Flammulated flycatcher

The flammulated flycatcher (Deltarhynchus flammulatus) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae and is the only species in the monotypic genus Deltarhynchus, although it is closely related to the birds of the genus Myiarchus. It is endemic to the dry deciduous forest, arid thorn forest, and scrubby woodland of Mexico’s Pacific coast. The flycatcher is an olive to gray-brown bird with a streaked, pale gray chest, white throat, black bill, dark gray feet, and dark brown wings. It is a skulking bird that typically remains hidden in the underbrush. It feeds by gleaning insects off of leaves and twigs that it spots from an exposed perch. The female lays approximately three eggs in a nest made in a shallow tree cavity.

Flammulated flycatcher
Flammulated Flycatcher
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Tyrannidae
Genus: Deltarhynchus
Ridgway, 1893
Species:
D. flammulatus
Binomial name
Deltarhynchus flammulatus
(Lawrence, 1875)
Synonyms
  • Myiarchus flammulatus Lawrence, 1875

Taxonomy

The species was first described in 1875 by ornithologist George Newbold Lawrence, who placed this species in the genus Myiarchus. However, in 1893 it was split from Myiarchus into the new, monotypic genus Deltarhynchus by Robert Ridgway because of its shorter and broader bill, more rounded wings, and partially streaked underparts.[2] This change was upheld in 1901 by Richard Bowdler Sharpe and by subsequent authors.[2] However, in 1977 ornithologist Melvin Alvah Traylor Jr., while upholding its status as a monotypic genus, said that the species should be lumped back into Myiarchus if its nesting habits were similar to those of that genus.[3] These doubts were put to rest by Wesley Lanyon's research of the flycatcher in 1979, which confirmed the bird's placement in a monotypic genus.[3]

Deltarhynchus is similar to the genus Myiarchus, but is distinguished from it by a broader and shorter bill, more rounded wings, a different face pattern, pale cinnamon wing and tail edgings, voice, streaking on the chest, and the bird's skulking habits.[3][4] The flammulated flycatcher's generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek words delta, which means "delta-shaped" or, in this case, "wedge", and rhynchos, which means "beak".[5] Its specific epithet is derived from the Latin word flammula, which means "little flame".[6] The flycatcher has no subspecies.

Description

Deltarhynchus flammulatus
Flammulated flycatcher

The flammulated flycatcher is approximately 6 to 6.5 inches (15-16.5 cm) in length and has a chunky body.[4] Adult males and females are similar in plumage, with each possessing olive to a worn gray-brown upperparts and head. A whitish supraloral stripe and crescent are behind the bird's eyes. It also has a dusky lore. The throat is whitish and the chest is a pale gray with inconspicuous dusky streaking, while the belly and undertail coverts are a pale yellow.[4] Additionally, this species has dark brown, well-rounded wings with pale cinnamon-edged coverts and remiges.[4] The wings are about 3 inches (76 mm) long.[2] The tail is also a dark brown edged with a narrow band of pale cinnamon.[4] It is barely shorter than the wing and slightly rounded.[2] The bird's bill is black, broad, and triangular with a slightly paler base and about half the length of the its head.[2][3] The legs are a dark gray and end with large, curved, and sharp claws.[2] It has an orange mouth and a brown eye.[2] The juvenile is similar to the adult, although the tail has a broad band of pale cinnamon.[4]

Vocalization

The flammulated flycatcher mostly sings from April to August, which includes its breeding season, and tends to remain hidden while singing.[4] The song of the flycatcher is a plaintive whistle followed by a short but quick roll.[4] It can also give a plaintive and slurred chew call, which is often sung three to five times in a descending series, as well as a squeaky chatter.[4] Calls are the same for males and females and are given throughout the day to give a location, identify an individual, sound an alarm, and mark the limits of a territory, among other functions.[3] During the breeding season, males give what is known as a dawn song every morning, which includes the calls chee-bee beet and churr-r-r-bee bee in alternation.[3]

Distribution and habitat

This flycatcher is endemic to the Pacific lowlands of Mexico's western coast from Sinaloa to western Chiapas, while possibly extending into Guatemala, although this has not been confirmed.[4] The total area that it lives in is estimated to be 66,000 km2 (25,482.7 sq mi).[7] Its range is discontinuous and it is found in low densities when present.[3] It lives in dry deciduous forest, arid and semi-arid thorn forest, and scrubby woodland at about 1000–1400 meters (3280–4593 ft) above sea level.[3][4] This species is non-migratory.

