Flamingo

Flamingos or flamingoes[1] /fləˈmɪŋɡoʊz/ are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes. Four flamingo species are distributed throughout the Americas, including the Caribbean, and two species are native to Africa, Asia, and Europe.

Flamingos
Temporal range: 25–0 Ma
Late Oligocene – Recent
Flamingos Laguna Colorada
James's flamingos (P. jamesi)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Phoenicopteriformes
Family: Phoenicopteridae
Bonaparte, 1831
Species

See text

Flamingo range
Global distribution of flamingos

Etymology

Captive greater flamingos feeding

The name "flamingo" comes from Portuguese or Spanish flamengo, "flame-colored", in turn coming from Provençal flamenc from flama "flame" and Germanic-like suffix -ing, with a possible influence of words like "Fleming". A similar etymology has the Latinate Greek term phoenicopterus (from Greek: φοινικόπτερος phoinikopteros), literally "blood red-feathered".[2]

Taxonomy and systematics

Traditionally, the long-legged Ciconiiformes, probably a paraphyletic assemblage, have been considered the flamingos' closest relatives and the family was included in the order. Usually, the ibises and spoonbills of the Threskiornithidae were considered their closest relatives within this order. Earlier genetic studies, such as those of Charles Sibley and colleagues, also supported this relationship.[3] Relationships to the waterfowl were considered as well,[4] especially as flamingos are parasitized by feather lice of the genus Anaticola, which are otherwise exclusively found on ducks and geese.[5] The peculiar presbyornithids were used to argue for a close relationship between flamingos, waterfowl, and waders.[6] A 2002 paper concluded they are waterfowl,[7] but a 2014 comprehensive study of bird orders found that flamingos and grebes are not waterfowl, but rather are part of Columbea along with doves, sandgrouse, and mesites.[8]

Phylogeny

Living flamingoes.[9]

Phoenicopterus

Phoenicopterus chilensis (Chilean flamingo)

Phoenicopterus roseus (Greater flamingo)

Phoenicopterus ruber (American flamingo)

Phoeniconaias minor (Lesser flamingo)

Phoenicoparrus

Phoenicoparrus andinus (Andean flamingo)

Phoenicoparrus jamesi (James's flamingo)

Species

Six extant flamingo species are recognized by most sources, and were formerly placed in one genus (have common characteristics) – Phoenicopterus. As a result of a 2014 publication,[10] the family was reclassified into three genera.[11]

Species Geographic location
Greater flamingo
(Phoenicopterus roseus)
Old World Parts of Africa, S. Europe and S. and SW Asia (most widespread flamingo).
Lesser flamingo
(Phoeniconaias minor)
Africa (e.g. Great Rift Valley) to NW India (most numerous flamingo).
Chilean flamingo
(Phoenicopterus chilensis)
New World Temperate S. South America.
James's flamingo
(Phoenicoparrus jamesi)
High Andes in Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.
Andean flamingo
(Phoenicoparrus andinus)
High Andes in Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.
American flamingo
(Phoenicopterus ruber)
Caribbean islands, Caribbean Mexico, Belize, Venezuela, and Galápagos Islands.
Phoenicopterus croizeti
P. croizeti fossil

Prehistoric species of flamingo:

  • Phoenicopterus floridanus Brodkorb 1953 (Early Pliocene of Florida)
  • Phoenicopterus stocki (Miller 1944) (Middle Pliocene of Rincón, Mexico)
  • Phoenicopterus siamensis Cheneval et al. 1991
  • Phoenicopterus gracilis Miller 1963 (Early Pleistocene of Lake Kanunka, Australia)
  • Phoenicopterus copei (Late Pleistocene of W North America and C Mexico)
  • Phoenicopterus minutus (Late Pleistocene of California, US)
  • Phoenicopterus croizeti (Middle Oligocene – Middle Miocene of C Europe)
  • Phoenicopterus aethiopicus
  • Phoenicopterus eyrensis (Late Oligocene of South Australia)
  • Phoenicopterus novaehollandiae (Late Oligocene of South Australia)

Relationship with grebes

Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis)- Breeding plumage W2 IMG 8770
Many molecular and morphological studies support a relationship between grebes and flamingos.

