Flag of the Second Spanish Republic

The flag of the Second Spanish Republic, known in Spanish as la tricolor,[1] was the official flag of Spain between 1931 and 1939 and the flag of the Spanish Republican government in exile until 1977.

Second Spanish Republic
Flag of Spain (1931–1939)
NameTricolor
Use
Proportion3:5
Adopted27 April 1931
Flag of the Second Spanish Republic (plain)
Variant flag of Second Spanish Republic
NameBandera de la marina mercante (Civil Ensign)
Use
Proportion3:5
Flag of the Second Spanish Republic (military)
Variant flag of Second Spanish Republic
NameBandera militar (Military Flag)
Use
Proportion2:3

History

The Spanish republican flag began to be used on April 27, 1931, thirteen days after municipal elections results led to the abolition of the monarchy and the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.

This same flag had been previously displayed by certain Republican groups as an alternative to the red-and-yellow flag that was identified with the Bourbon monarchy in Spain. As a result of this previous use, the young republic proclaimed in 1931 eagerly adopted this symbol.[2]

The Republican flag was adopted on April 27 and presented to the army of the nation on May 6 with the following words:[3] "The national uprising against tyranny, victorious since April 14, has hoisted a flag that is invested by means of the feelings of the people with the double representation of the hope of freedom and of its irreversible triumph."

El alzamiento nacional contra la tiranía, victorioso desde el 14 de abril, ha enarbolado una enseña investida por el sentir del pueblo con la doble representación de una esperanza de libertad y de su triunfo irrevocable.

The Republican flag was formed by three horizontal bands of the same width, red, yellow, and murrey (mulberry-coloured). The National Flag would have the Spanish Republican coat of arms at the centre (quarterly of Castile, Leon, Aragon and Navarre, enté en point for Granada, ensigned by a mural crown, between the two Pillars of Hercules). This coat of arms originated in 1868 and had been used then by the Provisional Government and later by the First Spanish Republic. The civil ensign or merchant flag would be a simple tricolour without the coat of arms.

The term "la tricolor" to refer to the flag is reminiscent of the French tricolor which, since the French Revolution of the late 18th Century, has made a flag composed of three equal strips into the symbol of a Republic. However, having horizontal strips rather than vertical ones, as in the French flag, made it possible to preserve many elements of the previous Spanish flag, used during centuries of Monarchial rule.

During the Civil War there was also a military version of the flag with proportion 2:3 and without the coat of arms used by Republican Army units in different locations. Despite not displaying the arms, this plain flag did not correspond to the civil ensign approved in 1931 for the use of merchant ships.[4] The International Brigades added a three-pointed red star to the yellow band of the military Republican flag.[5]

The simplified military flag of the Second Spanish Republic was also used by the Spanish Maquis between the end of the Spanish Civil War and the early 1960s, and later by the Spanish National Liberation Front (FELN). Versions of this flag were used in the 1970s by the radical anti-Francoist groups Revolutionary Antifascist Patriotic Front (FRAP) and First of October Anti-Fascist Resistance Groups (GRAPO).

The Republican flag is now widely used by trade unions[6] and left-wing political organizations, such as United Left,[7] the Marxist-Leninist Party (RC) and some factions of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. It is also used by republican platforms.[8][9]

Colours

Leon Arms
Arms of the Kingdom of León
Flag of Castile (purple)
Pendón Morado, also later used and denominated as the "Flag of the Comuneros"

The Spanish Republican Flag has 3 colours: red, yellow, and purple.[10]

The third colour, purple (Spanish: morado), represents Castile and León by recalling the Pendón Morado, the ancient armorial banner of Castile. The colours of red and yellow symbolize the territories of the former Crown of Aragon.[11] These 3 colours symbolized a new era for Spain in which no part thereof was excluded and all Spaniards were represented.[2]

Morado

Morado, which is a generic word denoting the colour purple or violet, was previously a familiar colour in Spain because it is one of the Catholic liturgical colours that is displayed on liturgical vestments, altar cloths, and other ecclesiastical textile furnishings to signify certain seasons of the Catholic liturgical year, and, being a historically Catholic nation, this colour had annual and public use throughout Spain. Also, it was used in antiquity as the heraldic colour of the Kingdom of Castile. The coat of arms of the Kingdom of León bore a purple lion rampant and the flag reputed to have been used in the Revolt of the Comuneros displayed a yellow castle on a purple background. Morado, however, was and is prone to variations in hue and fading from time and use, which often resulted in "morado" denoting a range of hues of purple, which presently are considered distinct colours/hues, e. g. crimson or maroon. Because it is rarely present on flags, in practice the morado of the lowest band of the Flag was coloured violet, purple (purpure), or even lilac, contingent on available materials and dyes.[12]

Controversies

Spanish monarchists resented the morado of the new tricolored flag and a famous soleá was composed when the Flag began to be used. These verses also indirectly expressed dissatisfaction for the reforms of the new republican government:[13]

Me está jodiendo el morao,
que está junto al amarillo,
debajo del colorao.

