Flag of the Republic of China

The flag of the Republic of China is the national flag of Taiwan, consisting of a red field with a blue canton bearing a white disc with twelve triangles surrounding it. The disc and triangles symbolize the sun and rays of light emanating from it respectively. In Chinese, the flag is commonly described as Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth to reflect its design attributes.

The flag was first used in mainland China as the Navy flag in 1912,[1] and was made the official national flag of the Republic of China (ROC) in 1928 by the Kuomintang (KMT). It was enshrined in the sixth article of the Constitution of the Republic of China when it was promulgated in 1947. The flag is no longer used in mainland China after the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949.

As the islands of Taiwan and Penghu were under Japanese rule until 1945, the flag was not in use in two territories, until ROC took control in 1945. The flag is now mostly used within Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other outlying islands, where the ROC relocated to in 1949 after its defeat in the Chinese Civil War.

Republic of China
Flag of the Republic of China
Name青天白日滿地紅 , literally "Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth"
UseCivil and state flag, national ensign
Proportion2:3
AdoptedJanuary 1, 1928 (by Mainland China)
October 25, 1949 (by Taiwan)
DesignA red field with a navy blue canton bearing a white sun with 12 triangular rays.
Designed byLu Haodong and Sun Yat-sen
Commander-in-Chief Flag of the Republic of China
Presidential standard flag
UsePresidential standard
Proportion2:3
Flag of the Republic of China
Literal meaningRepublic of China flag
Blue Sky, White Sun and a Wholly Red Earth
Literal meaningBlue sky, white sun, wholly red earth
Flag of Taiwan
Literal meaningTaiwan flag

History

Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games
The Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag (known in Chinese as the 'Plum Blossom Banner') is used in place of the flag of the Republic of China at the Olympic Games and in some sporting events.

The first national flag of Taiwan was first used in 1663 during the Kingdom of Tungning which had a plain white flag with the character "鄭" (zhèng) on the red bordered circle. The flag of the Qing dynasty was also used from 1683 until 1895 when the Republic of Formosa was declared. The Formosan flag had a tiger on a plain blue filed with azure clouds below it.

During Japanese rule of Taiwan, the flag of Japan was flown in the island from 1895 to 1945. At the same time, when the government of the Republic of China was established on January 1, 1912, the "Five-Colored Flag" was selected by the provisional Senate as the national flag. The "18-Star Flag" was adopted by the army[2] and the modern flag was adopted as a naval ensign.[3] Sun Yat-sen, however, did not consider the five-colored flag appropriate, reasoning that horizontal order implied a hierarchy or class like that which existed during dynastic times.

Following the transfer of Taiwan from Japan to China in 1945, the flag was specified in Article Six of the 1947 Constitution. After the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the government of Chiang Kai-shek relocated the sovereign independent country of the Republic of China (ROC) to the island of Taiwan. On the mainland, the communist forces of Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China and adopted their own national flag. On October 23, 1954, the National Emblem and National Flag of the Republic of China Act (中華民國國徽國旗法; Zhōnghuá Mínguó guóhuī guóqífǎ) was promulgated by the Legislative Yuan to specify the size, measure, ratio, production, and management of the flag.[4]

Ban in Cambodia

While public display of the ROC flag is generally frowned upon, and may even lead to arrest in the PRC, Cambodia was the first country to outlaw it officially. In February 2017, Prime Minister Hun Sen announced that the ROC flag will be banned from being displayed in Cambodia as a part of its commitment to the One-China policy.[5][6]

Symbolism

Flag of the Republic of China
Flag of Republic of China flying.

In the "Blue Sky with a White Sun" flag of Lu Hao-tung, unveiled in 1895 in Hawaii. The twelve rays of the white Sun symbolize the twelve months and the twelve traditional shichen (時辰; shíchén), a traditional unit of time which corresponds to two modern hours. Sun Yat-sen added the "Red Earth" to the flag to signify the blood of the revolutionaries who sacrificed themselves in order to overthrow the Qing Dynasty and create the ROC. Together, the three colors of the flag correspond to the Three Principles of the People: Blue represents nationalism and liberty; White represents democracy and equality; and Red represents the people's livelihood and fraternity.[7] President Chiang Kai-shek proclaimed on the National Day in 1929, "As long as a national flag with Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth flies on the land of China, it symbolises the independence and liberty of the descendants of the Huang Emperor".

