Flag of North Macedonia

The flag of North Macedonia depicts a stylized yellow sun on a red field, with eight broadening rays extending from the center to the edge of the field. It was created by Miroslav Grčev and was adopted on 5 October 1995. The first flag of the country featured the Vergina Sun which had been discovered at Aigai, the first capital and burial ground of the ancient kings of Macedon. Greece considers the Vergina Sun to be a Greek symbol and imposed a year-long economic embargo in order to force the then Republic of Macedonia to remove it from its flag, resulting in the current design. The new eight-rayed sun represents the "new sun of Liberty" referred to in "Denes nad Makedonija", the national anthem of North Macedonia.

The change of the flag was at first not accepted by conservative Macedonians, nationalists, and Greek patriots. In the first years after the change, both flags were officially flown for a long time. Between 1995 and 1998, in the municipalities where then-opposition party VMRO-DPMNE ruled, only the old flag was flown from institution buildings. Popular opinion was divided about the merits of changing the flag; a survey carried out before the Assembly's vote found that a majority of the population, 56.33 percent, supported the adoption of a new flag. The Assembly voted for the new flag by an overwhelming majority of 110 in favor, one against, and four abstaining.

Republic of North Macedonia
Flag of North Macedonia
UseNational flag and ensign
Proportion1:2
Adopted5 October 1995 (as established in the Constitution of North Macedonia)
DesignA stylised yellow sun on a red field, with eight broadening rays extending from the centre to the edge of the field.
Designed byMiroslav Grčev
Wavingmacedonianflag-crop
The flag of North Macedonia hoisted at the Serbian-North Macedonian border in Tabanovce

Design

The flag ratio is 1:2 (height/width), with two colors:

System Red Yellow
RGB 206-32-40[1] 249-214-22[1]
Hexadecimal format #CE2028[1] #F9D616[1]
CMYK 0-68-65-19 0-14-89-2
Pantone (approximate) 1795 C 115 C
Construction sheet of the flag of North Macedonia
Flag construction sheet.[2]

History

Flag of Democratic Federal Macedonia / People's Republic of Macedonia (1944–1946)

Flag of Macedonia (1944–1946)
The flag of the People's Republic of Macedonia between 1944 and 1946

The modern Macedonian state was proclaimed underground on 2 August 1944 by the Anti-Fascist Assembly of the National Liberation of Macedonia (ASNOM), the state's supreme legislative and executive body until 1946. The state was originally known as Democratic Federal Macedonia[3][4] and was renamed the People's Republic of Macedonia in 1945. The ASNOM became operational in December, shortly after the German retreat. The flag was adopted during ASNOM's second plenary session in December. The first version of the flag depicted a gold-edged five-pointed red star centred on a red field.

Flag of the People's Republic / Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1946–1992)

Flag of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1946–1991)
The flag of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia from 1946 to 1991

Between December 1946 and September 1991, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (known as the People's Republic of Macedonia until 1963) was one of the six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was the only Yugoslav republic not to use the Pan-Slavic colours on its flag. Macedonia instead adopted an amended version of its previous flag, depicting a gold-edged five-pointed red star in the canton against a red field in a design similar to the flags of the Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China. This flag was adopted on 31 December 1946 under Article 4 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Macedonia[5] and remained in use until well after Macedonia's independence from Yugoslavia in September 1991, due to lack of agreement about what should replace it.

"Vergina Flag" (1992–1995)

Flag of Macedonia (1992–1995)
The flag of the Republic of Macedonia between 1992 and 1995, bearing the Vergina Sun

In 1991, Todor Petrov, president of the ultra-nationalist organization World Macedonian Congress, who supports the controversial antiquization-policy, designated and proposed the Vergina Sun[6] as the national symbol of the then Republic of Macedonia. On 11 August 1992, the newly independent Republic of Macedonia adopted the new flag to replace the old Communist "red star" insignia. The flag depicted the "Vergina Sun" symbol, a stylised yellow sun centred on a red field with eight main and eight secondary rays emanating from the sun, tapering to a point. This ancient symbol was named after the Greek town where it had been discovered in archaeological excavations of the ancient Macedonian city of Aigai.