I am bothered by the morado,
that is next to the yellow,
below the red.

Since the restoration of the monarchy in the last quarter of the 20th century, some authors contradict previous Spanish historians by contending that the Castilian Pendón Morado never existed or that it was actually coloured red.[14] The controversy is part of a predictable effort to discredit the Flag of the Second Spanish Republic by claiming that its colours are erroneous. However, historical documents prove that banners formerly used in Castile and Leon were coloured murrey.[15]

Until recently the official badge of the Real Madrid C.F. had a purple band based either on the Castilian or Spanish republican colours which was added after the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931.[16][17] The colour of the band was changed from morado to navy blue in 2001 without sufficient explanation.[18]

Depictions, derivatives and variants

Cubierta constitucion1931

Cover of the Constitution of the Second Spanish Republic

Republique-allegorie

Allegory of the Spanish Republic

Stamp150aniversaryUSconstitution1937SpanishRepublic

Statue of Liberty Spanish stamp honoring the 150th anniversary of the U.S. Constitution

Alegoría-República española y francesa

Allegory of the Spanish Republic embracing Marianne, symbolizing the French Republic. 1931

American Medical Bureau armband

American Medical Bureau (AMB) armband

Tumba de Manuel Azaña

Grave of President Manuel Azaña (1880-1940) in Montauban, France

Bandera del GRAPO

PCE(r) and GRAPO flag

Reconstrucción Comunista RC flag

PML (RC) flag

Civil use

Estandarte Presidencial MA

Presidential Standard of Manuel Azaña (1936-1939)

Ministerial Flag of the Spanish Republic

Ministerial Standard

Yacht Flag-Spanish Republic

Yacht ensign used on recreational boats or ships (1931-1939)

Military use

Flag of the 44 Division Spanish Popular Army

Flag of the 44th Division of the Spanish Popular Army

Flag of the International Brigades

The flag of the International Brigades

I-15 Polikarpov Tinker

Polikarpov I-15 of the Spanish Republican Air Force

Fin flash of the Aeronáutica Naval

Fin flash of the Aeronáutica Naval, the naval aviation of the Spanish Republican Navy (1931-1936)

Flag of Viceadmiral of the Fleet Spanish Republic

Spanish Republican Navy. Ensign of the Viceadmiral of the Fleet

Captain at Sea Pennant Spanish Republican Navy - Squadron

Spanish Republican Navy. Captain at Sea Pennant

Senior Officer Pennant - Armada de la República Española

Spanish Republican Navy. Senior Officer Pennant

Present-day use

77 aniversario 2 república eibar3

Flag of the Second Spanish Republic in Eibar

Izqrepublicana

Office of the Izquierda Republicana party in León

Manifestación III República

Pro-Republican demonstration; Madrid 2006

Manifestación en Oviedo

Spanish Republican flags in a demonstration in Oviedo, April 2009

Manifestación en Tenerife

Pro-Republican demonstration in Tenerife, Canary Islands, April 2007

Sevillarepublica

Pro-Republican demonstration in Seville, April 2006

Montañarepublica

Monument to former Los Llanos de Aridane Republican major Francisco Rodríguez Betancourt. The flag on the left with its oversized coat of arms is a recent commercial version.

Madrid - Manifestación 19J - 110619 131356

Madrid 19 June 2011 demonstration

Manifa1

2012 demonstration in Las Palmas

Manifestación republicana en Sol (2 de junio de 2014)

Republican demonstration in the Puerta del Sol on the day that Juan Carlos I announced his decision to abdicate

Spanish Republican flag in Barcelona

Use as a symbol in Barcelona during the campaign for the 2017 Catalan independence referendum

