Flat route

A flat route is an American football route, used in passing plays. A flat route is usually run by a running back or a fullback. When run by a receiver it can be known as a speed out or arrow route. The eligible receiver runs parallel to the line of scrimmage till near the sidelines (in the flat) and turns toward the quarterback to wait for the pass.[1] The QB's pass should arrive when he has not yet past the line of scrimmage. The receiver will then turn upfield at the sideline and run straight down the field.

The route is used, sometimes as a safety relief if post are covered, with long post, long corner or fly routes, so the safeties and the cornerbacks should be upfield when the pass is caught by the RB or FB. There should be a linebacker covering the RB/FB on these kinds of plays, which is likely to be an easy match for an elusive runner like the running back.

Flat route
A flat route


  1. ^ http://www.sportingcharts.com/dictionary/nfl/flat-route.aspx

The Alps (; French: Alpes [alp]; German: Alpen [ˈalpn̩]; Italian: Alpi [ˈalpi]; Romansh: Alps; Slovene: Alpe [ˈáːlpɛ]) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m (15,781 ft) is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres (13,000 ft).

The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m (11,155 ft), and plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era. A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991.

By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks.

The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity. The traditional culture of farming, cheesemaking, and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded greatly after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, Italian, Austrian and German Alps. At present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors.

American football plays

In American football a play is a close to the ground "plan of action" or "strategy" used to move the ball down the field. A play begins at either the snap from the center or at kickoff. Most commonly plays occur at the snap during a down. These plays range from basic to very intricate. Football players keep a record of these plays in their playbook.

Blue Pool, Dorset

Blue Pool is a flooded, disused clay pit where Purbeck ball clay was once extracted. It is now a lake within the Furzebrook Estate, a 25-acre (10 ha) park of heath woodland and gorse near Furzebrook on the Isle of Purbeck, in the county of Dorset, southern England.Furzebrook Estate is about 3 mi (5 km) south of Wareham and 2 mi (3 km) west of Corfe Castle.

The pool started life early in the 17th century as a chalk pit. Purbeck ball clay was dug from the pit from the mid-17th century to the early 20th century. The ball clay was used to make fine ceramic products, such as smoking pipes, plates, cups and tea pots. The pit became disused before the First World War, but ball clay is still extracted from other pits in the area.

The title 'blue' arose because there are minute particles of clay in colloidal suspension within the water. These suspensions variously diffract the light depending on the particles' size (with differences in size often linked to changes in concentration and pH), yielding colours from red-brown, through grey and green, to the more typical turquoise. The metallic blue sometimes found in photographs is more likely to be a reflection of the sky, as the attraction's own website makes no such claim for the water, and their leaflets call it “a turquoise jewel set in the heart of Purbeck”.

In 1935 a café was opened at the site. There is also a museum and gift shop. In 1985 the estate was declared a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Now law protects the habitat of a variety of rare plants and animals. The site includes nature reserves managed by the Amphibian and Reptile Conservation and a private nature reserve.

Blue Pool is now a popular tourist attraction, especially because it is a place of peace and tranquillity. The pool is surrounded by 25 acres (10 ha) of heathland. The nationally rare Dorset heath and marsh gentian are common to the area. The estate is crossed by a network of sandy paths. There are steps down to the edge of the pool and there are also steps on some paths around the pool, but there is also a completely flat route around the pool, which is suitable for wheelchairs.

The lush vegetation around the pool is inhabited by grey squirrels, rabbits and badgers. The Estate supports numerous rare birds, amphibians and reptiles. Visitors may therefore be lucky enough to spot the Dartford warbler or the nightjar. Both of Britain's endangered and protected reptiles, the green sand lizard and the smooth snake, live here in considerable numbers. There are also many dragonflies and the rare Sika deer.

City of New Orleans (train)

The City of New Orleans is an Amtrak passenger train which operates on an overnight schedule between Chicago and New Orleans. The train is a successor to the Illinois Central Railroad's Panama Limited.

The original City of New Orleans began in 1947 as part of the Illinois Central Railroad, and was the longest daylight run in the United States. The daylight train under that name ran through 1971, when it was moved to an overnight schedule as the Panama Limited. The present name was brought back in 1981, still on an overnight schedule. It is the subject of the bittersweet 1971 song "City of New Orleans", written by Steve Goodman.

The train operates along a route that has been served in one form or another for over a century. The Panama Limited originally ran from 1911 to 1971, though the IC ran Chicago-New Orleans trains as early as the 1900s. Additional corridor service is provided between Chicago and Carbondale, Illinois–the northern leg of the route–by the Illini and Saluki.

Flat (gridiron football)

The flat in American and Canadian football is the area of the field extending ten yards into the defensive backfield from the line of scrimmage and extending outside the hash marks to the out-of-bounds lines (a distance of about 15 yards).Offenses will typically exploit the flat in order to neutralize a strong attack from the defensive line in the middle of the field or to manipulate a defense's strong pass coverage farther down field. For example, in flat route plays, quarterbacks pass the ball to a player (often a running back) in the flat in hopes that, while the pass has not gone downfield, the receiver (far from the middle of the field and not far downfield enough to worry about cornerbacks and safeties) will have a clear line for an after-the-catch run. If the quarterback hopes to throw farther downfield, the running back in the flat is an outlet receiver. If the receiver is accompanied by blockers, the play is called a screen pass.