Macflags-trajkovskihall
The former and current flags of Macedonia and North Macedonia in front of the Boris Trajkovski Sports Arena in Skopje

The Vergina Sun was regarded by Greece as a symbol of continuity between ancient Macedonia and modern Greek culture, and in particular as a symbol of the Argead dynasty of Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great. From the late 1970s it had also been adopted by many both in Greece and the then Socialist Republic of Macedonia to symbolise historical connections with ancient Macedonia and had been paraded in demonstrations by Greeks and ethnic Macedonians at home and abroad.[7]

The flag, the new state's constitution and its name all became the focus of a dispute between the two countries, during which Greece imposed an economic blockade on the Republic from February 1994. In July 1995, Greece lodged a request with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for exclusive trademark protection to the Vergina Sun. [8]

Greek objections also prevented the flag from being flown at the United Nations Headquarters building in New York City. The blockade was lifted in October 1995 when an agreement was reached to change the flag, modify the constitution and resolve the naming dispute through United Nations-sponsored negotiations.[9] As part of the Prespa agreement, which resolved the naming dispute, the government of North Macedonia committed to removing the Vergina Sun, including its use in flags, from all public spaces and from public use.[10]

Flag proposals

Before the current state flag was officially adopted, the following flags were proposed in 1995:[11]

Flag proposal of Macedonia
Flag proposal of Macedonia - 2
Flag proposal of Macedonia - 3
Flag proposal of Macedonia - 4
Flag proposal of Macedonia - 5
Flag proposal of Macedonia - 6
Flag proposal of Macedonia - 7
Flag proposal of Macedonia - 8
Flag proposal of Macedonia - 9
Flag of Macedonia - initial design

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d Flag of the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian Heraldry Society)
  2. ^ Construction sheet of the Flag of the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian Heraldry Society)
  3. ^ "Глобус". globusmagazin.com.mk.
  4. ^ "My Info Agent" (PDF). mia.com.mk. Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  5. ^ Barraclough, E.M.C. and Crampton, William G. (eds). Flags of the World, p. 148. F. Warne, 1978
  6. ^ Macedonia: The "Sun of Vergina" flag (1992-1995)
  7. ^ Hamilakis, Yiannis (2009). The Nation and its Ruins: Antiquity, Archaeology, and National Imagination in Greece. Oxford University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0199572909. From the late 1970s onwards, and as the dispute over Macedonia intensified, this motif became extremely popular, almost to the point of becoming an unofficial national crest and symbol, in both Greece and the Yugoslav Republic. Countless commercial adverts, logos, shopfronts, T-shirts, pins, medals, and posters, were carrying it, along with its official endorsement in a 100-drachma Greek coin with the head of Alexander on one face and the ‘sun’ on the other, on postage stamps, and on official campaign posters distributed throughout Greece and abroad.
  8. ^ "Greece petitions for int'l rights to Vergina Star" Archived 2006-06-02 at the Wayback Machine, ANA, 31 July 1995 . See also WIPO registrations: 1, 2, 3.
  9. ^ Wood, Michael C., Participation of Former Yugoslav States in the United Nations and Multilateral Treaties, "Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law", Vol. 1, 1997, p. 240.
  10. ^ "Announcement of the Inter-ministerial working group for fulfilment of the obligations stipulated in the Final Agreement for the Settlement of the Differences as Described in the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 817 (1993) and 845 (1993)". www.vlada.mk. 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
  11. ^ Македонски Хералд број 5

External links

Coat of arms of the President of North Macedonia

The coat of arms of the President of the Republic of North Macedonia is the official coat of arms of the President of North Macedonia. It was adopted 2 December 2009, modified by the president Gorge Ivanov and produced by the Macedonian Heraldry Society.

The coat of arms is made of the flag of North Macedonia on a shield, and below the shield there is a wreath of Macedonian Oak with sixteen leaves and sixteen acorns in total. The colours are the national colours of North Macedonia, and the oak is traditional Orthodox symbol, as well as typical Macedonian flora.

The emblem is the work of the Macedonian heraldists Stojanče Veličkovski, Petar Gajdov and Jovan Jonovski - all members of the Macedonian Heraldry Society.

Flag of Macedonia

Flag of Macedonia may refer to two different flags used in the historic region of Macedonia. Both consist of a yellow sun on a solid-color background. Both bore the Vergina Sun until 1995 when under Greek pressure the Republic's flag replaced the Vergina Sun with its current sun.