See also

References

  1. ^ La Tricolor. Breve historia de la Bandera Republicana
  2. ^ a b La Tricolor. Breve historia de la Bandera Republicana
  3. ^ Decreto de 27 de abril de 1931 de Presidencia del Gobierno Provisional de la República.
  4. ^ Gaceta de Madrid, Decreto del 27 de abril de 1931 del gobierno provisional de la República, 28 April 1931
  5. ^ FOTW - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
  6. ^ Workers' Commissions demonstration
  7. ^ United Left logo
  8. ^ Republican demonstration
  9. ^ demonstration
  10. ^ Decreto del 27 de abril de 1931 de la Presidencia del Gobierno Provisional de la República. "La bandera de la República española es roja, amarilla y morada...".
  11. ^ Poster - Allegory of the Spanish Republic.
  12. ^ Versions of the colours of the Flag of the Second Spanish Republic.
  13. ^ ABC - La república.
  14. ^ Pendón Real de Castilla. Principios del siglo XVI.
  15. ^ Ministerio de Defensa - Isabel II (1833-1868).
  16. ^ Los coloures «republicanos» del Real Madrid - ABC.es.
  17. ^ La Franja Morada.
  18. ^ El Real Madrid debe recuperar la franja morada en su escudo.
  19. ^ Spanish Medical Aid Committee

External links

Castle Park, Bristol

Castle Park (sometimes referred to as Castle Green) is a public open space in Bristol, England, managed by Bristol City Council. It is bounded by the Floating Harbour and Castle Street to the south, Lower Castle Street to the east, and Broad Weir, Newgate and Wine Street to the north. Its western boundary is less obviously defined and has been the subject of controversy, perhaps because the area around High Street and St Mary le Port Church, though not part of the park and always intended for development, is often considered at the same time as the park.Opened on 30 September 1978, the park occupies the site of what was once Bristol's main shopping district. The area was largely destroyed by the Luftwaffe during the Blitz, and that which remained was subsequently demolished. In the years since the end of the Second World War, Castle Park has become home to a number of anti-fascist memorials.

The ruined tower of St Mary-le-Port Church stands to the west of the park, surrounded by derelict financial office buildings. Adjoining the ruins of St Peter's Church in the middle of the park is a sensory herb garden, and five silver birch trees as a memorial to the beaches of the D-Day landings. To the east is a grassy arena, and the partially excavated remains of Bristol Castle with a preserved vaulted chamber. There is also a bandstand and a children's play area.

Tree-lined St Peter's Square, to the north of St Peter's church, has been home to various events including German Christmas markets. In recent summers a tethered balloon has been placed near the bandstand, offering ascents to sightseers.

Recent attempts to develop the area between the park's western edge and High Street have proved controversial; Bristol City Council are keen to replace derelict buildings with a mixed-use development to help reconnect the Old City to Broadmead and raise funds to improve the park; others would rather see the park extended to High Street.

Coat of arms of the Second Spanish Republic

The Coat of arms of the Second Spanish Republic was the emblem of the Second Spanish Republic, the democratic government that existed in Spain between April 14, 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country, and April 1, 1939, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered to Francoist forces at the end of the Spanish Civil War.

The National flag of the Second Spanish Republic would have the coat of arms in the middle of the central yellow band. There was no coat of arms in the Spanish Republican Civil Ensign.

Enrique Sapena Granell

Enrique Sapena Granell (1930, in Valencia, Spain – 7 June 2008) was a Spanish politician for the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).

Sapena was a railway worker who joined the PSOE in 1951 at a time when it was still illegal under the dictatorship of Franco. At the 1977 General Election he was elected to the Spanish Congress of Deputies representing Valencia Province and was re-elected in the two subsequent elections in 1979 and 1982.

At the 1986 he moved to the upper chamber of the Spanish legislature when he was elected to the Spanish Senate. From 1987 to 1994 he represented Spain in the European parliament but retired from politics in the mid 1990s.

Numerous prominent Valencian politicians attended his funeral, where his body was draped in the flag of the Second Spanish Republic according to his wishes.

Flag of Jalisco

The flag of Jalisco was adopted in 2011. It is colored blue and gold and bears the State Emblem in the center. The emblem has a diameter of three-quarters the width of the stripes. The ratio of the flag is 4:7. Ribbons of the same colors may be placed at the foot of the finial.

Flag of Spain

The flag of Spain (Spanish: Bandera de España), as it is defined in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, consists of three horizontal stripes: red, yellow and red, the yellow stripe being twice the size of each red stripe. Traditionally, the middle stripe was defined by the more archaic term of gualda, and hence the popular name rojigualda (red-weld).

The origin of the current flag of Spain is the naval ensign of 1785, Pabellón de la Marina de Guerra under Charles III of Spain. It was chosen by Charles III himself among 12 different flags designed by Antonio Valdés y Bazán (all projected flags were presented in a drawing which is in the Naval Museum of Madrid). The flag remained marine for much of the next 50 years, flying over coastal fortresses, marine barracks and other naval property. During the Peninsular War the flag could also be found on marine regiments fighting inland. Not until 1820 was the first Spanish land unit (The La Princesa Regiment) provided with one and it was not until 1843 that Queen Isabella II of Spain would make the flag official.Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the color scheme of the flag remained intact, with the exception of the Second Republic period (1931–1939); the only changes centered on the coat of arms.

