Flag of the Netherlands

The flag of the Netherlands (Dutch: vlag van Nederland) is a horizontal tricolour of red, white, and blue. The current design originates as a variant of the late 16th century orange-white-blue Prinsenvlag ("Prince's Flag"), evolving in the early 17th century as the red-white-blue Statenvlag ("States Flag"), the naval flag of the States-General of the Dutch Republic, making the Dutch flag perhaps the oldest tricolour flag in continuous use.[9][10] It has inspired the seminal Russian[11] and French flags.[12][13] During the economic crisis of 1930s the old Prince's Flag with the colour orange gained some popularity among some people. To end the confusion, the colours red, white and blue and its official status as the national flag of the Kingdom of the Netherlands were reaffirmed by royal decree on 19 February 1937.[14]

Netherlands
Flag of the Netherlands
NameFlag of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
UseNational flag and ensign
Proportion2:3 (not formalised by law)[1]
Adopted1575 (first full color depiction)[2]
1596 (red replacement for orange)[3][4]
1937 (red reaffirmed)[5]
1949 (colors standardized)[6]
DesignA horizontal triband of red (bright vermilion), white, and cobalt blue
Naval Jack of the Netherlands
Variant flag of Netherlands
NameMarine Geus or Prinsengeus[7]
UseNaval jack
Proportion2:3
Adopted20 April 1931 (formalised)
late 17th c. (in use)[8]
Design12 segments in the national colors of red (bright vermilion), white, and cobalt blue
Royal Standard of the Netherlands
Variant flag of Netherlands
NameRoyal Standard of the Netherlands
UseStandard of the Monarch
Proportion1:1
Adopted27 August 1908
DesignOrange field divided in four by a nassau-blue cross, showing bugle-horns of the Principality of Orange and the coat of arms of the Kingdom, surrounded by a crown and the insignia of the Military Order of William.
Prinsenvlag
Variant flag of Netherlands
NamePrince's Flag
Usepredecessor flag of current flag, unofficially in use in historic or nationalist contexts
Proportion2:3
Adopted1570s
DesignA horizontal triband of orange, white and blue

Description

Jan van Hout - Vruntschap - 1575
Vruntschap of Jan van Hout (1575), the oldest known colour illustration of the Dutch flag. The flag is sticking out at the left of the top panel.

The national flag of the Netherlands is a tricolour flag. The horizontal fesses are bands of equal size in the colours from top to bottom, red (officially described as a "bright vermilion"), white (silver), and blue ("cobalt blue"). The flag proportions (width:length) are 2:3. The color parameters were defined on 16 August 1949 as follows:

Scheme Bright vermilion White Cobalt blue
Chromatic X=17.2 Y=9.0 Z=2.6 N/A X=7.8 Y=6.8 Z=26.7
CMYK 0.84.77.32 0.0.0.0 76.50.0.46
RGB (174,28,40) (255,255,255) (33,70,139)
Hexadecimal #AE1C28 #FFFFFF #21468B

The Dutch flag is almost identical to that of Luxembourg, except that it is shorter and its red and blue stripes are a darker shade. Despite the visual similarity, there is no documented relationship between the two designs.[15] The similarity of the two flags has given rise to a national debate to change the flag of Luxembourg, initiated by Michel Wolter in 2006.[16]

History

Middle Ages

It has been suggested that during the 15th century, the colours red, white and blue were mentioned as the coastal signals for this area, with the 3 bands straight or diagonal, single or doubled,[17] and that the colours were taken from the coat of arms of the Bavarian house, the rulers of the county of Holland during 1354–1433, who used the Bavarian coat of arms quartered with the arms of the counts of Holland.[18]

At the end of the 15th century, when the majority of the Netherlands provinces were united under the Duke of Burgundy, the Cross of Burgundy Flag of the Duke of Burgundy was used for joint expeditions, which consisted of a red saltire resembling two crossed, roughly-pruned (knotted) branches, on a white field. Under the later House of Habsburg this flag remained in use.