Status

The flammulated flycatcher is listed as being of least concern on the IUCN Red List owing to its large range and the belief that the total population numbers over 10,000 individuals; however, no precise estimate on the bird's population exists.[7] While the species is known to be uncommon in parts of its range, its population is not believed to be declining enough to pass the threshold of 30% in ten years or three generations necessary to be listed as near threatened, although the exact population trends also have not been quantified.[7]

Ecology and behavior

This flycatcher is a sluggish and skulking species that usually remains in the underbrush.[4] When excited either by an intruder or when attempting to attract a mate, this species raises the feathers on its crown to form what appears to be a crest; however, unlike the closely related genus Myiarchus, it does not bob its head while displaying the crest.[3]

Feeding

The flammulated flycatcher forages by perching on an open branch and looking outward and downward for prey, which primarily consists of insects. Once it spots a potential meal, the flycatcher rapidly and directly flies at the insect, which is normally on the exposed upper surface of a leaf or twig.[3] It hovers briefly before the insect before grabbing it in its beak and flying away to typically a new perch.[3]

Reproduction

The flycatcher breeds around June of each year. It nests in shallow tree cavities that are surprisingly close to the ground, at approximately 90 centimeters above it.[3] The nest is shaped like a cup and is composed of fine vegetable fibers, dried leaves, and shredded bark.[3] Unlike the similar Myiarchus flycatchers, it does not use snakeskin or other materials to build its nest.[3] The female lays three eggs that are creamy to pinkish in color and are decorated with brown and gray splotches.[4]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2016). Deltarhynchus flammulatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22700461A93777772.en
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ridgway, Robert (1907). The Birds of North and Middle America. Washington: United States National Museum. pp. 502–504.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lanyon, Wesley (July 1982). "Behavior, Morphology, and Systematics of the Flammulated Flycatcher of Mexico". Auk. 99 (3): 414–423. JSTOR 4085921.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Howell, Steve N.G.; Webb, Sophie (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 510. ISBN 0-19-854012-4.
  5. ^ Liddell, Henry George & Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
  6. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
  7. ^ a b c "Species factsheet: Deltarhynchus flammulatus". BirdLife International. 2019. Retrieved 2008-05-29.

External links

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds of Mexico

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mexico. The avifauna of Mexico included a total of 1118 species as of February 2018, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Of these species, 87 are rare or accidental, 10 have been introduced by humans, 108 are endemic, and five more breed only in Mexico though their non-breeding range is larger. Four species are known to be extinct, 65 are globally vulnerable or endangered, and three of the latter might also be extinct. The total figure includes a number of species which are known only from sight records; they are listed but not especially noted. An additional endemic species was named in July 2018, so it is not in the above counts.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Mexico as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mexico

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Mexico

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Mexico as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of North America (Passeriformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Passeriformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of the Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan

This page contains a list of birds found in the Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan which straddles the states of Colima and Jalisco, in Mexico. The reserve is located in the transition of the Nearctic and Neotropical realms and encompasses parts of the Sierra Madre del Sur, with a wide range of altitudes, climates and soils. The effects of tectonic and volcanic activities and erosion are notable within the reserve.

Forest types in the reserve including mesophytic, cloud, and dry deciduous and semi-deciduous tropical forests. Anthropologists know the region as Zona de Occidente, an area notably different to the rest of Mesoamerica. Some ceramic remnants, figurines and graves have been found, but there is little other material evidence. As of 1995 almost 8,000 people lived in the Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan, engaged mainly in agriculture (corn, beans, tomatoes, sugar cane, watermelon, mangoes), livestock grazing, timber production, and extraction of wood for fuel and mining of coal or minerals. Another 30,000 lived in the surrounding communities and almost 700,000 in the surrounding region of influence.