Flag of Macedonia (Greece), a region of Greece immediately south of the Republic of North Macedonia, roughly comprising the southern part of the region

Flag of North Macedonia, a sovereign state in southeastern Europe, roughly comprising the northern part of the region

Flag of Macedonia (Greece)

The flag of Macedonia (Greek: Σημαία της Μακεδονίας) represents a Vergina Sun with 16 rays in the centre of a blue field. This flag, as well as the Vergina Sun, is commonly used as an unofficial symbol of the Greek region of Macedonia and its subdivisions. It is also used by organisations of the Greek Macedonian diaspora, such as the Pan-Macedonian Association chapters of the United States and Australia, as well as numerous commercial enterprises and private citizens.

The Vergina Sun is an official state emblem of Greece, and the Greek government proceeded to lodge a copyright claim as a state symbol at the World Intellectual Property Organization in 1995. No such provisions have been made for the flag of Macedonia however, which remains unofficial.

It is unclear when the flag was adopted, but it was most likely in use by the late 1980s after the archaeological discovery of the star by Manolis Andronikos in Vergina. The similarity of the first flag of North Macedonia, then the Republic of Macedonia, following its independence from Yugoslavia 1992 had the same design as the flag of Greek Macedonia, but on a red background with proportions 1:2. This caused controversy in Greece, which was already using that symbol for its own province of Macedonia, and the Republic of Macedonia changed its flag to the current design in 1995.

Flags of Europe

This is a list of international, national and subnational flags used in Europe.

Flags of North Macedonia

This is a list of flags which have been, or are still today, used on the territory of North Macedonia or by ethnic Macedonians.

Gallery of sovereign state flags

This gallery of sovereign state flags shows the flags of sovereign states that appear on the list of sovereign states. For other flags, please see flags of active autonomist and secessionist movements, flags of formerly independent states, and gallery of flags of dependent territories. Each flag is depicted as if the flagpole is positioned on the left of the flag, except for those of Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia which are depicted with the hoist to the right.

Jemstvenik

Jemstvenik (Serbian: јемственик) or jamstvenik (Croatian, Slovene), is a string made of red, blue and white strands that is used to tie together official documents, and for similar purposes, in countries of former Yugoslavia, in a similar way to red tape in some common law countries.

The colors of the string are those of the flag of Serbia (it was used in Serbia prior to the creation of Yugoslavia). It was later used in Yugoslavia, Croatia and Slovenia (though their flags have different color order, the same string fits all). Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro still use the red-blue-white jemstvenik despite changing the flag colors. In North Macedonia, the string is called emstvenik (Macedonian: емственик) and has the red-yellow colors of the flag of North Macedonia.The term comes from the word "jemstvo" which means warranty.

List of flag bearers for North Macedonia at the Olympics

This is a list of flag bearers who have represented North Macedonia at the Olympics.Flag bearers carry the national flag of their country at the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games.

List of flags by color

This is a list of flags by color. Each section below contains any flag that has any amount of the color listed for that section.

List of flags by design

This is a list of flags, arranged by design, serving as a navigational aid for identifying a given flag.

Miroslav Grčev

Miroslav Grčev (Macedonian: Мирослав Грчев; born 1955) is a Macedonian architect, graphic designer, comics artist and caricaturist. He is known for having designed the current flag of North Macedonia and a popular proposal for a new coat of arms of North Macedonia.Grčev was born in Skopje, Yugoslavia (now the capital of North Macedonia), and started to become interested in graphic design in the mid-1970s, when he worked on the design of LP records. In 1979, Grčev graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Skopje. Today, he teaches as a professor of urban planning at the Faculty of Architecture in Skopje.

Miroslav Grčev was mayor of central Skopje municipality "Centar" in 1996-2000 from Social Democratic Union of Macedonia. He is one of the most ardent critics of the identity policy of "antiquization" and of the associated urban plan Skopje 2014, carried out by the Macedonian governments after 2006.At 26 December 2014, he promoted his collection of articles, published between 2006 and 2014, under the title „Името на злото“ ("The Name of the Evil").

National emblem of North Macedonia

The national emblem of North Macedonia depicts two curved garlands of sheaves of wheat, tobacco leaves and opium poppy fruits, tied by a ribbon decorated with embroidery of traditional Macedonian folk motifs. In the center of the ovoid frame are depicted a mountain, a lake and a sunrise. The features of the national coat of arms contain a rising sun which symbolizes freedom, the Šar Mountains with its peak named Ljuboten or Mount Korab and the river Vardar, with Lake Ohrid. The emblem also contains opium poppy fruits; this poppy was brought to the area during Ottoman times in the first half of the 19th century. Until 16 November 2009, the emblem also depicted a socialistic five-pointed star in the top. The national parliament adopted the proposal to remove this element with 80 votes in favor and 18 against. This emblem (including the red star) had been in use since 1946, shortly after the republic became part of the (now former) Yugoslavia.