Recent molecular studies have suggested a relation with grebes,[12][13][14] while morphological evidence also strongly supports a relationship between flamingos and grebes. They hold at least 11 morphological traits in common, which are not found in other birds. Many of these characteristics have been previously identified on flamingos, but not on grebes.[15] The fossil palaelodids can be considered evolutionarily, and ecologically, intermediate between flamingos and grebes.[16]

For the grebe-flamingo clade, the taxon Mirandornithes ("miraculous birds" due to their extreme divergence and apomorphies) has been proposed. Alternatively, they could be placed in one order, with Phoenocopteriformes taking priority.[16]

Description

Flamingos usually stand on one leg while the other is tucked beneath their bodies. The reason for this behaviour is not fully understood. One theory is that standing on one leg allows the birds to conserve more body heat, given that they spend a significant amount of time wading in cold water.[17] However, the behaviour also takes place in warm water and is also observed in birds that do not typically stand in water. An alternative theory is that standing on one leg reduces the energy expenditure for producing muscular effort to stand and balance on one leg. A study on cadavers showed that the one-legged pose could be held without any muscle activity, while living flamingos demonstrate substantially less body sway in a one-legged posture.[18] As well as standing in the water, flamingos may stamp their webbed feet in the mud to stir up food from the bottom.[19]

Flamingos are capable flyers, and flamingos in captivity often require wing clipping to prevent escape.

Flamingos in flight
Flamingos in flight at Rio Lagartos, Yucatán, Mexico

Young flamingos hatch with greyish-red plumage, but adults range from light pink to bright red due to aqueous bacteria and beta-carotene obtained from their food supply. A well-fed, healthy flamingo is more vibrantly colored, thus a more desirable mate; a white or pale flamingo, however, is usually unhealthy or malnourished. Captive flamingos are a notable exception; they may turn a pale pink if they are not fed carotene at levels comparable to the wild.[20]

The greater flamingo is the tallest of the 6 different species of flamingos, standing at 3.9 to 4.7 feet (1.2 to 1.4 m) with a weight up to 7.7 pounds (3.5 kg), and the shortest flamingo species (the lesser) has a height of 2.6 feet (0.8 m) and weighs 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg). Flamingos can have a wingspan as small as 37 inches (94 cm) to as big as 59 inches (150 cm).[21]

Behaviour and ecology

Feeding

Flamingo and offspring
American flamingo and offspring: The arcuate (curved) bill is well adapted to bottom scooping.

Flamingos filter-feed on brine shrimp and blue-green algae as well as larva, small insects, mollusks and crustaceans making them omnivores. Their bills are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they eat, and are uniquely used upside-down. The filtering of food items is assisted by hairy structures called lamellae, which line the mandibles, and the large, rough-surfaced tongue. The pink or reddish color of flamingos comes from carotenoids in their diet of animal and plant plankton. American flamingos are a brighter red color because of the beta carotene availability in their food while the lesser flamingos are a paler pink due to ingesting a smaller amount of this pigment (39). These carotenoids are broken down into pigments by liver enzymes.[22] The source of this varies by species, and affects the saturation of color. Flamingos whose sole diet is blue-green algae are darker in color compared to those which get it second-hand (e.g. from animals that have digested blue-green algae).[23]

Lifecycle

Chilean Flamingo Feeding
Chilean flamingo feeding its young
Large number of flamingos at Lake Nakuru
Colony of flamingos at Lake Nakuru