The blue-and-white canton of the ROC flag is often used as the party flag of the KMT. The flag has developed a great deal of additional symbolism due to the unique and controversial political status of Taiwan. At one level, the flag represents a clear symbol that Taiwan is not governed by the same government as Mainland China, as this flag is different from the flag of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Meanwhile, because it was formerly used as the flag over all of China, the flag has become a symbol of continuity with the ideals of the Chinese nationalism and Chinese reunification movements, and has become a symbol of a connection both historical and current with mainland China. In addition, the flag is derived from the seal of the KMT, and the color of the field of the flag is associated with the KMT party colors.

Some Chinese see the flag as an expression of Chinese nationalism and pride combined with simultaneous disapproval for the current communist regime. Additionally, the flag may symbolize identification with, and admiration for the political thoughts of Sun Yat-sen, and his Three Principles of the People.

One irony is that given the association of the flag with Chinese nationalism in opposition to Taiwan independence, the ROC flag has found an unexpected ally in the People's Republic of China. The PRC has criticized Taiwan independence groups for wishing to change or abolish the ROC flag, and has implied that legal steps to do so would bring a strongly negative reaction from the PRC.

However, the presence of the ROC flag in Taiwan also distinguishes the fact that Taiwan and ROC territorial islands elsewhere fall under jurisdiction of a country separate from that of mainland China, the People's Republic of China (PRC). The hoisting of the ROC flag is even advocated by the most extreme Taiwanese independence supporters, such as Taiwan Solidarity Union members when emphasizing the separate and independently governed systems and territories of the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China in mainland China.

Construction details

Flag of the Republic of China construction sheet
National flag construction sheet (Chinese).
Flag of the Republic of China canton construction sheet
Design for the canton (Chinese).
Republic of China(Taiwan) sheet
National flag construction sheet (English).

The specific designs of the flag are located in the "Law about the national flag and emblem of the Republic of China." The ratio of the flag is 2:3, with most of it being red. One-fourth of the flag is blue, which contains the 12 pointed sun. Each sun ray is 30 degrees, so the total sun rays will make up a complete 360 degree circle. Inside the sun, the blue ring is the diameter of the white sun divided by 15.[8]

In later years, more specifics of the canton area (also used as the flag of the KMT), were codified into law. In the drawing released in "Law on the Party and National Flag Manufacturing and Methods" (黨旗國旗之製造及使用辦法), the sun was drawn in more specific detail and mathematical values were given to all elements in the flag. In the law, the canton still had a ratio of 2:3, but the math values given were 24x36 meters. The diameter of the sun with rays is ​68 of height of the canton, so in this case, it will be 18. The diameter of the white sun without the sun rays is ​14 of the width of the canton, so it is 9. The blue ring that is on top of this sun and part of the rays is ​115 diameter of the white sun, so the size will be 0.6. The angle of the rays, 30 degrees, and the total number of rays have not changed.[9]

The colors of the national flag are dark red, white and dark blue. The KMT party flag just uses white and dark blue and both flags are to be topped with a golden finial.[10] The law does not list any specific color processes, such as Pantone, to manufacturing or drawing the flag. Other publications, such as the Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctives, have given approximations for Pantone colors. The dark blue color is Pantone 301c and the dark red is Pantone 186c.[11] Album des pavillons also gave the approximate CMYK colors for the flag; dark blue is 100-45-0-10 and dark red is 0-90-75-5.[11]

Colours

The colors approximation in other color spaces are listed below:

Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Colours scheme
Blue Red White
RGB 0-0-149 254-0-0 255-255-255
Hexadecimal #000095 #FE0000 #FFFFFF
CMYK 100, 100, 0, 42 0, 100, 100, 0 0, 0, 0, 0

Uses

In the early years of the Republic, under the KMT's political tutelage, the flag shared the same prominence as the KMT party flag. A common wall display consisted of the KMT flag perched on the left and the ROC flag perched on the right, each tilted at an angle with a portrait of Father of the Nation Sun Yat-sen displayed in the center. For the summits held between the KMT and Communist Party during the Chinese Civil War, the ROC flag was displayed at an equal position to the flag of the Chinese Soviet Republic (Jiangxi Soviet). Later, the flag law specified a horizontal display of the flag with the portrait of Sun Yat-sen in a portion of the red field at the center position. This display can be found in numerous government offices in Taiwan and is that which the President and Vice President face to take the oath of office.

The flag has a ubiquitous presence in Taiwan. The hoisting and lowering of the flag are ceremoniously accompanied by the National Banner Song while those present stand at attention to give a standard salute with the right hand, held flat, to the right eyebrow. Schoolchildren have traditionally been required to attend morning rallies where the flag is raised after a rendition of the National Anthem of the Republic of China. Before martial law was lifted in 1987 in Taiwan, it was required that all vehicles be halted when passing by a flag ceremony.

The ROC flag is not commonly seen at international gatherings in which the PRC participates due to pressure from the PRC over the political status of Taiwan and resulting minimal political influence of the ROC in such circles. Instead, the ROC is usually represented under a pseudonym (usually "Chinese Taipei") and in the case of Olympics, it flies its own flag, the Chinese Taipei flag. This is because the IOC recognises the PRC's position that the ROC is a defunct entity and that the ROC on Taiwan is illegitimate. The ban also effectively applies to spectators—during a Table Tennis final match at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, police arrested a Taiwanese student for waving the ROC flag.[12]

However, the symbolism of the flag began to shift in the early 21st century as there was a warming of relations between the pan-Blue coalition in Taiwan and the Communist Party of China on mainland China. The flag of the Republic of China has begun to symbolize the existence of a past and possibly future unified China, and as such the government of the PRC has made it clear that for Taiwan to change the flag would be a major provocation in favor of Taiwan independence. The ambiguity surrounding the flag was made apparent during the trip of Kuomintang Chairman Lien Chan to mainland China in April 2005, during which the flag was very prominently displayed at ceremonies honoring Sun Yat-Sen at which both KMT party officials and government officials from the PRC were in attendance. One place in Mainland China where the White Sun emblem is still prominently displayed in public is the ceiling mosaic within Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing.

The use of the flag in Taiwan reflects the controversy behind its symbolism. Although supporters of Taiwan independence, such as former President Chen Shui-bian, will display and salute the flag on formal official state occasions, it is never seen at political rallies of the Democratic Progressive Party. This is not only because of its association with mainland China but also because the flag contains design elements of the KMT party flag. By contrast, the ROC flag is always extremely prominent at political rallies of the pan-Blue coalition. This difference extends to the colors seen at the rallies. Rallies of the pan-Blue coalition give prominence to the colors of the ROC flag, with very large amounts of blue and smaller amounts of red. Rallies of independence-leaning parties are filled with green, with no blue or red at all.

Some supporters of Taiwan independence, including former president Lee Teng-hui, have called for the abandonment of the flag, and there are a number of alternate designs for a specifically Taiwanese flag. However, the prospects for this are not high given that changing the flag requires a constitutional amendment; that the current flag has a huge amount of support among pan-Blue supporters and grudging acceptance among moderate independence supporters; and because changing the flag might cause political tension with the PRC. During the 2004 ROC legislative elections, it was briefly suggested that if the pan-green coalition won the elections that it would force the KMT to change the party emblem to be different from the flag. This proposal generated a few days of controversy and was then quickly forgotten.