The emblem is based upon the emblem of Yugoslavia. Along with Belarus, the Republic of North Macedonia is one of the few remaining European countries that continue to employ socialist symbolism.

North Macedonia at the 2019 World Aquatics Championships

North Macedonia competed at the 2019 World Aquatics Championships in Gwangju, South Korea from 12 to 28 July.

North Macedonia at the 2020 Summer Paralympics

North Macedonia will be competing at the 2020 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan, from 25 August to 6 September 2020. This will be their seventh consecutive appearance at the Summer Paralympics since 1996.

North Macedonia at the Olympics

North Macedonia first competed as an independent nation at the Olympic Games at the 1996 Summer Olympics, then as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", and has participated in every Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games since then. Previously, until 1988, Macedonian athletes competed for Yugoslavia, and in 1992 as Independent Olympic Participants. The provisional appellation of "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" was used until 2018, in the context of the Macedonia naming dispute.

North Macedonia at the Paralympics

North Macedonia, following its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, made its Paralympic Games début at the 1996 Summer Paralympics in Atlanta, where it sent a single athlete (Branimir Jovanovski) to compete in shooting. The country has competed in every subsequent edition of the Summer Paralympics, with very small delegations. It has never taken part in the Winter Paralympics. The only athletes to have represented North Macedonia at the Paralympic Games are Branimir Jovanovski (1996–2004), Vanco Karanfilov (2000–2012) and Olivera Nakovska (2004–2012), all three in shooting events.At the 2004 Games in Athens, Karanfilov won North Macedonia's first Paralympic medal as independent country: a silver in the men's air pistol event (category SH1).At the 2012 Games in London, Olivera Nakovska-Bikova won North Macedonia's first gold Paralympic medal as independent country: a gold medal in women's air pistol event (category SH1), setting new world and Paralympic record at qualifiers for Women's P2-10m Air Pistol-SH1 with 381 points, and also setting new Paralympic finals record for Women's P2-10m Air Pistol-SH1 with 475.7 points.

Outline of North Macedonia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to North Macedonia:

North Macedonia is a landlocked sovereign country located on the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe. North Macedonia is bordered by Serbia and Kosovo to the north, Albania to the west, Greece to the south, and Bulgaria to the east.

It was admitted to the United Nations in 1993 under the provisional reference the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia commonly abbreviated to FYROM, pending resolution of a naming dispute with Greece. Many other international institutions and countries recognised the country under the same reference, although an overall majority of countries recognised it under its constitutional name.North Macedonia forms approximately 35.8% of the land and 40.9% of the population of the wider geographical region of Macedonia, as it was defined in the late 19th century. The capital is Skopje, with 506,926 inhabitants according to a 2002 census, and there are a number of smaller cities, notably Bitola, Kumanovo, Prilep, Tetovo, Ohrid, Veles, Štip, Kočani, Gostivar and Strumica. It has more than 50 natural and artificial lakes and sixteen mountains higher than 2,000 meters (6,550 ft).

The country is a member of the UN and the Council of Europe and a member of La Francophonie, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Since December 2005 it is also a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership.

Red flag (politics)

In politics, a red flag (⚑) is predominantly a symbol of socialism, communism, Marxism, trade unions, left-wing politics, and historically of anarchism; it has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution (1789–99). Socialists adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848 and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its use by the Paris Commune of 1871. The flags of several communist states, including China, Vietnam and the Soviet Union, are explicitly based on the original red flag. The red flag is also used as a symbol by some democratic socialists and social democrats, for example the League of Social Democrats of Hong Kong, French Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Labour Party in Britain used it until the late 1980s. It was the inspiration for the socialist anthem, The Red Flag.

Prior to the French revolution, red flags or banners were not associated with socialism, communism, or anarchism but were seen as a symbol of defiance and battle.

Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija

Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija (Macedonian: Сојуз на извидници на Македонија), the national Scouting organization of Republic of North Macedonia, became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1997. The coeducational Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija has 2140 members as of 2016.

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