Prince's Flag

Vroom Hendrick Cornelisz Dutch Ships Ramming Spanish Galleys off the Flemish Coast in October 1602
Dutch ships ramming Spanish galleys off the English coast, 3 October 1602 (Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom 1617)

In 1568 provinces of the Low Countries rose in revolt against King Philip II of Spain, and William Prince of Orange (1533–1584) placed himself at the head of the rebels. However, it should be noted that the etymology of the House of Orange is unrelated to the name of the fruit or the colour. Usage of the colours orange, white and blue (Dutch: Oranje, Blanje, Bleu, from French Orange, Blanc, Bleu) was based on the livery of William and was first recorded in the siege of Leiden in 1574, when Dutch officers wore orange-white-blue brassards.[19] The first known full color depiction of the flag appeared in 1575 (see image). In Ghent in 1577, William was welcomed with a number of theatrical allegories represented by a young girl wearing orange, blue and white.[20] The first explicit reference to a naval flag in these colours is found in the ordonnances of the Admiralty of Zeeland, dated 1587, i.e. shortly after William's death.[19]

The colour combination of orange, white, and blue is commonly considered the first Dutch flag.[2] The 400th anniversary of the introduction of the Dutch flag was commemorated in the Netherlands by the issue of a postage stamp in 1972.[21] That was based on the fact that in 1572 the Watergeuzen (Gueux de mer, "Sea Beggars"), the pro-Dutch privateers, captured Den Briel in name of William, Prince of Orange. However, it is uncertain whether they took an orange-white-blue flag with them on the event, although they certainly started using an orange-white-blue tricolour somewhat later in the 1570s. It became later known as the Prinsenvlag ("Prince's flag") and served as the basis for the former South African flag, the flags of New York City and the Flag of Albany, New York, all three former dominions of the Dutch Republic.

Statenvlag

Red as replacement for orange appeared as early as 1596, but more often after about 1630, as indicated by paintings of that time. It has been suggested that this was due to the orange dye used tending to fade to red over time.[22] It appears that prior to 1664, the red-white-blue tricolour was commonly known as the "Flag of Holland" (Hollandsche Vlag); named after one of the revolting provinces. In 1664, the States of Zeeland, one of the other revolting provinces, complained about this, and a resolution of the States-General introduced the name "States Flag" (Statenvlag).[23] The Dutch navy between 1588 and 1630 always displayed the Prince's Flag, and after 1663 always the States Flag, with both flag variants being in use during the period of 1630–1662.[24]

The red-white-blue triband flag as used in the 17th century is said to have influenced the seminal Russian flag[11] and the French flag.[13]

Flag of the Batavian Republic

Flag of the navy of the Batavian Republic
FIAV historical.svgFlag of the Batavian Republic

With the Batavian Revolution in the Netherlands in the last decade of the 18th century, and the subsequent conquest by the French, the name "Prince's Flag" was forbidden and the red-white-blue of the Statenvlag was the only flag allowed, analogous as is was to France's own tricolour, chosen just a few months earlier, ironically influenced by that same Statenvlag.[25] In 1796 the red division of the flag was embellished with the figure of a Netherlands maiden, with a lion at her feet, in the upper left corner. In one hand she bore a shield with the Roman fasces and in the other a lance crowned with the cap of liberty. This flag had a life as short as that of the Batavian Republic for which it was created. Louis Bonaparte, made king of Holland by his brother the Emperor Napoleon, wished to pursue a purely Dutch policy and to respect national sentiments as much as possible.[26] He removed the maiden of freedom from the flag and restored the old tricolour. His pro-Dutch policies led to conflicts with his brother, however, and the Netherlands were incorporated into the French Empire. In 1810 its flag was replaced by the imperial emblems.

Modern flag

In 1813, the Netherlands regained its independence and the Prince of Orange returned from exile and contemporary newspapers report that the red-white-blue flag was flown decorated with an orange pennant and solid‐coloured orange flags were displayed in many places in the country as a sign of allegiance of the people to the House of Orange.[2]

Just before the outbreak of World War II, the Prince's flag resurfaced again. Some people were convinced that orange, white, and blue were the true colours of the Dutch flag, particularly members of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands.[14] To end the discussion, a royal decree established the colours of the Dutch flag as followed: 'The colours of the flag of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are red, white and blue' (Dutch: De kleuren van de vlag van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden zijn rood, wit en blauw)[27]. It became the shortest decree in history, and was issued by Queen Wilhelmina on February 19, 1937.[28][29]

It was only on 16 augustus 1949 that the exact color parameters were defined by the Ministry of the Navy[30] as bright vermilion (red), white and cobalt blue. The pennant is usually added on King's Day (Dutch: Koningsdag, April 27) or other festive occasions related to the Royal Family.