Incidents

During a concert in Manchester in November 2013, singer Deserts Chang held on the flag of the ROC to the audience sparking protests from the PRC, which led to its cancellation of her concert in Beijing.[13]

Similarly, in November 2015, singer Chou Tzu-yu appeared with Twice on the South Korean variety show My Little Television. She introduced herself as Taiwanese and held the ROC flag alongside that of South Korea. The Japanese flag was also shown, representing the nationality of some of the band's other members.[14] Although it was widely condemned by the PRC, the ROC's Mainland Affairs Council (MAC) stated that it supported Chou's waving a Republic of China flag as a patriotic act. It lodged a protest with the mainland's Taiwan Affairs Office (TAO), urging the Chinese government to "restrain its private sector", which it said had "seriously hurt the feelings" of the Taiwanese people and might further damage Cross-Strait relations. It urged people on both sides of the strait "to cherish the hard-earned friendly ties".[15]

A local council in the Australian city of Rockhampton upset a Taiwanese Australian family after they painted over their children's hand painted depictions of the Taiwanese flag on a fibreglass bull statue which had been placed on the riverbank as part of the city's triennial Beef Australia celebrations.[16] The Taiwan-born siblings had painted two flags among the various Barramundi-shaped flags painted by students from North Rockhampton State High School.[17] The bull, placed in front of Customs House, was designed to symbolise the city's multicultural community but the two flags were later censored by being painted over.[17] Rockhampton Regional Council admitted they had done so in line with the Australian Government's One China policy.[17] However, there was speculation in the media that it was done to avoid offending Chinese delegates who were visiting Beef Australia with China being an important beef export destination.[17][18] Taiwan News described it as Australia "kowtowing" to China.[18]

Apple reportedly restricts sending an emoji representing the flag of Taiwan on iDevices when the device's country code or language settings used China or Chinese.[19][20] However, a bug in the flag-censorship code in the IOS system could cause devices to crash, according to security researcher Patrick Wardle.[21]

Similar flag usage

It has been reported that Taiwanese spectators have cheered for the Chinese Taipei national baseball team with the former flag of Myanmar at many international sport games, including the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, People's Republic of China, where public display of the flag of the Republic of China was barred by the PRC.[22][23][24]

Flag gallery

Subdivisions

Military flags

Historical flags

Flag of Ming Cheng

Flag of the Kingdom of Tungning (1661–1683)

Flag of China (1889–1912)

Flag of the Qing dynasty (1683–1895)

Flag of Formosa 1895

Flag of the Republic of Formosa (1895)

Flag of Japan (1870–1999)

Flag of Taiwan under Japanese rule (1895–1945)

Flag of China (1912–1928)

First national flag of Republic of China (1912–1928)

Flag of the Republic of China

Flag of Taiwan under Chinese rule (1945–present)

Naval Jack of the Republic of China

The "Blue Sky with a White Sun flag" was designed by Lu Haodong in 1895 and is still used as the naval jack of the Republic as well as the flag of the Kuomintang (KMT).

China Burma India Seal

China Burma India Theater of World War II insignia as a uniform patch. This insignia is formed by the combination of both the flag of the Republic of China and the flag of the United States of America

Gallery

ROC Presidential Office (0753)

Chieh Shou Hall in the Presidential Building contains the flag and portrait of Sun Yat-sen which presidents face to take the oath of office.

Pan-blue supporters during 2004 ROC presidential election with ROC flags

Pan-Blue supporters wave the ROC flag at a rally during the 2004 presidential election.

Washington Street, San Francisco (6453)

Flags of the ROC, PRC, and U.S. can be seen flying atop adjacent buildings in San Francisco Chinatown. Most benevolent associations in San Francisco, including the Chinese Six Companies, continue to fly the ROC flag due to their close relations with the KMT.

Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Seattle

ROC flag in the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Seattle.

台灣駐美團體舉行元旦升旗儀式 (03)

Flags of the United States and the ROC, 2016.

