of the gens Flavia (Latin: templum gentis Flaviae) was a Roman temple on the Quirinal Hill, dedicated by Domitian at the end of the 1st century to other members of the Flavian dynasty. It was sited at the ad Malum Punicum, on a site near the present-day junction of Via XX Settembre and Via delle Quattro Fontane. This site was near the residences of Vespasian (Domitian's birthplace) and Vespasian's brother Titus Flavius Sabinus.

The temple is first mentioned in Book IX of Martial's Epigrams, a poetic work published ca. 94. This would make it seem that the temple was built and dedicated towards the end of Domitian's reign, as the culmination of his campaign to deify his elder brother Titus, Titus' daughter Julia Flavia and Domitian's own son who had died in infancy.In A.D. 96 the temple was struck by lightning. It was likely expanded under Claudius Gothicus ca. A.D. 268-270.A series of fragmentary sculptures executed in Pentelic marble have been associated with the now lost temple. These fragments were dispersed through the art market, with some fragments remaining in Italy while others ended up in the United States.

Theodosius II

There were also a Theodosius II of Abkhazia, a Patriarch Theodosius II of Alexandria and a Theodosius II of Constantinople. Additionally, Pope Theodoros I of Alexandria is also known as Theodosius II in Coptic history.Theodosius II (Latin: Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Greek: Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450), commonly surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was the Eastern Roman Emperor for most of his life, taking the throne as an infant in 402 and ruling as the Eastern Empire's sole emperor after the death of his father Arcadius in 408. He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. He also presided over the outbreak of two great Christological controversies, Nestorianism and Eutychianism.

Titus Flavius Petro

Titus Flavius Petro (fl 1st century BCE) was the paternal grandfather of the Roman Emperor Vespasian.

He was allegedly the son of a contracted laborer, who each summer crossed the Po to assist the Sabines with their harvests.

However, Suetonius wrote that his careful research failed to support this story.

Petro was born and raised in Reate, in Sabinia, Italy. He fought for Pompey in Caesar's Civil War as a centurion or a volunteer reservist. Leaving the battlefield of Pharsalus in Greece, he secured a discharge with a full pardon and became a tax collector.

He married a woman called Tertulla (c. 40 BCE - aft. 9 CE), who was the Preceptor of her grandson Vespasian, daughter of Tertullus, and had a son Titus Flavius Sabinus.

Titus Flavius Sabinus (consul AD 47)

Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Sabinus (d. December 20, AD 69) was a Roman politician and soldier. A native of Reate, he was the elder son of Titus Flavius Sabinus and Vespasia Polla, and brother of the Emperor Vespasian.

Titus Flavius Titianus

For the late third/early fourth century statesman, see Titus Flavius Postumius Titianus.Titus Flavius Titianus was Procurator of Alexandria during the reign of Caracalla. He was put to death by Theocritus, the favourite of Caracalla, circa AD 216. He is probably the same Titus Flavius Titianus who was consul suffectus about AD 200; that Titianus was the son of Titus Flavius Claudius Sulpicianus, and brother of Flavia Titiana, the wife of the emperor Pertinax.

Tusculum

Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.

Valens

Valens (; Latin: Flavius Julius Valens Augustus; Greek: Οὐάλης; 328 – 9 August 378) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

Valentinian III

Valentinian III (Latin: Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus; 2 July 419 – 16 March 455) was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. His reign was marked by the ongoing dismemberment of the Western Empire.

Villa of Domitian

The Villa of Domitian, known as Albanum Domitiani or Albanum Caesari in Latin, was a vast and sumptuous Roman villa or palace built by Emperor Titus Flavius Domitian (81 - 96 AD). It was situated 20 km outside Rome, in the Alban Hills, in the ancient Ager Albanus (from the legendary Latin city of Alba Longa).

Today the remains of the villa are located mostly within the estate of the Pontifical Villas of Castel Gandolfo, and the rest in the towns of Castel Gandolfo and Albano Laziale. The Villa Barberini gardens are open to visitors.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.