Flamingos are very social birds; they live in colonies whose population can number in the thousands. These large colonies are believed to serve three purposes for the flamingos: avoiding predators, maximizing food intake, and using scarcely suitable nesting sites more efficiently.[24] Before breeding, flamingo colonies split into breeding groups of about 15 to 50 birds. Both males and females in these groups perform synchronized ritual displays.[25] The members of a group stand together and display to each other by stretching their necks upwards, then uttering calls while head-flagging, and then flapping their wings.[26] The displays do not seem to be directed towards an individual, but instead occur randomly.[26] These displays stimulate "synchronous nesting" (see below) and help pair up those birds that do not already have mates.[25]

Flamingos form strong pair bonds, although in larger colonies, flamingos sometimes change mates, presumably because more mates are available to choose.[27] Flamingo pairs establish and defend nesting territories. They locate a suitable spot on the mudflat to build a nest (the female usually selects the place).[26] Copulation usually occurs during nest building, which is sometimes interrupted by another flamingo pair trying to commandeer the nesting site for their use. Flamingos aggressively defend their nesting sites. Both the male and the female contribute to building the nest, and to protecting the nest and egg.[28] Same-sex pairs have been reported.[29]

After the chicks hatch, the only parental expense is feeding.[30] Both the male and the female feed their chicks with a kind of crop milk, produced in glands lining the whole of the upper digestive tract (not just the crop). The hormone prolactin stimulates production. The milk contains fat, protein, and red and white blood cells. (Pigeons and doves—Columbidae—also produce crop milk (just in the glands lining the crop), which contains less fat and more protein than flamingo crop milk.)[31]

For the first six days after the chicks hatch, the adults and chicks stay in the nesting sites. At around 7–12 days old, the chicks begin to move out of their nests and explore their surroundings. When they are two weeks old, the chicks congregate in groups, called "microcrèches," and their parents leave them alone. After a while, the microcrèches merge into "crèches" containing thousands of chicks. Chicks that do not stay in their crèches are vulnerable to predators.[32]

Status and conservation

In captivity

The first flamingo hatched in a European zoo was a Chilean flamingo at Zoo Basel in Switzerland in 1958. Since then, over 389 flamingos have grown up in Basel and been distributed to other zoos around the globe.[33]

Greater, an at least 83-year-old greater flamingo, believed to be the oldest in the world, died at the Adelaide Zoo in Australia in January 2014.[34]

Relationship with humans

FlamingoMocheLMC
Moche ceramic depicting flamingo (200 AD) Larco Museum Collection, Lima, Peru
  • In Ancient Rome, their tongues were considered a delicacy.[35]
  • In the Americas, the Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature.[36] They placed emphasis on animals and often depicted flamingos in their art.[37]
  • In the Bahamas, they are the national bird.
  • Andean miners have killed flamingos for their fat, believed to be a cure for tuberculosis.[38]
  • In the United States, pink plastic flamingo statues are popular lawn ornaments.[39]