中華民國外交部大廳 中華民國國旗與邦交國國旗 20150713

View of the flags of the ROC and 22 states that recognize the ROC as the legitimate government of China in 2015. Currently, there are 17 states maintain official diplomatic ties with ROC.

Closed Minsheng Post Office with Flags of th Republic of China and Double Ten Light 20141012

Four ROC flags in the Minsheng post office.

Hung Lau 090111 29

Series of the ROC flags.

Interior in Constitutional Court, Judicial Yuan 20090706

View of the ROC flags in the Judicial Yuan.

01.24 總統出席內政部警政署「106年第一次署務會議」,並頒發新春紅包予警察同仁 (31651014364)

Tsai Ing-wen with the ROC flags in the background.

See also

References

  1. ^ Official gazette of Ministry of the Navy of Republic of China, July 1912, page 344, pdf, National Central Library - Gazette Online
  2. ^ Yu-liang, Tai (1954-10-23). 中國歷代陸軍旗幟 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2008-12-26.
  3. ^ Yu-liang, Tai (1954-10-23). 中國歷代海軍旗幟 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2007-12-11.
  4. ^ Yu-liang, Tai (1954-10-23). 中華民國國徽國旗法 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2008-12-26.
  5. ^ "With flag ban, Cambodia adds to Taiwan's woes".
  6. ^ "With flag ban, Cambodia adds to Taiwan's woes".
  7. ^ Office of the President (2011). "National Flag". Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  8. ^ 中華民國國徽國旗法 (in Chinese). 1954-10-23. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
  9. ^ Yu-liang, Tai (2006-05-19). 黨旗國旗之製造及使用辦法 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2008-09-19.
  10. ^ Yu-liang, Tai (2006-05-19). 國旗黨旗製用升降辦法 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2008-09-19.
  11. ^ a b du Payrat, Armand (2000). Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctive. France: Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine. pp. TA2.1.
  12. ^ "Taiwanese spectators arrested". Associated Press. The Washington Post. 1996-09-01.
  13. ^ singer upsets China with flag stunt - The Telegraph. 7 November 2013.
  14. ^ Politi, Daniel (16 Jan 2016). "Did a 16-Year-Old Pop Star Help Pro-Independence Party Win Taiwan's Election?". Slate. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  15. ^ C.C. Zai; Flor Wang (16 January 2016). "MAC asks China to rein in private sector in wake of flag controversy". Focus Taiwan.
  16. ^ (9 May 2018) Taiwanese flag on bull artwork painted over in Australia, BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  17. ^ a b c d Robinson, Paul; Terzon, Emilia (9 May 2018) Taiwan flag design painted over by council ahead of beef industry event, ABC News, Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  18. ^ a b Everington, Keoni (9 May 2018) Australian council paints over children's Taiwan flags fearing beef with Beijing, Taiwan News. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  19. ^ Goodin, Dan (July 10, 2018). "iPhone crashing bug likely caused by code added to appease Chinese gov't". Ars Technica. He said his fix addressed code Apple added likely to appease the Chinese government; this is the code that caused crashes on certain iDevices when users typed the word Taiwan or received messages containing a Taiwanese flag emoji.
  20. ^ Wardle, Patrick (July 10, 2018). "A Remote iOS Bug". objective-see llc. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018.
  21. ^ Greenberg, Andy (2018-07-10). "APPLE'S CHINA-FRIENDLY CENSORSHIP CAUSED AN IPHONE-CRASHING BUG". The Wired.
  22. ^ TVBS News - 日本爆烏龍!錯把緬甸國旗當我國旗, May 23, 2010 (Traditional Chinese)
  23. ^ NOW News - 沖繩車站介紹台灣,誤植緬甸國旗, May 23, 2010 (Traditional Chinese)
  24. ^ "Myanmar's flag mistaken as Taiwan's in Okinawa". The China Post. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.

External links

Chinese Taipei Olympic flag

The Chinese Taipei Olympic flag is used by the Republic of China (ROC) team, which competes under the title "Chinese Taipei" during the Olympic Games and other events, in place of the flag of the Republic of China. This is a result of the complex Cross-Strait relations between the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. The Olympic flag has been in use since 1980, following the decision by the International Olympic Committee that the ROC could not compete under the country's name or flag.