Defenses meanwhile will generally assign a linebacker "flat responsibility" to guard against such passes, but it is difficult to defend against because the offense will usually use the flat route in conjunction with an attack downfield (sometimes as a feint), necessitating a quick linebacker adjustment to make an early tackle against a faster running back after the pass.

The flat, then, denotes one of the many areas of the field over which offensive and defensive coordinators play.

Gotthard Pass

The Gotthard Pass or St. Gotthard Pass (Italian: Passo del San Gottardo, German: Gotthardpass) at 2,106 m (6,909 ft) is a mountain pass in the Alps traversing the Saint-Gotthard Massif and connecting northern and southern Switzerland. The pass lies between Airolo in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, and Andermatt in the German-speaking canton of Uri, and connects further Bellinzona to Lucerne, Basel, and Zurich. The Gotthard Pass lies at the hearth of the Gotthard, an important north-south axis in Europe, and is it crossed by three major traffic tunnels, each being the world's longest at the time of their construction: the Gotthard Rail Tunnel (1882), the Gotthard Road Tunnel (1980) and the Gotthard Base Tunnel (2016). With the Lötschberg to the west, the Gotthard is one of the two main north-south routes through the Swiss Alps. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Gotthard played an important role in Swiss history, the region north of Gotthard becoming the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century.

Jon Gruden

Jon David Gruden (born August 17, 1963) is an American football coach who is the head coach of the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League (NFL). He first served as the Raiders' head coach from 1998 to 2001 and rejoined the team in 2018. In between his tenure with the Raiders, he was the head coach of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers from 2002 to 2008, with whom he led to the franchise's first Super Bowl title in XXXVII. At the time, Gruden, aged 39 years, 5 months and 9 days, was the youngest head coach to win a Super Bowl. Gruden also served as an analyst for ESPN and Monday Night Football before he returned to coaching.


Llanfoist (Welsh: Llan-ffwyst) is a village, near Abergavenny, in Monmouthshire, Wales.

The name of the village derives from that of Ffwyst, an early Christian Welsh saint, although the anglicised name of the church patron is St Faith.

Luxulyan Valley

The Luxulyan Valley (Cornish: Glynn Gwernan, meaning alder tree valley) is the steep sided and thickly wooded valley of the River Par, situated in mid Cornwall, England, UK. It contains a major concentration of early 19th century industrial remains, and was designated as part of a World Heritage Site in 2006.The valley stretches south-east from the village of Luxulyan 50.390°N 4.744°W / 50.390; -4.744. It reaches as far as the edge of the built-up area around the town of St Blazey and the port of Par, a distance of some 5 km. It lies within the civil parishes of Luxulyan, Lanlivery and Tywardreath, and is one of the areas (designated A8i in the original nomination) of the larger, but discontinuous, Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape World Heritage Site.Most of the industrial remains in the valley are the results of the endeavours of Joseph Treffry (1782–1850). Copper mining was booming in the area during the early 19th century, and Treffry was the owner of Fowey Consols mine, one of the deepest, richest and most important of the Cornish copper mines. The mine was situated to the east of the southern end of the Luxulyan Valley proper, and its site is part of the designated World Heritage Site. At its peak it was worked by six steam engines and 17 water wheels.In the late 1820s, Treffry built the port of Par Harbour. He then linked this to Pontsmill, at the southern end of the valley, by means of the Par Canal. A mineral tramway connected the canal head to the mine. A second tramway followed in 1835, via an inclined plane, a flat route along the eastern lip of the valley, and the major Treffry Viaduct across the valley to Luxulyan. This second route served two major purposes, as it enabled Treffry to develop Carbeans and Colcerrow granite quarries in the upper valley, and was also used by a leat carrying water to supply the mine at Fowey Consols. Two further granite quarries, known as Rock Mill and Orchard, operated lower down in the valley. In 1870 these were linked to Pontsmill by a third tramway along the valley floor.The 1835 tramway eventually became part of the Cornwall Minerals Railway which linked the English Channel ports of Par and Fowey with the china clay workings of mid Cornwall, and to the Atlantic port of Newquay. As part of this process, the section of the route between Pontsmill and Luxulyan, with its incline and flat sections ideal for animal haulage, was replaced with a more gradually climbing route through the valley itself, more suited to locomotive haulage. The newer route is still in use, as part of the Atlantic Coast Line, and passes beneath the spans of the Treffry Viaduct that carried its predecessor. The older tramway routes remained in use to serve the various granite quarries until the early 20th century. The last stone came from Carbeans in 1933 but a few sections of Treffry's rails can still be found.The thickly-wooded terrain of the Luxulyan Valley also played a major part in the early tin mining industry of Cornwall. The woods were important for making the charcoal that was needed in large quantities for smelting tin from the rich alluvial deposits on the moors to the northwest. Charcoal-burning platforms are to be found close to nearby Prideaux Castle.