Display and use

2008-04-30 oude st mauritius silvolde met vlag
Added orange pennant on Koningsdag

The flag is customarily flown at government buildings and military bases in the Netherlands and abroad all year round. Private use is much rarer. Only on national holidays such as Koningsdag (King's Day) is there widespread private use. At the birthday of specific members of the Royal House, like the King or the Queen, an orange pennant might be added to the flag. There are special non-holiday festivities or remembrance occasions when the flag is flown, such as at the homes of students who have just graduated. The flag is then often accompanied by the graduate's school bag hung from the tip of the flagpole. The flag can also be displayed at times of sadness at half-staff as a sign of respect or national mourning.

The holidays on which flags are put out by the government are:

The public does not show the national flag very often; the holidays on which flags are put out by the public are:

One sees the flag often without the orange pennant, because not many people own one.

Flags of current countries in the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Flag of Aruba

Flag of Aruba
Flag of Aruba

The national flag of Aruba was officially adopted on March 18, 1976. The blue field represents the sky, the sea, peace, hope, Aruba's future and its ties to the past. The two narrow stripes "suggest the movement toward status aparte". One represents "the flow of tourists to sun-drenched Aruba, enriching the island as well as vacationers", the other "industry, all the minerals (gold and phosphates in the past, petroleum in the early 20th century)". In addition to sun, gold, and abundance, the yellow is also said to represent wanglo flowers. The star has particularly complex symbolism. It is vexillologically unusual in having four points, representing the four cardinal directions. These refer in turn to the many countries of origin of the people of Aruba. They also represent the four main languages of Aruba: Papiamento, Spanish, English, and Dutch. The star also represents the island itself: a land of often red soil bordered by white beaches in a blue sea. The red also represents blood shed by Arubans during war, past Indian inhabitants, patriotic love, and Brazil wood. The white also represents purity and honesty.

Flag of Curaçao

Flag of Curaçao
Flag of Curaçao

The flag of Curaçao is a blue field with a horizontal yellow stripe slightly below the midline and two white, five-pointed stars in the canton. The blue symbolises the sea and sky (the bottom and top blue sections, respectively) divided by a yellow stroke representing the bright sun which bathes the island. The two stars represent Curaçao and Klein Curaçao, but also 'Love & Happiness'. The five points on each star symbolise the five continents from which Curaçao's people come.

Flag of Sint Maarten
Flag of Sint Maarten

Flag of Sint Maarten

The Flag of Sint Maarten is the national flag of the Dutch part of Saint Martin island, which is a country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was adopted on 13 June 1985. It resembles the War Flag of the Philippines.

Flags of former countries in the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Flag of Suriname (1959–1975)
FIAV historical.svgFlag of Suriname until 1975

Suriname

The pre-independence flag of Suriname consisted of five coloured stars (from top left clockwise: white, black, brown, yellow, and red) connected by an ellipse. The coloured stars represent the major ethnic groups that comprise the Surinamese population: the original Amerindians, the colonising Europeans, the Africans brought in as slaves to work in plantations and the Indians, Javanese and Chinese who came as indentured workers to replace the Africans who escaped slavery and settled in the hinterland. The ellipse represents the harmonious relationship amongst the groups.

Netherlands Antilles

Flag of the Netherlands Antilles (1986–2010)
FIAV historical.svg Flag of the Netherlands Antilles

Within the Flag of the Netherlands Antilles there were five stars that symbolise the five islands that made up the country. While the colours red, white and blue refer to the flag of the Netherlands. A six-star version was used until 1986 when Aruba became its own country within the Kingdom. This original version was adopted on 19 November 1959. This flag fell into disuse when the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010. The Islands of St. Maarten and Curaçao obtained their separate country status within the Kingdom and the islands Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba are now overseas entities of the Netherlands.

Flags of former colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Flag of the Dutch West India Company

FIAV historical.svg Flag of the Dutch West India Company

New Holland (Brazil)

The Flag of New Holland, also known as the Flag of Dutch Brazil, was the flag used by the Dutch West India Company for the territories that were under its control in Brazil from 1630 until 1654.

The flag consists of three horizontal stripes in the colours of the flag of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (red, white and blue) and it displays a monogram on the central stripe and a crown on the upper stripe, both gold-coloured. The origin of the monogram as well as its initials and its meaning is not known.