References

  1. ^ Both forms of the plural are attested, according to the Oxford English Dictionary
  2. ^ Harper, Douglas. "flamingo". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  3. ^ Salzman, Eric (December 1993). "Sibley's Classification of Birds". Ornitologia e dintorni. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  4. ^ Sibley, Charles G.; Corbin, Kendall W.; Haavie, Joan H. (1969). "The Relationships of the Flamingos as Indicated by the Egg-White Proteins and Hemoglobins" (PDF). Condor. 71 (2): 155–179. doi:10.2307/1366077. JSTOR 1366077.
  5. ^ Johnson, Kevin P.; Kennedy, Martyn; McCracken, Kevin G. (2006). "Reinterpreting the origins of flamingo lice: cospeciation or host-switching?" (PDF). Biology Letters. The Royal Society Publishing. 2 (2): 275–278. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0427. PMC 1618896. PMID 17148381. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  6. ^ Feduccia, Alan (1976). "Osteological evidence for shorebird affinities of the flamingos" (PDF). Auk. 93 (3): 587. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  7. ^ Kurochkin, E. N.; Dyke, G. J.; Karhu, A. A. (2002). "A New Presbyornithid Bird (Aves, Anseriformes) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern Mongolia". American Museum Novitates. 3386: 1–11. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2002)386<0001:ANPBAA>2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/2875.
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  14. ^ Hackett, Shannon J.; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Reddy, Sushma; Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Braun, Edward L.; Braun, Michael J.; Chojnowski, Jena L.; Cox, W. Andrew; Kin-Lan Han, John (27 June 2008). "A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History". Science. 320 (5884): 1763–1768. Bibcode:2008Sci...320.1763H. doi:10.1126/science.1157704. PMID 18583609.
  15. ^ Mayr, Gerald (2004). "Morphological evidence for sister group relationship between flamingos (Aves: Phoenicopteridae) and grebes (Podicipedidae)" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 140 (2): 157–169. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2003.00094.x. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  16. ^ a b Mayr, Gerald (2006). "The contribution of fossils to the reconstruction of the higher-level phylogeny of birds" (PDF). Species, Phylogeny and Evolution. 3: 59–64. ISSN 1098-660X. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
  17. ^ Walker, Matt (13 August 2009). "Why flamingoes stand on one leg". BBC News. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  18. ^ Chang, Young-Hui; Ting, Lena H. (24 May 2017). "Mechanical evidence that flamingos can support their body on one leg with little active muscular force". Biology Letters. The Royal Society Publishing. 13 (5): 20160948. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2016.0948. PMC 5454233. PMID 28539457. Retrieved 2017-05-28.
  19. ^ Bildstein, Keith L.; Frederick, Peter C.; Spalding, Marilyn G. (November 1991). "Feeding Patterns and Aggressive Behavior in Juvenile and Adult American Flamingos". The Condor. American Ornithological Society. 93 (4): 916–925. doi:10.2307/3247726. JSTOR 3247726.
  20. ^ Grazian, David (2015). American Zoo: A Sociological Safari. Princeton, NJ, US: Princeton University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-691-16435-9.
  21. ^ Bradford, Alina. 2014. Flamingo Facts: Food Turns Feathers Pink. September 18. Accessed March 2018. https://www.livescience.com/27322-flamingos.html
  22. ^ Hill, G. E.; Montgomerie, R.; Inouye, C. Y.; Dale, J. (June 1994). "Influence of Dietary Carotenoids on Plasma and Plumage Colour in the House Finch: Intra- and Intersexual Variation". Functional Ecology. British Ecological Society. 8 (3): 343–350. doi:10.2307/2389827. JSTOR 2389827.
  23. ^ "NATURE: Fire Bird – Flamingo Facts". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
  24. ^ Pickett, C.; Stevens, E. F. (1994). "Managing the Social Environments of Flamingos for Reproductive Success". Zoo Biology. 13 (5): 501–507. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430130512.
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  27. ^ Studer-Thiersch, A. (2000). "What 19 Years of Observation on Captive Great Flamingos Suggests about Adaptations to Breeding under Irregular Conditions." Waterbirds: The International Journal of Waterbird Biology 23 (Special Publication I: Conservation Biology of Flamingos): 150–159.
  28. ^ Johnson, Alan; Cézilly, Frank (1975). The Greater Flamingo. London: T & AD Poyser Ltd. pp. 124–130. ISBN 978-1-4081-3866-3.
  29. ^ Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. Stonewall Inn Editions. pp. 524–7. ISBN 031225377X.
  30. ^ Cézilly, F.; Johnson, A.; Tourenq, C. (1994). "Variation in Parental Care with Offspring Age in the Greater Flamingo". The Condor. 96 (3): 809–812. doi:10.2307/1369487.
  31. ^ Ehrlich, Paul; Dobkin, David S.; Wheye, Darryl (1988). The Birder's Handbook. New York, NY, US: Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-671-62133-9.
  32. ^ Gaillo, A.; Johnson, A. R.; Gallo, A. (1995). "Adult Aggressiveness and Crèching Behavior in the Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber roseus". Colonial Waterbirds. 18 (2): 216–221. doi:10.2307/1521484.
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External links

American flamingo

The American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a large species of flamingo closely related to the greater flamingo and Chilean flamingo. It was formerly considered conspecific with the greater flamingo, but that treatment is now widely viewed (e.g. by the American and British Ornithologists' Unions) as incorrect due to a lack of evidence. It is also known as the Caribbean flamingo, although it is present in the Galápagos Islands. In Cuba, it is also known as the greater flamingo. It is the only flamingo that naturally inhabits North America.

