A flark is a depression or hollow within a bog. Flarks typically occur as a series of parallel depressions, separated by intervening ridges known as strings.[1]

Early theories suggested that flarks were formed by frost heaving, but flarks have since been found in areas where frost heaving does not occur. Flarks are now thought to form when the peat that forms the base of the bog becomes so thick that it slides downslope due to its own weight. Irregularities in the underlying terrain halt the slide of the peat, causing flarks to form downslope from the obstruction as the downslope peat tears away from the portion of the peat mass held back by the underlying obstruction. Another theory suggests that flarks are formed by areas within the bog which experience accelerated rates of decay, causing depressions in the bog.[2]

Day744 02
A water-filled flark in a bog in Fundy National Park, New Brunswick
Flark and strings in a bog of Sweden.


  1. ^ New Hampshire Division of Forests and Lands: Natural Community Systems -- Photo Guide
  2. ^ Michigan's Natural Communities: Patterned Fen
A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia

A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia (DIWA) is a list of wetlands of national importance to Australia. Intended to augment the list of wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, it was formerly published in report form, but is now essentially an online publication. Wetlands that appear in the Directory are commonly referred to as "DIWA wetlands" or "Directory wetlands".

List of Jam Urban Adventure Characters

The following is a list of characters who appear in stories that are related (however tangentially) to the Jammer, a fictional costumed hero created by Bernie Mireault.

Murray Bridge Training Area

The Murray Bridge Training Area (also called Murray Bridge Army Training Area) is an Australian Army training area located in South Australia in the locality of Burdett about 7 kilometres (4.3 miles) east of the city of Murray Bridge and about 70 kilometres (43 miles) east of the centre of the city of Adelaide. The training area was established prior to 1970. As of 2011, the training area contained shooting ranges for use with small arms for distances up to 800 metres (2,600 feet), space for the training of subunits from Australian Army units located within South Australia and support facilities such as a “vehicle maintenance compound.” An area of about 71 hectares (180 acres) within the training area was developed as an artificial wetland in 1992 for the purpose of treating effluent that would otherwise have been discharged into the Murray River. This wetland has been listed as a wetland of national importance since at least 1995.

National Wetlands Inventory

The National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) was established by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to conduct a nationwide inventory of U.S. wetlands to provide biologists and others with information on the distribution and type of wetlands to aid in conservation efforts. To do this, the NWI developed a wetland classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) that is now the official FWS wetland classification system and the Federal standard for wetland classification (adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee on July 29, 1996: 61 Federal Register 39465). The NWI also developed techniques for mapping and recording the inventory findings. The NWI relies on trained image analysts to identify and classify wetlands and deepwater habitats from aerial imagery. NWI started mapping wetlands at a small scale (1:250,000 map which covers an area the size of 128-1:24,000 USGS topographic maps or approximately 7,400 square miles). Eventually, large-scale (1:24K scale) maps became the standard product delivered by NWI. As computerized mapping and geospatial technology evolved, NWI discontinued production of paper maps in favor of distributing data via online "mapping tools" where information can be viewed and downloaded. Today, FWS serves its data via an on-line data discovery "Wetlands Mapper". GIS users can access wetlands data through an online wetland mapping service or download data for various applications (maps, data analyses, and reports). The techniques used by NWI have recently been adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee as the federal wetland mapping standard (FGDC Wetlands Subcommittee 2009). This standard applies to all federal grants involving wetland mapping to insure the data can be added to the Wetlands Layer of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. NWI also produces national wetlands status and trends reports required by the United States Congress.

Ramsar Convention

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.

Every three years, representatives of the Contracting Parties meet as the Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP), the policy-making organ of the Convention which adopts decisions (Resolutions and Recommendations) to administer the work of the Convention and improve the way in which the Parties are able to implement its objectives. COP12 was held in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in 2015. COP13 was held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in October 2018.

Sleaford Mere

Sleaford Mere (alternative name: Kuyabidni) is a permanent saline lake, located on the Jussieu Peninsula on the south eastern tip of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) south west of Port Lincoln. The lake was discovered and named by the British explorer, Matthew Flinders, on 26 February 1802. Since 1969, the lake has been part of the Sleaford Mere Conservation Park and since 2005, it has been listed as a nationally important wetland. The lake and its environs are notable as a venue for recreational pursuits such as canoeing.

String bog

A string bog or strong mire is a bog consisting of slightly elevated ridges and islands, with woody plants, alternating with flat, wet sedge mat areas. String bogs occur on slightly sloping surfaces, with the ridges at right angles to the direction of water flow. They are an example of patterned vegetation.

Known as "aapa" moore (from Finnish aapasuo) or strangemoore in Northern Europe.

A string bog has a pattern of narrow (2–3m wide), low (<1m high) ridges oriented at right angles to the direction of drainage with wet depressions or pools occurring between the ridges. The water and peat are very low in nutrients because the water has been derived from other ombrotrophic wetlands, which receive all of their water and nutrients from precipitation, rather than from streams or springs. The peat thickness is >1m.

String bogs are features associated with periglacial climates, where the temperature results in long periods of subzero temperatures. The active layer exists as frozen ground for long periods and melts in the spring thaw. Slow melting results in characteristic mass movement processes and features associated with specific periglacial environments.

The Cane Toad Times

The Cane Toad Times was the name of a satirical humour magazine based in Brisbane, Queensland. It was first published in the late 1970s, then revived under the same name by a new team from 1983–1990.

The two versions shared personnel and featured roughly the same counter-cultural philosophy, irreverent journalism, strident opinion and fondness for satire, cartoons and popular culture. The editors and contributors of The Cane Toad Times were motivated by opposition to political events and attitudes in Queensland under the Bjelke-Petersen Government (1968–1987).

The first issue of The Cane Toad Times was published in May, 1977 and thereafter more or less quarterly, with 22 issues divided between two collectives. The first collective (1977–1979) produced 7 issues, while the second collective (1983–1990) produced a total of 15 issues.

Watervalley Wetlands

The Watervalley Wetlands is a nationally important wetland system located in the Australian state of South Australia which consists of a series of contiguous wetlands, lying on 56.6 square kilometres (21.9 sq mi) of private land between the Coorong National Park and Gum Lagoon Conservation Park, in the state's south-east.

Classification systems

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