Netherlands East Indies

For the majority of the existence of the Netherlands East Indies the flag of the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (English: Dutch East India Company) was used. When the VOC became bankrupt and was formally dissolved in 1800. its possessions and debt were taken over by the government of the Batavian Republic. The VOC's territories became the Netherlands East Indies and were expanded over the course of the 19th century to include the whole of the Indonesian archipelago. As such the flag of the Batavian Republic and Kingdom of the Netherlands were used.

The flag of the Netherlands has been said to be the origin of the Indonesian flag. To symbolise the intention of forcing out the Dutch, the Indonesian nationalists would rip apart the Dutch flag. They tore off the bottom third of the flag, and separated the red and white colours from the blue colour.[31]

Netherlands New Guinea

The Morning Star flag (Indonesian: Bintang Kejora) represented the Netherlands New Guinea from 1 December 1961 until 1 October 1962 when the territory came under administration of the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA). The flag is commonly used by the West Papuan population including OPM supporters to rally self-determination human rights support and is popularly flown on 1 December each year in defiance of Indonesian domestic laws. The flag consists of a red vertical band along the hoist side, with a white five-pointed star in the center. The flag was first raised on 1 December 1961 and used until the United Nations became the territory's administrator on 1 October 1962.

Related flags

Flags influenced by the flag of the Netherlands

The flags underneath are influenced by the Dutch flag in colour use and design as a result of a shared history (as flags of former colonies) or economic relations, which is the case for the Russian flag.[32]

Flag of Transvaal

FIAV historical.svg Flag of Klein Vrystaat

FlagGriekwalandEast

FIAV historical.svg Flag of Griqualand East

Flag of the Netherlands

Flag of Republic of Swellendam

Flag of the Netherlands

Republic of Graaff-Reinet

Flagge Preußen - Provinz Hessen-Nassau

Flag of Hesse-Nassau

Flag of The Bronx

Flag of The Bronx

Flag of the Shanghai International Settlement

FIAV historical.svg Flag of Shanghai International Settlement (1914-1941)

  • The flag of the Boer Republics, Transvaal, the Orange Free State and Natalia Republic and the flag of South Africa from 1928 to 1994 are all based on the flag of the Netherlands, or the predecessor Prince's flag. These were in turn part of the inspiration for the present South African flag.
  • The flag of Hesse-Nassau is identical to that of the Netherlands. The Dutch royal house originates from the Duchy of Nassau.
  • The flag of New York City, originally New Amsterdam in the Dutch colony New Netherland, was designed after the Dutch flag.
  • The flag of Albany originally Beverwijck in the Dutch colony New Netherland, was designed after the Dutch flag.
  • The flag of Schenectady County, New York was designed after the Dutch flag.
  • The flag of Shanghai International Settlement includes multiple flags, where the Dutch flag is surrounding by former Sweden civil ensign, the Austrian flag and the Spanish flag.

Pan-Slavic colours

The Russian flag in turn is believed to have influenced many flags of other Slavic countries, resulting in many red-white-blue styled tribands in other parts of Europe. Peter the Great of Russia was building a new Russian Navy mostly on Dutch standards; therefore the Russian merchant flag at sea would be the inverted colours of the Dutch flag.

Flag of Yugoslavia (1918–1941)