Anthurium

Anthurium (; Schott, 1829), is a genus of about 1000 species of flowering plants, the largest genus of the arum family, Araceae. General common names include anthurium, tailflower, flamingo flower, and laceleaf.The genus is native to the Americas, where it is distributed from northern Mexico to northern Argentina and parts of the Caribbean.Like most houseplants, Anthurium has been shown to help remove formaldehyde, xylene, and ammonia from household air. It was one of the plants cited as such in the NASA Clean Air Study.

Brandon Flowers

Brandon Richard Flowers (born June 21, 1981) is an American singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist. He is the lead singer, keyboardist and occasional bass guitarist of the Las Vegas-based rock band The Killers, with whom he has recorded five studio albums.

In addition to his work with the Killers, Flowers has released two solo albums, Flamingo (2010) and The Desired Effect (2015). He has reached number-one on the UK Albums Chart seven times, including work by The Killers.

Chilean flamingo

The Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) is a large species of flamingo at 110–130 cm (43–51 in) closely related to American flamingo and greater flamingo, with which it was sometimes considered conspecific. The species is listed as near threatened by the IUCN.

It breeds in South America from Ecuador and Peru to Chile and Argentina and east to Brazil; it has been introduced into Germany and the Netherlands (colony on the border, Zwillbrocker Venn). Also, a small population occurs in Utah and California. Like all flamingos, it lays a single chalky-white egg on a mud mound.

These flamingos are mainly restricted to salt lagoons and soda lakes but these areas are vulnerable to habitat loss and water pollution.

Fedde Le Grand

Fedde Le Grand (born 7 September 1977) is a Dutch house DJ and record producer from Utrecht. In 2006 his single "Put Your Hands Up For Detroit" (UK/US) / "Put Your Hands Up 4 Detroit" (Europe, excluding the UK) reached the top five on the Dutch Top 40, number one in the United Kingdom and spent five weeks on the dance charts in Spain.

Flamingo (comics)

Flamingo is the name of a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, commonly as an adversary of the Batman.

Flamingo (protein)

Flamingo is a member of the adhesion-GPCR family of proteins. Flamingo has sequence homology to cadherins and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Flamingo was originally identified as a Drosophila protein involved in planar cell polarity. Mammals have three flamingo homologs, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3. In mice all three have distinct expression patterns in the brain.

Flamingo Field

Flamingo Field was a ballpark at the corner of 15th Street and Michigan Avenue in Miami Beach, Florida home to Miami Beach minor-league clubs and the spring training home of the New York Giants in 1934 and 1935, the Philadelphia Phillies from 1940 to 1942, and again in 1946, and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1947. Capacity was approximately 3,000 for baseball. The center field fence was 386 feet from homeplate. The park was also referred to as "Flamingo Park" which is also the name of the area in which it was located.

Flamingo Field was home to the Class D Florida East Coast League Miami Tigers in 1940, who changed their nickname to the Miami Beach Flamingos in 1941 and won the League championship that year. The FECL folded in May 1942 due to World War II. After the War, the Flamingos joined the new Class C Florida International League in 1946. The Flamingos played the 1952 season, sat-out 1953, and rejoined in 1954 only to move across Biscayne Bay to Miami during the 1954 season.

In addition to baseball, the field was used for multiple purposes. Duquesne practiced at Flamingo Field in December 1936 prior to the 1937 Orange Bowl. The Georgia Bulldogs football team practiced at Flamingo Field in December 1941 prior to the 1942 Orange Bowl in which they defeated TCU.