Ecological characteristics

The Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan is located to the extreme north of the inter-tropical zone. The climate in the region is influenced by various factors in addition to its latitude, such as its proximity to the coast, the effect of its landform – orographic shade – and the breadth of the altitudinal range, which partly goes to explain the high regional biodiversity and the presence of numerous plant formations ranging from tropical forests to those of temperate-cold climates.

The Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan's varied and complex plant cover harbors a great wealth of flora. There are over 2900 species of vascular plants belonging to 981 genera. Wildlife is one of the important components of the high biodiversity in this reserve. Among the main values of the Reserva de la Biosfera Manantlan, in addition to its great wealth of species and its unique biogeographical characteristics, particular mention should be made of the presence of endangered or useful endemic species. So far 110 species of mammals have been reported, among which the Mexican vole Microtus mexicanus neveriae and the pocket gopher Cratogeomys gymnurus russelli, in addition to other mammals such as the oncilla, the jaguarandi, the ocelot, the puma, the bobcat, the jaguar and four species of nectarivorous bats.

Three hundred and thirty-six species of birds have been reported, among them thirty-six which are endemic to Mexico, such as the charismatic species: the crested guan (Penelope purpurascens), the military macaw (Ara militaris), the red-lored amazon (Amazona autumnalis) and the Mexican national symbol, the golden eagle. In terms of herpetofauna, 85 species have been recorded. Of these it is known that 13 are endemic to the western and central region of Mexico: the rattlesnake, the black iguana, the frog Shyrrhopus modestus, the beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) and the Autlan rattlesnake (Crotalus lannomi), an endemic species only reported for the area of Puerto de Los Mazos. Of the 16 species of fish identified, 13 are native and four are endemic to the region.

List of least concern birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 8405 least concern avian species. 76% of all evaluated avian species are listed as least concern.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of least concern avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

List of tyrant flycatcher species

The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 437 species in family Tyrannidae, the tyrant flycatchers; they are distributed among 104 genera. The IOC list includes genus Piprites, which the Clements taxonomy places in family Pipridae (manakins) and the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society considers incertae sedis. The list does not include the several species in genera Myiobius, Onychorhynchus, and Terenotriccus which Clements and the SACC do include in Tyrannidae.The ornithologists Edward Dickinson and Leslie Christidis in the fourth edition of the Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World split Tyrannidae into five families leaving only 306 species and 79 genera in Tyrannidae. Their family Pipromorphidae (flatbills) contains 17 genera and 101 species.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

Mapastepec

Mapastepec is a town and municipality in the southeastern state of Chiapas, Mexico. Its name derives from the place name mapachtepec, "Hill of the Raccoon", a compound of the Nahuatl words mapachi ("raccoon") and tepetl ("mountain").

Mapestepec is on the Pacific Ocean, with roughly half of its territory on the Pacific Coastal Plain and half in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas mountain range. It is partly within two of Mexico's Biosphere Reserves, featuring a number of important species, including the horned guan (Oreophasis derbianus), Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii), the Jaguar (Panthera once) and rare cloud forest and mangrove habitat.

The primary sector makes up over half of the local economy. Key products include cheese and dairy products and the local Ataulfo mango.

Myiarchus

Myiarchus is a genus of tyrant flycatchers. Most species are fairly similar looking and are easier to separate by voice than plumage.

Myiarchus flycatchers are fairly large tyrant-flycatchers at 16–23 cm (6.3–9 in) long. They are all partially crested with a brown to gray back and head, a rufous to blackish tail and yellow to pale underparts (only exception is the rufous flycatcher with rufous underparts). They typically forage by perching on an open branch and looking outward and downward for prey, which primarily consists of insects. Once it spots a potential meal, the flycatcher rapidly and directly flies at the insect, which is normally on the exposed upper surface of a leaf or twig. It hovers briefly before the insect before grabbing it in its beak and flying away to typically a new perch.The genus contains 22 species:

Rufous flycatcher, Myiarchus semirufus

Yucatan flycatcher, Myiarchus yucatanensis

Sad flycatcher, Myiarchus barbirostris

Dusky-capped flycatcher, Myiarchus tuberculifer

Swainson's flycatcher, Myiarchus swainsoni

Venezuelan flycatcher, Myiarchus venezuelensis

Panamanian flycatcher, Myiarchus panamensis

Short-crested flycatcher, Myiarchus ferox

Pale-edged flycatcher, Myiarchus cephalotes

Sooty-crowned flycatcher, Myiarchus phaeocephalus

Apical flycatcher, Myiarchus apicalis

Ash-throated flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens

Nutting's flycatcher, Myiarchus nuttingi

Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus

Brown-crested flycatcher, Myiarchus tyrannulus

Grenada flycatcher, Myiarchus nugator

Galapagos flycatcher, Myiarchus magnirostris

Rufous-tailed flycatcher, Myiarchus validus

La Sagra's flycatcher, Myiarchus sagrae

Stolid flycatcher, Myiarchus stolidus

Lesser Antillean flycatcher, Myiarchus oberi

Puerto Rican flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum

Sibley-Monroe checklist 10

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Tyrant flycatcher

The tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae) are a family of passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They are considered the largest family of birds, with more than 400 species. They are the most diverse avian family in every country in the Americas, except for the United States and Canada. As could be expected from a family this large, the members vary greatly in shape, patterns, size and colors. Some tyrant flycatchers superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers which they are named after but are not related to. They are members of suborder Tyranni (suboscines), which do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of most other songbirds.Most, but not all, species are rather plain, with various hues of brown, gray and white commonplace. Obvious exceptions include the bright red vermilion flycatcher, blue, black, white and yellow many-colored rush-tyrant and some species of tody-flycatchers or tyrants, which are often yellow, black, white and/or rufous, from the Todirostrum, Hemitriccus and Poecilotriccus genera. Several species have bright yellow underparts, from the ornate flycatcher to the great kiskadee. Some species have erectile crests. Several of the large genera (i.e. Elaenia, Myiarchus or Empidonax) are quite difficult to tell apart in the field due to similar plumage and some are best distinguished by their voices. Behaviorally they can vary from species such as spadebills which are tiny, shy and live in dense forest interiors to kingbirds, which are relatively large, bold, inquisitive and often inhabit open areas near human habitations. As the name implies, a great majority of tyrant flycatchers are entirely insectivorous (though not necessarily specialized in flies). Tyrant flycatchers are largely opportunistic feeders and often catch any flying or arboreal insect they encounter. However, food can vary greatly and some (like the large great kiskadee) will eat fruit or small vertebrates (e.g. small frogs). In North America, most species are associated with a "sallying" feeding style, where they fly up to catch an insect directly from their perch and then immediately return to the same perch. Most tropical species however do not feed in this fashion and several types prefer to glean insects from leaves and bark. Tropical species are sometimes found in mixed-species foraging flocks, where various types of passerines and other smallish birds are found feeding in proximity.

The smallest family members are the closely related short-tailed pygmy tyrant and black-capped pygmy tyrant from the genus Myiornis (the first species usually being considered marginally smaller on average). These species reach a total length of 6.5–7 cm (2.6–2.8 in) and a weight of 4–5 grams. By length, they are the smallest passerines on earth, although some species of Old World warblers apparently rival them in their minuscule mean body masses if not in total length. The minuscule size and very short tail of the Myiornis pygmy tyrants often lend them a resemblance to a tiny ball or insect. The largest tyrant flycatcher is the great shrike-tyrant at 29 cm (11 in) and 99.2 grams (0.219 pounds). A few species such as the streamer-tailed tyrant, scissor-tailed flycatcher and fork-tailed flycatcher have a larger total length (up to 41 cm (16 in)), but this is mainly due to their extremely long tails; the fork-tailed flycatcher has relatively the longest tail feathers of any known bird.A number of species previously included in this family are now placed in the family Tityridae (see Systematics). Sibley and Alquist in their 1990 bird taxonomy had the genera Mionectes, Leptopogon, Pseudotriccus, Poecilotriccus, Taenotriccus, Hemitriccus, Todirostrum and Corythopis as a separate family Pipromorphidae, but although it is still thought that these genera are basal to most of the family, they are not each other's closest relatives.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.