Flag of Yugoslavia (1918–1941)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Neerlandia. Jaargang 61". dbnl (in Dutch). Neerlandia. 1957. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Poels, Jos (August 2011). "The Orange Pennant: The Dutch Response to a Flag Dilemma" (PDF). Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of Vexillology, Washington, D.C., USA: 888.
  3. ^ State, Paul F. (2008). A Brief History of the Netherlands. Infobase Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 9781438108322.
  4. ^ Complete Flags of the World. Dorling Kindersley Limited. 2008. p. 121. ISBN 9781405338615.
  5. ^ "Flag of the Netherlands". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  6. ^ "Bijlage H Maten en categorieën vlaggen Koninklijke Marine". Overheid (Dutch Government) (in Dutch). Apendix H, chapter 2. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Maritieme kalender (April 20, 1931)" (in Dutch). Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
  8. ^ Willem, van Ham (2016). "De Prinsengeus: een vlag voor de boeg" (PDF). Vlag! (19): 19. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  9. ^ "Europe: Netherlands — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. CIA. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  10. ^ Worthington, Daryl (17 October 2016). "Why Are So Many Flags Red, White and Blue?". New Historian. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  11. ^ a b Hulme, Frederick Edward (1897-01-01). The Flags of the World: Their History, Blazonry and Associations. Library of Alexandria. ISBN 9781465543110. Greenway, H. D. S. (2014-08-19). Foreign Correspondent: A Memoir. Simon and Schuster. p. 228. ISBN 9781476761329.
  12. ^ "flag of France | History & Meaning". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  13. ^ a b Eriksen, Thomas Hylland; Jenkins, Richard (2007-10-18). Flag, Nation and Symbolism in Europe and America. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 9781134066964.
  14. ^ a b Poels, Jos (August 2011). "The Orange Pennant: The Dutch Response to a Flag Dilemma" (PDF). Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of Vexillology, Washington, D.C., USA: 892.
  15. ^ "Flag of the Netherlands". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  16. ^ "Change the Luxembourg flag?". luxtimes.lu. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  17. ^ "Mars et Historia, volume 29, number 2, p. 50 ff" (PDF) (in Dutch). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 8, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
  18. ^ D.G. Muller, De oorsprong der Nederlandsche vlag, op nieuw geschiedkundig onderzocht en nagespoord, Amsterdam, 1862, p. 74.
  19. ^ a b Jean Rey, Histoire du drapeau, des couleurs et des insignes de la Monarchie française vol. 2, 1837, p. 515.
  20. ^ Jean Rey, Histoire du drapeau, des couleurs et des insignes de la Monarchie française vol. 2, 1837, p. 516.
  21. ^ "Ontwerp, postzegels Nederland 1972 Nederlandse vlag - Geheugen van Nederland". www.geheugenvannederland.nl. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  22. ^ The CIA World Factbook 2017, Skyhorse Publishing (2016): "originally the upper band was orange, but because it tended to fade to red over time, the red shade was eventually made the permanent colour; the banner is perhaps the oldest tricolour in continuous use."
  23. ^ JC de Jonge, Geschiedenis van het Nederlandse zeewesen, deel 1. 's Gravenhage, 1833, p. 75.
  24. ^ C. de Waard, "De Nederlandsche vlag" in: Het Vaderland (1900).
  25. ^ Eriksen, Thomas Hylland; Jenkins, Richard (2007-10-18). Flag, Nation and Symbolism in Europe and America. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 9781134066964.
  26. ^ Nicholls, David (1999). Napoleon: A Biographical Companion. ABC-CLIO. p. 34. ISBN 9780874369571.
  27. ^ Poels, Jos (28 April 2000). "Rood-wit-blauw of oranje boven". NRC (in Dutch). Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  28. ^ Wilhelmina en De Minister van Staat, Minister van Koloniën, Voorzitter van den Raad van Ministers (19 februari 1937): Koninklijk Besluit nr. 93, Zell am See.
  29. ^ ANP-bericht 24 februari 1937
  30. ^ "Ceremonieel & protocol - Ministeriële- en Defensie publicaties". Overheid (Dutch Government) (in Dutch). Apendix H, section 2. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  31. ^ Indonesian flags at Flags of the World Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  32. ^ Eriksen, Thomas Hylland; Jenkins, Richard (2007). Flag, Nation and Symbolism in Europe and America. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 9781134066964. Retrieved 29 January 2019.

External links

Netherlands at Flags of the World

Dutch national flag problem

The Dutch national flag problem (DNF) is a computer science programming problem proposed by Edsger Dijkstra. The flag of the Netherlands consists of three colors: red, white and blue. Given balls of these three colors arranged randomly in a line (the actual number of balls does not matter), the task is to arrange them such that all balls of the same color are together and their collective color groups are in the correct order.

The solution to this problem is of interest for designing sorting algorithms; in particular, variants of the quicksort algorithm that must be robust to repeated elements may use a three-way partitioning function that groups items less than a given key (red), equal to the key (white) and greater than the key (blue). Several solutions exist that have varying performance characteristics, tailored to sorting arrays with either small or large numbers of repeated elements.

Flag of Benelux

The flag of Benelux is an unofficial flag commissioned by the Committee for Belgian-Dutch-Luxembourgian Cooperation in 1951. It is an amalgam of the flags of the member states: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

The red stripe is from the Flag of Luxembourg, the blue stripe is from the Flag of the Netherlands, and the black stripe and yellow lion rampant are taken from the Coat of arms of Belgium. The lion also historically represents the Benelux - or in other words, the Low Countries - area as a whole, since each constituent nation possesses a coat of arms featuring a lion rampant facing left (Leo Belgicus), which during the 17th century already symbolised the Low Lands as a whole or in part.