When the Phillies held spring training at the ballpark in 1942, box seats cost $1.65, the grandstand was $1.10, and bleacher seats $0.55.In 1956, the field was rundown but was being used by the Miami Beach and St. Patrick's high school baseball teams.

Flamingo Land

Flamingo Land is a theme park, zoo, and resort located in Kirby Misperton, North Yorkshire, England.

Flamingo Las Vegas

Flamingo Las Vegas (formerly The Fabulous Flamingo and Flamingo Hilton Las Vegas) is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. It is owned and operated by Caesars Entertainment Corporation.

The property includes a 72,300 square-foot casino along with 3,626 hotel rooms. The architectural theme is reminiscent of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne style of Miami and South Beach. Staying true to its theme, the hotel includes a garden courtyard which serves as a wildlife habitat for flamingos. The hotel was the third resort to open on the Strip and remains the oldest resort on the Strip in operation today. The Flamingo has a Las Vegas Monorail station called the Flamingo & Caesars Palace station at the rear of the property. After opening in 1946, it has undergone a number of ownership changes.

Flamingo Road (film)

Flamingo Road is a 1949 American film noir,directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Joan Crawford, Zachary Scott, Sydney Greenstreet and David Brian. The screenplay by Robert Wilder was based on a 1946 play written by Wilder and his wife, Sally, which was based on Robert Wilder's 1942 novel of the same name.The plot follows an ex-carnival dancer who marries a local businessman to seek revenge on a corrupt political boss who had her railroaded into prison.

Greater flamingo

The greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is the most widespread and largest species of the flamingo family. It is found in Africa, on the Indian subcontinent, in the Middle East, and in southern Europe.

HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the

Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster. The company is headquartered in New York City and is a subsidiary of News Corp. The name is a combination of several publishing firm names: Harper & Row, an American publishing company acquired in 1987 (whose own name was the result of an earlier merger of Harper & Brothers (founded 1817) and Row, Peterson & Company), together with UK publishing company William Collins, Sons (founded 1819), acquired in 1990.

The worldwide CEO of HarperCollins is Brian Murray. HarperCollins has publishing groups in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India, and China. The company publishes many different imprints, both former independent publishing houses and new imprints.

Las Vegas Monorail

The Las Vegas Monorail is a 3.9-mile (6.3 km) driverless monorail mass transit system located adjacent to the Las Vegas Strip, in Clark County, Nevada, United States. It connects several large casinos in the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester, and does not enter the City of Las Vegas. It is owned and operated by the Las Vegas Monorail Company. In 2013, total annual ridership was roughly 4.2 million, down from a pre-Great Recession peak of 7.9 million in 2007. The monorail is a registered not-for-profit corporation, allowed under Nevada law since the monorail provides a public service. The State of Nevada assisted in bond financing, but no public money was used in construction.

Lesser flamingo

The lesser flamingo (Phoenicoparrus minor) is a species of flamingo occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, with another population in India. Birds are occasionally reported from further north, but these are generally considered vagrants. It was moved from the genus Phoeniconaias to Phoenicoparrus in 2014.