International Freedom Battalion

The International Freedom Battalion (Turkish: Enternasyonalist Özgürlük Taburu; Kurdish: Tabûra Azadî ya Înternasyonal‎; Arabic: تابور الحرية العالمي‎), commonly abbreviated as IFB or EÖT, is an armed group consisting of leftist foreign fighters fighting for the People's Protection Units in the Syrian Civil War in support of the Rojava Revolution and against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The formation of the International Freedom Battalion was announced on 10 June 2015 in Serê Kaniyê (Ras al-Ayn). Inspiration for the group came from the International Brigades of the Spanish Civil War. The political ideologies of the fighters include Marxism–Leninism, Hoxhaism, Maoism, and anarchism.

La Nueve

The 9th Company of the Régiment de marche du Tchad, part of the 2nd Armored Division (also known as Division Leclerc) was nicknamed La Nueve (Spanish for "the nine"). The company consisted of 160 men under French command, 146 of which were Spanish republicans, including many anarchists, as well as French soldiers. All had fought during the liberation of French North Africa, and later participated in the Liberation of France.

The 9th Company's most notable military accomplishment was its important role in the Liberation of Paris. Men of La Nueve were among the first to enter the French capital on the evening of 24 August 1944 together with half-tracks bearing the names of battles of the Spanish Civil War ("Teruel" and "Guadalajara"), and accompanied by engineering personnel and 3 tanks (Montmirail, Champaubert and Romilly) from the 501e Régiment de chars de combat.

List of Spanish flags

This is a list of Spanish flags, with illustrations. For more information about the national flag, visit the article Flag of Spain.

List of flags by color

This is a list of flags by color. Each section below contains any flag that has any amount of the color listed for that section.

Madrid Distinction

The Madrid Distinction (Spanish: Distintivo de Madrid) was one of the highest military awards of the Second Spanish Republic. It was a decoration related to the Laureate Plate of Madrid. which was established by the Second Spanish Republic in order to reward courage. In the same manner as the Laureate Plate it was named after Madrid, the capital of Spain, owing to the city symbolizing valour and the defence of the Spanish Republic during the long Siege of Madrid throughout the Spanish Civil War.

Order of the Spanish Republic

The Order of the Spanish Republic (Spanish: "La Orden de la República Española") was founded in 1932 in the Second Spanish Republic for civil and military merit to the state. It replaced the orders of merit of the former Spanish Monarchy and had the mural crown instead of the royal one.

The order had the usual five degrees. There was a special collar for heads of state and two medals were attached to this order of merit. The ribbon was red with a white border.

After the military defeat of the Spanish Republic, Gen. Francisco Franco abolished all Republican Orders and instituted new ones. The Spanish Republican government in exile issued one order which was a simple medal with a ribbon in the Spanish republican colors.

Purple

Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red. It is similar to violet, but unlike violet, which is a spectral color with its own wavelength on the visible spectrum of light, purple is a secondary color made by combining red and blue. The complementary color of purple is yellow.According to surveys in Europe and North America, purple is the color most often associated with rarity, royalty, magic, mystery, and piety. When combined with pink, it is associated with eroticism, femininity, and seduction.Purple was the color worn by Roman magistrates; it became the imperial color worn by the rulers of the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, and later by Roman Catholic bishops. Similarly in Japan, the color is traditionally associated with the Emperor and aristocracy. Purple is most favorited color preferences amongst women and girls, and is symbolic of the feminist movement and women's empowerment.

Republican faction (Spanish Civil War)

The Republican faction (Spanish: Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Spanish: Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the far-right Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion. The name Republicans (republicanos) was mainly used by its members and supporters, while its opponents used the derogatory term Rojos (reds) to refer to this faction.

Republicanism in Spain

Republicanism in Spain is a political position that holds that Spain's system of government should be changed from a constitutional monarchy to a republic.

There has existed in the Kingdom of Spain a persistent trend of republican thought, especially throughout the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, that has manifested itself in diverse political parties and movements over the entire course of the history of Spain. While these movements have shared the objective of establishing a republic in Spain, during these three centuries there have surged distinct schools of thought on the form republicans would want to give to the Spanish State: unitary (centralized) or federal.

Despite the country's long-lasting schools of republican movements, the government of Spain has been organized as a republic during only two very short periods in its history, which totaled less than 10 years of republican government in the entirety of Spanish history. The First Spanish Republic lasted from February 1873 to December 1874, and the Second Spanish Republic lasted from April 1931 to April 1939.