Flag of Curaçao

The national flag of Curaçao represents the country of Curaçao as well as the island area within the Netherlands Antilles from 1984 until its dissolution in 2010. The flag was not flown for Curaçao and Dependencies for which the flag of the Netherlands was used.

The flag is a blue field with a horizontal yellow stripe slightly below the midline and two white, five-pointed stars in the canton. The blue symbolises the sea and sky (the bottom and top blue sections, respectively) divided by a yellow stroke representing the bright sun which bathes the island. The two stars represent Curaçao and Klein Curaçao, but also 'Love and Happiness'. The five points on each star symbolise the five continents from which Curaçao's people come.

The horizontal stripes have a ratio of 5:1:2 (blue:yellow:blue). The stars have diameters 1/6 and 2/9 of the flag height. The centre of the smaller one is 1/6 the flag height from the left and top edges, and the centre of the larger is 1/3 from the left and top edges. The blue is Pantone 280, and the yellow, Pantone 102.

The flag was designed in 1984 by Martin den Dulk. Curaçao had organized a small competition to choose the annual flag that will represent them. Martin den Dulk was one of the many participants but his interpretation of the flag won the judges over. His design won first place and his flag became the flag of Curaçao.

After Aruba's adoption of its own flag (while still part of the Netherlands Antilles), Curaçao received approval for a flag in 1979. Two thousand designs were submitted to a special council; ten were shortlisted, and the council decided on 29 November 1982. With some modifications, the flag was adopted on 2 July 1984.

Flag of Luxembourg

The flag of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerger Fändel, German: Flagge Luxemburgs, French: Drapeau du Luxembourg) consists of three horizontal stripes, red, white and blue, and can be in 1:2 or 3:5 ratio. It was first used between 1845 and 1848 and officially adopted on 1993.

Luxembourg had no flag until 1830, when patriots were urged to display the national colours. The flag was defined as a horizontal tricolour of red, white, and blue in 1848, but it was not officially adopted until 1993. The tricolour flag is almost identical to Flag of the Netherlands, except that it is longer and its blue stripe and red stripe are a lighter shade. The red, white, and blue colours were derived from the coat of arms of the House of Luxembourg.

Flag of the Netherlands Antilles

The flag of the Netherlands Antilles was white, with a horizontal blue stripe in the center, one-third of the flag's hoist, superimposed on a vertical red stripe of the same width, also centered; six white, five-pointed stars are arranged in a pentagon pattern in the center of the blue band, their points up. It was adopted on 19 November 1959.

The six stars represented the six main islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten.

Koninkrijksdag

Koninkrijksdag (Papiamento: Dia di Reino, English: Kingdom Day,

West Frisian: Keninkryksdei) is the commemoration of the signing of the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands on 15 December 1954 in Aruba, Curaçao, the Netherlands, and Sint Maarten. When 15 December falls on a Sunday, the commemoration takes place on Monday 16 December. Kingdom Day is, unlike Koningsdag (English: King's Day), not an official national holiday, but government buildings are instructed to fly the flag of the Netherlands.The charter was signed by Queen Juliana on 15 December 1954. The charter deals with the relation between the Netherlands and the overseas territories, the Netherlands Antilles, Netherlands New Guinea and Suriname. As of 2010, the charter governs the relationships between the Netherlands, Aruba (since 1986), Curaçao and Sint Maarten (since 2010).Since 2005, the Koninkrijksconcert (English: Kingdom Concert) is annually held on 15 December, to celebrate the relationship between Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles, and Aruba. At the concerts, that were held in respectively Dordrecht, Amersfoort, Nijmegen, and Curaçao, musical artists from all over the kingdom have performed.In 2008, Naturalisatiedag (English: Naturalisation Day) in the Kingdom of the Netherlands was moved from 24 August, the day on which the Constitution of the Netherlands was signed, to 15 December, which has a symbolic meaning for all constituent countries of the kingdom. On Naturalisation Day, newly naturalized citizens officially receive their Dutch citizenship.

List of Dutch flags

This is a list of flags used in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. For more information about the national flag, visit the article Flag of the Netherlands.

MV Gadila

MV Gadila was one of nine Anglo Saxon Royal Dutch/Shell oil tankers converted to become a Merchant Aircraft Carrier (MAC ship). The group is collectively known as the Rapana class.