List of Sesame Street Muppets

The Muppets are a group of puppet characters created by Jim Henson, many for the purpose of appearing on the children's television program Sesame Street. Henson's involvement in Sesame Street began when he and Joan Ganz Cooney, one of the creators of the show, met in the summer of 1968, at one of the show's five three-day curriculum planning seminars in Boston. Author Christopher Finch reported that director Jon Stone, who had worked with Henson previously, felt that if they could not bring him on board, they should "make do without puppets".Henson was initially reluctant but agreed to join Sesame Street in support of its social goals. He also agreed to waive his performance fee for full ownership of the Sesame Street Muppets and to split any revenue they generated with the Children's Television Workshop (renamed to the Sesame Workshop in 2000), the series' non-profit producer. The Muppets were a crucial part of the show's popularity and it brought Henson national attention. The Muppet segments of the show were popular since its premiere, and more Muppets were added during the first few seasons. The Muppets were effective teaching tools because children easily recognized them, they were predictable, and they appealed to adults and older siblings.During the production of Sesame Street's first season, producers created five one-hour episodes to test the show's appeal to children and examine their comprehension of the material. Not intended for broadcast, they were presented to preschoolers in 60 homes throughout Philadelphia and in day care centers in New York City in July 1969. The results were "generally very positive"; children learned from the shows, their appeal was high, and children's attention was sustained over the full hour. However, the researchers found that although children's attention was high during the Muppet segments, their interest wavered during the "Street" segments, when no Muppets were on screen. This was because the producers had followed the advice of child psychologists who were concerned that children would be confused if human actors and Muppets were shown together. As a result of this decision, the appeal of the test episodes was lower than the target.The Street scenes were "the glue" that "pulled the show together", so producers knew they needed to make significant changes. The producers decided to reject the advisers' advice and reshot the Street segments; Henson and his coworkers created Muppets that could interact with the human actors, specifically Oscar the Grouch and Big Bird, who became two of the show's most enduring characters. These test episodes were directly responsible for what writer Malcolm Gladwell called "the essence of Sesame Street—the artful blend of fluffy monsters and earnest adults". Since 2001, the full rights for the Muppets created for Sesame Street have been owned by Sesame Workshop.

Phoenicopteridae

Phoenicopteridae is a wading bird family including flamingos and their close extinct relatives.

Flamingos and their relatives are well attested in the fossil record, with the first unequivocal member of the Phoenicopteridae, Elornis known from the late Eocene epoch. A considerable number of little-known birds from the Late Cretaceous onwards are sometimes considered to be flamingo ancestors. These include the genera Torotix, Scaniornis, Gallornis, Agnopterus, Tiliornis, Juncitarsus, and Kashinia; these show a mix of characters and are fairly plesiomorphic in comparison to modern birds. (The supposed "Cretaceous flamingo" Parascaniornis is actually a synonym of Baptornis and not a close relative to any living bird.) An extinct family of peculiar "swimming flamingos", the Palaelodidae, are believed to be related to, or to be the ancestors of, the modern flamingos. This is sometimes rejected, since the fossil Elornis is known to be from some time before any palaelodid flamingos have been recorded.

SS Jolee

Jolee was a 5,500-gross register ton (GRT) Design 1022 cargo ship that was built in 1920 by American International Shipbuilding, Hog Island, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States for the United States Shipping Board (USSB). Launched as Cardington, She was completed as Jolee. She was sold in 1933 to Lykes Brothers - Ripley Steamship Co Inc. She was purchased by the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) in 1941 and renamed Empire Flamingo. She served until June 1944 when she was sunk as a blockship at Juno Beach.

The Linq

The Linq (formerly Flamingo Capri, Imperial Palace and The Quad) is a 2,640-room hotel, casino and shopping promenade on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. It is owned and operated by Caesars Entertainment Corporation. As of 2012, the casino is 32,890 sq ft (3,056 m2) with 830 slot machines, 55 table games, and a race and sports book.It originally opened in 1959 as the 180-room Flamingo Capri motel, located adjacent to the Flamingo hotel and casino. Ralph Engelstad purchased the property in 1971, and added a casino the following year. In 1977, the hotel had 650 rooms, after the completion of its Imperial Palace Tower. The resort was later reopened as the Asian-themed Imperial Palace in 1979.

Several additional hotel towers were added during the 1980s, bringing the resort's room count to an ultimate total of 2,637, after the completion of a fifth and final hotel tower in 1987. At the time of Engelstad's death in 2002, the resort had 2,600 employees and was the second-largest privately owned hotel in the world. In 2012, the resort was renamed as The Quad. The resort was renamed again as The Linq in 2014, after a $223 million renovation.

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