Due to this restriction, the National Anthem of the Republic of China also could not be played when the team wins medals, so, instead, the National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China was played during the flag raising of the medal ceremony.

The flag shows the Blue Sky with a White Sun (the emblem of the Republic of China and the Kuomintang) and the Olympic rings, encircled by a five-petaled Prunus mei (the ROC's national flower) drawn in red, white, and blue (the colors of the ROC flag).

Chinese Taipei at the 1988 Summer Olympics

The Republic of China competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. 61 competitors, 43 men and 18 women, took part in 84 events in 13 sports.The change in name was due to the political status of Taiwan. In addition, they flew a flag especially designed for the games separate from the flag of the Republic of China. In mainland China, the team name is translated as "Zhongguo Taibei Team" (中国台北队) (lit. "Taipei, China Team") for political reasons. In Taiwan, the team is known as "Zhonghua Taipei Team" (中華台北队)(lit. "Chinese Taipei Team"). The distinction between "Zhongguo" and "Zhonghua" (中国 and 中華) for "China" or "Chinese" is that the former refers to a political entity while the latter is a cultural description, although this often confuses foreigners who do not understand Mandarin. At the time, Taiwan had diplomatic relations with the host country, South Korea.

Chinese Taipei at the 1988 Winter Olympics

Due to the political status of Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The International Olympic Committee mandates that the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag is used, and not the flag of the Republic of China.

In the People's Republic of China (PRC), the team is known as Zhongguo Taibei (中国台北队) or, Taipei, China, where China implies the PRC.

Chinese Taipei at the 1992 Summer Olympics

The Republic of China competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. 31 competitors, 23 men and 8 women, took part in 15 events in 7 sports.The change in name was due to the political status of Taiwan. In addition, they flew a flag especially designed for the games separate from the flag of the Republic of China. In Mainland China, the team is known as the "Zhongguo Taibei (Taipei, China, where China implies the People's Republic of China) Team" (中華台北隊), and in Taiwan the team is known as the "Zhonghua (another variation of the term China, but obtained here as an abbreviation of Zhonghua Taibei) Team" (中華隊).

Chinese Taipei at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Due to the political status of Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France. The International Olympic Committee mandates that the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag is used, and not the flag of the Republic of China.

In the People's Republic of China (PRC), the team is known as Zhongguo Taibei (中国台北队) or, Taipei, China, where China implies the PRC.

Chinese Taipei at the 1994 Winter Olympics

Due to the political status of Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway. The International Olympic Committee mandates that the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag is used, and not the flag of the Republic of China.

In the People's Republic of China (PRC), the team is known as Zhongguo Taibei (中国台北队) or, Taipei, China, where China implies the PRC. China's doing so violates a treaty signed by both countries, Taiwan and China, in which the agreement states that the official name for Taiwan in sporting events is "Chinese Taipei" (中華台北) and not "Taipei, China" (中國台北).

Chinese Taipei at the 1996 Summer Olympics

The Republic of China competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States.

The change in name was due to the political status of Taiwan. In addition, they flew a flag especially designed for the games separate from the flag of the Republic of China. In Mainland China, the team is known as the "Zhongguo Taibei (Taipei, China, where China implies the People's Republic of China) Team" (中国台北队), and in Taiwan the team is known as the "Zhonghua (another variation of the term China, but obtained here as an abbreviation of Zhonghua Taibei) Team" (中華隊).

Chinese Taipei at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Due to the political status of Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) competed as Chinese Taipei at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. The International Olympic Committee mandates that the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag is used, and not the flag of the Republic of China.

In the People's Republic of China (PRC), the team is known as Zhongguo Taibei (中国台北队) or, Taipei, China, where China implies the PRC.

Chinese Taipei at the 2000 Summer Olympics

The Republic of China competed as Chinese Taipei at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia.