MV Gadila was built at the Howaldtswerke, Kiel, Germany and completed 11 April 1935 as an oil tanker for the Royal Dutch/Shell line. She was converted at Smith's Dock, North Shields between April 1943 and 1 February 1944. She entered service as a MAC ship in March 1944, and operated under the Netherlands Mercantile Marine flag.As a MAC ship, she had no aircraft hangar, and continued to carry normal cargoes with a mercantile ship's crew, although operating under British Royal Navy control. Only her air crew and the necessary maintenance staff were Naval personnel. In the case of the Gadila, these were provided by the Royal Netherlands Navy and served as elements of Fleet Air Arm 860 (Dutch) Naval Air Squadron.

The Gadila and her sister MV Macoma were the first aircraft carrying vessels to be operated under the flag of the Netherlands.At the end of the war, Gadila was reconverted to an entirely mercantile oil tanker and served in this capacity until broken up for scrap in Hong Kong in 1958.

MV Macoma

MV Macoma was one of nine Anglo Saxon Royal Dutch/Shell oil tankers converted to become a Merchant Aircraft Carrier (MAC ship). The group is collectively known as the Rapana Class.

Macoma was launched on 31 December 1935 at Nederlandse Scheepsbouw Mij, Amsterdam as an oil tanker and entered service the following year. She was converted to a MAC ship from late 1943 to April 1944, and commissioned 1 April 1944.As a MAC ship, she had no aircraft hangar, and continued to carry normal cargoes, although operating under Royal Navy control. Only her air crew and the necessary maintenance staff were naval personnel. In the case of the Macoma, these were provided by the Royal Netherlands Navy including the Dutch Fleet Air Arm 860 and 861 squadrons.

The Macoma and her sister MV Gadila were the first aircraft carrying vessels to be operated under the flag of the Netherlands.After the war, MV Macoma was reconverted and returned to merchant service as an oil tanker and served in that role until scrapped in Hong Kong in 1959.

Morning Star flag

The Morning Star flag (Indonesian: Bendera Bintang Kejora, Dutch: Morgenster vlag) was a flag used in a supplemental fashion on Netherlands New Guinea to the flag of the Netherlands. It was first raised on 1 December 1961 prior to the territory coming under administration of the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) on 1 October 1962.The flag is used by the Free Papua Organization and other independence supporters. Under Papua's Special Autonomy Law, ratified in 2002, the flag may be raised in Papua so long as the flag of Indonesia is also raised and it is higher than the Morning Star flag. The flag consists of a red vertical band along the hoist side, with a white five-pointed star in the center, and thirteen horizontal stripes, alternating blue and white, with seven blue stripes and six white ones.

National symbols of the Netherlands

Symbols of the Netherlands are items or symbols that have symbolic meaning to, or represent, the Netherlands.There symbols are seen in official capacities, such as flags, coats of arms, postage stamps, and currency, and in URLs. They appear less formally as recurring themes in literature, art and folk art, heraldry, monuments, clothing, personal decoration, and as the names of parks, bridges, streets, and clubs. The less formal manifestations may be classified as national emblems.

Netherlands Antilles at the 1996 Summer Olympics

The Netherlands Antilles competed at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States.

Netherlands Antilles at the 2004 Summer Olympics

The Netherlands Antilles competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004, sending track athletes Churandy Martina and Geronimo Goeloe and equestrian athlete Eddy Stibbe. The 2004 Games were the Netherlands Antilles' twelfth appearance in the Summer Olympics; they first competed at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. Before the 2004 games, the Netherlands Antilles had won one medal, a silver in sailing at the 1988 Summer Olympics, by Jan Boersma. There were no Dutch Antillean medalists at the Athens Olympics, although Martina advanced to the quarterfinal round in his event. The Dutch Antillean flagbearer at the ceremonies was Churandy Martina.

Netherlands Antilles at the Olympics

The Netherlands Antilles participated at the Olympic Games from 1952 until 2008. As a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, it supported the Netherlands' boycott of the 1956 Games and also joined the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The Netherlands Antilles participated in the Winter Olympic Games twice.

The National Olympic Committee for the Netherlands Antilles was created in 1931 and recognized by the International Olympic Committee from 1950 until 2011 upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles. At the 2012 Olympics, participants from the five islands competed as independent athletes under the Olympic flag.

Netherlands at the 1972 Winter Olympics

Athletes from the Netherlands competed at the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, Japan.