Currently there are movements and political parties throughout the entire political spectrum that advocate for a Third Spanish Republic, including almost all of the Spanish left, as well as liberal, right-winged, and nationalist parties.

Second Spanish Republic

The Spanish Republic (Spanish: República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Spanish: Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the deposition of Alfonso XIII, and it lost the Spanish Civil War on 1 April 1939 to the rebel faction, that would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco.

After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved a Constitutional Republic was formally established. The republican government of Manuel Azaña would start a great number of reforms to "modernize" the country. After the 1933 general election, Alejandro Lerroux (Radical Party) formed a government with the confidence and supply of the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (CEDA). Under Lerroux's premiership, the Republic found itself before an insurrection of anarchists and socialists that took a revolutionary undertone in Asturias. The revolt was finally suppressed by the Republic with the intervention of the army. The Popular Front won the 1936 general election. On 17–18 July 1936, a coup d'etat fractured the Spanish Republican Armed Forces and partially failed, marking the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

During the Spanish Civil War, there were three governments. The first was led by left-wing republican José Giral (from July to September 1936); however, a revolution inspired mostly on libertarian socialist, anarchist and communist principles broke within the Republic, which weakened the rule of the Republic. The second government was led by socialist Francisco Largo Caballero of the trade union General Union of Workers (UGT). The UGT, along with the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), were the main forces behind the aforementioned social revolution. The third government was led by socialist Juan Negrín, who led the Republic until the military coup of Segismundo Casado, which ended republican resistance and led, ultimately, to the victory of the nationalists, who would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco, known as Francoist Spain.

The Republican government survived in exile, and it had an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. After the restoration of democracy in Spain, the government formally dissolved the following year.

Spanish nationalism

Spanish nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that the Spaniards are a nation, and promotes the cultural unity of the Spanish. In a general sense, it comprises political and social movements inspired by a love for Spanish culture, language, history, and a sense of pride in Spain and its people. Spanish nationalists often reject other nationalist movements within Spain, specifically Catalan and Basque nationalism. Other forms of Spanish nationalism have included pan-Iberianism and pan-Hispanism.Spanish nationalism has its origins in Castilian-based culture. Its development runs parallel to that of the state-building process carried out by the Spanish monarchy, and to the surge in patriotic sentiment in the landlocked territories galvanized by the Reconquista — a period that began in what would eventually become the Kingdom of Castile and ended in the final conquest of Granada in 1492. This explains why the Castilian language became known universally as the Spanish language. Hence, Spanish nationalism is a historical corollary or synecdochal evolution of an expansionist phase in Castilian nationalism, much like the process by which early English nationalism came to define all of British nationalism, or by which Latin and Sabine political identity came to successfully assimilate all other ethnicities in the Italian Peninsula, sometimes forcefully, into becoming a single national entity.

In spite of the early Castilian genesis of Spanish nationalism, it must be emphasized that more recent stages of Castilian nationalism are sometimes indifferent or even inimical to Spanish unionism.

Stain (heraldry)

In heraldry, a stain (sometimes termed stainand colour or staynard colour) is one of a few non-standard tinctures or colours (namely murrey, sanguine and tenné), which are only known to occur in post-medieval heraldry and are thought to denote a rebatement of honour. Almost none of these rebatements are found in fact of heraldic practice, however, and in British heraldry the stains find only exceptional use, other than for purposes of livery.

Violet (color)

Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet. Violet color has a dominant wavelength of approximately 380-450 nanometers. Light with a shorter wavelength than violet but longer than X-rays and gamma rays is called ultraviolet. In the color wheel historically used by painters, it is located between blue and purple. On the screens of computer monitors and television sets, a color which looks similar to violet is made, with the RGB color model, by mixing red and blue light, with the blue twice as bright as the red. This is not true violet, for it does not match the color of a single wavelength shorter than that of blue light.

The color's name is derived from the violet flower. Violet and purple look similar, but violet is a spectral color, with its own set of wavelengths on the spectrum of visible light. Purple is a dichromatic color, made by combining blue and red. Amethyst is a notable violet crystal, its colour arising from iron and other trace elements in quartz.

In history, violet and purple have long been associated with royalty and majesty. The emperors of Rome wore purple togas, as did the Byzantine emperors. During the Middle Ages violet was worn by bishops and university professors and was often used in art as the color of the robes of the Virgin Mary. In Chinese painting, the color violet represents the harmony of the universe because it is a combination of red and blue (Yin and yang respectively). In Hinduism and Buddhism violet is associated with the Crown Chakra. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, violet is the color people most often associate with extravagance and individualism, the unconventional, the artificial, and ambiguity.

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