National Cycle Route 174

The National Cycle Route 174 is part of the National Cycle Network in the United Kingdom. Part of it is known as The Sheerness Way.

When the route was first planned on Sheppey, passenger ferry services was still running to Vlissingen in the Netherlands. The ferry was popular with

cyclists and the expectation was that large numbers of European visitors would start their cycling journey at Sheerness. As a section of the National Cycle Route 1 runs from Sittingbourne to Rainham, and a link route also ran north (from Kemsley) up to the village of Iwade and on to Minster and Sheerness on the Isle of Sheppey.

The ferry stopped running in 1994. But the council and Sustrans still carried on with the new cycle route.

Construction on the circular route (the Sheppey Way) was started in July 2010 and planning permission was granted in October 2010. It was funded by Kent County Council and Sustrans.

It was funded by Kent County Council and Sustrans.

The route was then launched in June 2011 as a 5.6 mile, 9 km flat route around Sheerness, which has been designed especially for family usage. 13% of the route is on-road and 87% is off-road.The route also links to a second route on the island leading to Leysdown-on-Sea, 'the Isle of Harty Trail'.

National Cycle Route 65

National Cycle Network (NCN) Route 65 is a Sustrans National Route that runs from Hornsea on the North Sea Coast of The East Riding of Yorkshire via Hull and York to Middlesbrough. It is fully open and signed.

Between Hornsea and York it forms the eastern end of the Trans Pennine Trail. The section between York and Linton-on-Ouse is part of the Way of the Roses. In 1998 Route 65 between Hull and Middlesbrough was branded The White Rose cycle route. This branding is no longer in use.

Oka-Don Lowland

The Oka-Don Lowlands (Russian: Окско-Донская равнина) (also: Oka-Don Plain), is a flat plain in European Russia bounded on the north by the Oka River (and the Meshchera Lowlands), on the south by the Don River, on the west by the Central Russian Upland, and on the east by the Volga Upland. The area is part of the larger East European Plain. The terrain is flat, with altitude averaging 160 meters above sea level, and the rivers meander on broad floodplains. Agricultural use of the plain is high, mostly for grain growing - wheat, barley and rye. The plain provides a flat route south-north route of transportation, situated between uplands. Until a line of forts was built across the territory by the Russian government in the 1640s (the Belgorod Line), the plain was a route for Tatar invasion from the south.

Ontario Highway 46

King's Highway 46, commonly referred to as Highway 46, was a provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario that connected Highway 7 with Highway 48 in Victoria County. The route existed between 1937 and 1997, after which it was decommissioned and transferred to the county. In 2001, Victoria County amalgamated into the city of Kawartha Lakes, and the road became known as Kawartha Lakes Road 46. It is 25.7 kilometres (16.0 mi) long, passing through the villages of Woodville, Argyle and Bolsover.

Play calling system

A play calling system in American football is the specific language and methods used to call offensive plays.

It is distinct from the play calling philosophy, which is concerned with overall strategy: whether a team favors passing or running, whether a team seeks to speed up or slow down play, what part of the field passes should target, and so on. The play calling system comprises tactics for making calls for individual plays and communicating those decisions to the players.

Ronde van Drenthe

Ronde van Drenthe (English: Tour of Drenthe) is an elite men's and women's professional road bicycle racing event held annually in the Drenthe, Netherlands and sanctioned by the Royal Dutch Cycling Union. Since 1998 there is also a women's event, known as Novilon Internationale Damesronde van Drenthe and since 2007 there is also a Ronde van Drenthe for women which was part of the UCI Women's Road World Cup until 2015. In 2016, the race became part of the new UCI Women's World Tour.

Since 2005, the men's event is UCI 1.1 rated and is part of the UCI Europe Tour.

Route (gridiron football)

A route is a pattern or path that a receiver in American football and Canadian football runs to get open for a forward pass. Routes are usually run by wide receivers, running backs and tight ends, but other positions can act as a receiver given the play.

One popular way to organize routes is with a "route tree". A route tree is a way to show all the various routes with one diagram.

Running back

A running back (RB) is an American and Canadian football position, a member of the offensive backfield. The primary roles of a running back are to receive handoffs from the quarterback for a rushing play, to catch passes from out of the backfield, and to block. There are usually one or two running backs on the field for a given play, depending on the offensive formation. A running back may be a halfback (in certain contexts also referred to as a tailback), a wingback or a fullback. A running back will sometimes be called a "feature back" if he is the team's starting running back.

Swing route

A swing route or a flare route is an American football route. It is run by the running back, and is like a wheel route thrown before the turn up the sideline, i. e. release toward the sideline, and then bend or arc upfield ever so slightly, and look for a short pass. It can be combined with a screen pass. It is distinguished from a flat route by approaching the line of scrimmage more gradually, on a curved path.

Utah State Route 110

State Route 110 (SR-110) is a state highway in the U.S. state of Utah, connecting SR-127 in Syracuse with SR-37 in West Point. The highway is routed entirely on 4500 West.

Offensive strategy
Defensive strategy
Offensive formations
Defensive formations

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