Netherlands at the 1992 Summer Paralympics

Netherlands competed at the 1992 Summer Paralympics in Barcelona, Spain. The team included 99 athletes, 72 men and 27 women. Competitors from Netherlands won 39 medals, including 14 gold, 14 silver and 11 bronze to finish 9th in the medal table.

Pan-Slavic colors

The Pan-Slavic colors (or colours) — red, blue and white — were defined by the Prague Slavic Congress, 1848, based on the flag of Russia, which was introduced in the late 17th century. The tricolor flag of Russia was itself inspired by the flag of the Netherlands. Historically, many Slavic nations and states adopted flags and other national symbols that used some combination of those three colors, but rarely all three of them. List of Slavic countries that use or have used the colors include: Russia, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic, Montenegro, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. On the other hand, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Poland and Ukraine have never adopted the colors. (The Flag of Poland is red and white, but has different roots that pre-date the pan-Slavic colors.)

Yugoslavia, both the Kingdom (Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1918–1943) and the Republic (SFR Yugoslavia, 1943–1992) was a union of several Slavic nations, and therefore not only sported the pan-Slavic colors but adopted the pan-Slavic flag as its own (later adding a red star). The later Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003); a federation of Serbia and Montenegro, and its successor state, the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006) also used the pan-Slavic flag until the final dissolution of Yugoslavia in 2006. Serbia continues to use a flag with all three Pan-Slavic colors, along with Russia, Croatia, Slovakia and Slovenia.

The flag of Slovenia was introduced in 1848, when a group of Slovenian intellectuals in Vienna, Austria created the tricolor flag (white-blue-red). Slovakia also has the same tricolor flag design as Slovenia and Russia. The first Slovak flag was also introduced in 1848.

Statenvlag

The Statenvlag ("States Flag") is the name of the flag of the States-General of the Dutch Republic, the red-white-blue tricolour flag replacing the older orange-white-blue Prince's Flag in the mid 17th century.

The modern national flag of the Netherlands, officially introduced in 1937, is based on this historical flag.

The origin of the red-white-blue tricolour is not entirely clear; some sources suggest that it developed merely as a variant of red-white-blue because the orange dye would tend to fade to red over time.

However, there have also been suggestions to the effect that the red-white-blue flag might predate the introduction of the Prince's Flag in the 1570s.

Thus, Muller (1862) suggested that the colours were taken from the coat of arms of the Bavarian house, the rulers of the county of Holland during 1354–1433, who used the Bavarian coat of arms quartered with the arms of the counts of Holland.During the early part of the First Stadtholderless Period (1650–1672), the government of the Dutch Republic wanted to appease the republican government of the Commonwealth of England, and because the colour orange was associated with the House of Stuart, the

orange-white-blue Prince's Flag was banned in 1652, replaced by the red-white-blue "States Flag".

According to de Waard (1900), the Dutch navy between 1588 and 1630 always displayed the Prince's Flag, and after 1663 always the States Flag, but both flag variants were in use during the period of 1630–1662.

It appears that prior to 1664, the red-white-blue tricolor was commonly known as the "Flag of Holland" (Hollandsche Vlag).

In 1664, the States of Zeeland complained about this, and a resolution of the States-General introduced the name "States Flag" (Statenvlag).In the 1930s, the supporters of the NSB chose the orange-white-blue and the Prince's Flag as their symbol. Queen Wilhelmina in 1937 signed a Royal Decree that the colors red, white and blue are set as the official colours of the Dutch flag, partly as a signal directed at the NSB.

Willem II (football club)

Willem II (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʋɪləm ˈtʋeː]), also known as Willem II Tilburg, is a Dutch football club based in Tilburg, Netherlands. The team was founded on 12 August 1896 as Tilburgia. On 12 January 1898, the club was renamed Willem II, after Dutch king William II of the Netherlands, who, as Prince of Orange and commander of the Dutch army, had his military headquarters in Tilburg during the Belgian uprising of 1830 and also spent a lot of time in the city after becoming king and would die while there.Notable former players for the club include Dutch internationals Jan van Roessel, Joris Mathijsen, Jaap Stam, Marc Overmars as well as Finland's Sami Hyypiä. The club's shirt consists of red-white-blue vertical stripes, inspired by the colours of the flag of the Netherlands. Willem II plays its home matches in the Koning Willem II Stadion, also named after the King. The stadium, opened on 31 May 1995, has a capacity of 14,700 spectators. The average attendance in 2004–05 was 12,500 people.The club has won the Eredivisie and the Eerste divisie a total of three times in both respects all in all.

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