The change in name was due to the political status of Taiwan. In addition, they flew a flag especially designed for the games separate from the flag of the Republic of China. In Mainland China, the team is known as the "Zhongguo Taibei (Taipei, China, where China implies the People's Republic of China) Team" (中国台北队), and in Taiwan the team is known as the "Zhonghua (another variation of the term China, but obtained here as an abbreviation of Zhonghua Taibei) Team" (中華隊).

Chinese Taipei at the 2002 Winter Olympics

Due to the political status of Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC) competed as Chinese Taipei at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, United States. The International Olympic Committee mandates that the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee flag is used, and not the flag of the Republic of China.

In the People's Republic of China (PRC), the team is known as Zhongguo Taibei (中国台北队) or, Taipei, China, where China implies the PRC.

Chinese Taipei at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

Chinese Taipei competed at the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing, China. The delegation consisted of seventeen competitors in six sports: archery, track and field athletics, powerlifting, shooting, swimming, and table tennis. The athletes were ten men and seven women ranging in age from 27 to 53 years old."Chinese Taipei" is the delegation name used since 1979 by athletes from Taiwan and the Taiwan Area at the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Thus, Chinese Taipei's participation in the Beijing Paralympics did not contradict the One China policy and was not objected to by the People's Republic of China.

As in previous editions of the Summer Paralympics, the flag of the Republic of China was not displayed. Instead, the Chinese Taipei Paralympic flag was used when Taiwanese athletes won medals. When Lin Tzu-hui of Chinese Taipei won a gold medal, the National Banner Song, not the National Anthem of the Republic of China, was played at the medal ceremony.Three days before the beginning of the Games, the Taipei Times reported that two of Chinese Taipei's star athletes, double Paralympic champion Chiang Chih-chung and world athletics champion Chen Ming-tsai, had been barred from attending by the International Paralympic Committee. The Times added that no reason had been given for the ban, even after the Chinese Taipei Paralympic Committee had requested an explanation from the IPC. A representative of the CTPC stated that the People's Republic of China may have "interfered for political reasons" to prevent Chiang and Chen from participating in the Games. The Taipei Times article was subsequently reproduced on the Taiwanese government's website.

Chinese Taipei at the Olympics

The Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan) currently competes as "Chinese Taipei" at the Olympic Games. The ROC first participated at the Summer Olympic Games in 1932. After the Chinese Civil War the ROC retreated to the island of Taiwan and only Taiwan-based athletes have competed in its team since then. The ROC boycotted the Olympics starting from the 1976 Summer Games until it returned to the 1984 Winter Games, and started participating as Chinese Taipei.

Due to pressure from the People’s Republic of China, since 1984, Taiwanese athletes have competed under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag instead of the flag of the Republic of China. For any medal ceremony, the National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China is played instead of the National Anthem of the Republic of China.

Taiwanese athletes won their first Olympic medal in 1960, and their first gold medal in 2004.

Chou Tzu-yu

Chou Tzu-yu (born June 14, 1999), known mononymously as Tzuyu, is a Taiwanese singer based in South Korea and a member of the K-pop girl group Twice, under JYP Entertainment.

In 2015, a televised appearance in South Korea in which she was shown holding the flag of the Republic of China sparked controversy in China. A video of Tzuyu apologizing for the incident, subsequently released by JYP Entertainment on January 15, 2016, sparked further outrage in Taiwan.

Eighth Route Army

The Eighth Route Army (simplified Chinese: 八路军; traditional Chinese: 八路軍; pinyin: Bālù-Jūn), officially known as the 18th Army Group of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

The Eighth Route Army was created from the Chinese Red Army on September 22, 1937, when the Chinese Communists Chinese Nationalists formed the Second United Front against Japan at the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, as World War II is known in China. Together with the New Fourth Army, the Eighth Route Army formed the main Communist fighting force during the war and was commanded by Communist party leader Mao Zedong and general Zhu De. Though officially designated the 18th Group Army by the Nationalists, the unit was referred to by the Chinese Communists and Japanese military as the Eighth Route Army. The Eighth Route Army wore Nationalist uniforms and flew the flag of the Republic of China and waged mostly guerrilla war against the Japanese, collaborationist forces and, later in the war, other Nationalist forces. The unit was renamed the People's Liberation Army in 1947, after the end of World War II, as the Chinese Communists and Nationalists resumed the Chinese Civil War.

The Eighth Route Army consisted of three divisions (the 115th, which was commanded by Lin Biao, the 120th under He Long, and the 129th under Liu Bocheng). During World War II, the Eighth Route Army operated mostly in North China, infiltrating behind Japanese lines, to establish guerrilla bases in rural and remote areas. The main units of the Eighth Route Army were aided by local militias organized from the peasantry.

The Communist Party's liaison offices in cities under Nationalist control such as Chongqing, Guilin and Dihua (Ürümqi) that were called Eighth Route Army Offices.

Ethnic Koreans who fought in the Eighth Route Army later joined the Korean People's Army, the Communist army of North Korea in the Korean War.

Norman Bethune, a Canadian doctor and communist, served with the Eighth Route Army.

Flag of China

The flag of China, also known as the Five-starred Red Flag, is a red field charged in the canton (upper corner nearest the flagpole) with five golden stars. The design features one large star, with four smaller stars in a semicircle set off towards the fly (the side farthest from the flag pole). The red represents the communist revolution; the five stars and their relationship represent the unity of the Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC). The first flag was hoisted by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) on a pole overlooking Beijing's Tiananmen Square on 1 October 1949, at a ceremony announcing the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

Other flags used in the People's Republic use a red background to symbolize the revolution in conjunction with other symbols. The flag of the People's Liberation Army uses the gold star with the Chinese characters 8-1 (for 1 August, the date of the PLA's founding). The flag of the Communist Party of China replaces all of the stars with the party emblem. Due to government regulations, cities and provinces of China cannot have their own flags; the only sub-national flags that exist are those of the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions. Despite this, at least two cities have adopted flags after the law was passed. The cities of Kaifeng and Shangrao adopted their flags in March 2006 and March 2009 respectively. This implies that the law is either repealed or not enforced.

List of Chinese flags

This is a list of flags of entities named "China".

List of Taiwanese flags

Taiwan has been controlled by various governments and has been associated with various flags throughout its history. Since 1945, the Republic of China controls the island; thus the flag most commonly associated with it is the Flag of the Republic of China.

Lu Haodong

Lu Zhonggui (30 September 1868 – 7 November 1895), courtesy name Xianxiang, better known as Lu Haodong, was a Chinese revolutionary who lived in the late Qing dynasty. He is best known for designing the Blue Sky with a White Sun flag that became the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT; Chinese Nationalist Party), and the canton of the flag of the Republic of China.

Proposed flags of Taiwan

Several proposals for a flag of Taiwan have been initiated by supporters of formal Taiwan independence to replace the flag of the Republic of China as the national flag flown over Taiwan. Supporters of Taiwan independence object to the use of the flag of the Republic of China since it was designed by and is closely associated with the Kuomintang. However, no single flag has been established as the symbol of the independence movement, and moderate supporters of Taiwan independence, such as the Democratic Progressive Party, have accepted the flag of the Republic of China for the time being and have not pushed for a new flag. The flag of the Republic of China in current use is defined in the 6th article of the Constitution, and amending the Constitution requires a referendum which would only succeed with wide political support. The Republic of China, originally based in mainland China, retreated to Taiwan in 1949 and established its capital in Taipei. The state, since then known as "Taiwan", retains its official name "Republic of China" and still officially claims territories governed by the People's Republic of China, as the PRC claims all ROC territories.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Mínguó Guóqí
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinQīng Tiān, Bái Rì, Mǎn Dì Hóng
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTáiwān Guóqí
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
National flags
National coats of arms

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.