Flag of France

The flag of France (French: Drapeau français) is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. It is known to English speakers as the French Tricolour or simply the Tricolour (French: Tricolore). The Tricolour has become one of the most influential flags in history, with its three-colour scheme being copied by many other nations, both in Europe and the rest of the world.[2]

The royal government used many flags, the best known being a blue shield and gold fleur-de-lis (the Royal Arms of France) on a white background, or state flag. Early in the French Revolution, the Paris militia, which played a prominent role in the storming of the Bastille, wore a cockade of blue and red, the city's traditional colours. According to French general Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, white was the "ancient French colour" and was added to the militia cockade to create a tricolour, or national, cockade.[3] This cockade became part of the uniform of the National Guard, which succeeded the militia and was commanded by Lafayette.[4] The colours and design of the cockade are the basis of the Tricolour flag, adopted in 1790. The only difference was that the 1790 flag's colours were reversed. A modified design by Jacques-Louis David was adopted in 1794. The royal white flag was used during the Bourbon restoration from 1815 to 1830; the tricolour was brought back after the July Revolution and has been used ever since 1830, except with a brief interruption for a few days in 1848.[5]

Flag of France
UseNational flag
AdoptedJune 1976[1] (Dark version first adopted in 15 February 1794)
DesignA vertical tricolour of blue, white, and red
Designed byLafayette, Jacques-Louis David
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1958)
Variant flag of France
UseNational flag
Adopted5 March 1848
(First time adopted 15 February 1794)
DesignAs above, but with the dark shades
Civil and Naval Ensign of France
Variant flag of France
UseNational ensign
Adopted17 May 1853 (Previously the same as the national flag)
Used in the darker shade[1]
DesignAs above, but with bars in proportion 30:33:37. (See French ensigns.)


Article 2 of the French constitution of 1958 states that "the national emblem is the tricolour flag, blue, white, red".[6] In modern representations, two versions are in use, one darker and the other lighter: both are used equally, but the light version (i.e. the main version used by Wikipedia) is far more common on digital displays. The light version was introduced in 1976 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing for use in televised governmental speeches. It is sometimes even used on official State buildings. Town halls, public buildings and barracks, on the other hand, are adorned with the darker version of the flag.[1]

Scheme Blue White Red
Pantone[7] Reflex blue Safe Red 032
RGB[7] (0,85,164) (255,255,255) (239,65,53)
HEX[7] #0055A4 #FFFFFF #EF4135
NFX 08002[8] A 503 A 665 A 805
NCS S 2565 R80B base colour S 0580 Y80R

Currently, the flag is one and a half times wider than its height (i.e. in the proportion 2:3) and, except in the French Navy, has stripes of equal width. Initially, the three stripes of the flag were not equally wide, being in the proportions 30 (blue), 33 (white) and 37 (red). Under Napoleon I, the proportions were changed to make the stripes' width equal, but by a regulation dated 17 May 1853, the navy went back to using the 30:33:37 proportions, which it now continues to use, as the flapping of the flag makes portions farther from the halyard seem smaller.

Flag of France (shade comparison)
A comparison of the light and dark versions of the flag.


Drapeaux français
Multiple French flags as commonly flown from public buildings. Note that these flags use the lighter shades of blue and red.

Blue and red are the traditional colours of Paris, used on the city's coat of arms. Blue is identified with Saint Martin, red with Saint Denis. At the storming of the Bastille in 1789, the Paris militia wore blue and red cockades on their hats. White had long featured prominently on French flags and is described as the "ancient French colour" by Lafayette.[3] White was added to the "revolutionary" colours of the militia cockade to "nationalise" the design, thus creating the tricolour cockade.[3] Although Lafayette identified the white stripe with the nation, other accounts identify it with the monarchy.[9] Lafayette denied that the flag contains any reference to the red-and-white livery of the Duc d'Orléans. Despite this, Orléanists adopted the tricolour as their own.

Blue and red are associated with the Virgin Mary, the patroness of France, and were the colours of the oriflamme. The colours of the French flag may also represent the three main estates of the Ancien Régime (the clergy: white, the nobility: red and the bourgeoisie: blue). Blue, as the symbol of class, comes first and red, representing the nobility, comes last. Both extreme colours are situated on each side of white referring to a superior order.[10]

Brandenburg Gate in French flag colours after Paris attack (23028317551)
The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin was one of many world landmarks illuminated in the French flag colors after the November 2015 Paris attacks.

Lafayette's tricolour cockade was adopted in July 1789, a moment of national unity that soon faded. Royalists began wearing white cockades and flying white flags, while the Jacobins, and later the Socialists, flew the red flag. The tricolour, which combines royalist white with republican red, came to be seen as a symbol of moderation and of a nationalism that transcended factionalism.

The French government website states that the white field was the colour of the king, while blue and red were the colours of Paris.

The three colours are occasionally taken to represent the three elements of the revolutionary motto, liberté (freedom: blue), égalité (equality: white), fraternité (brotherhood: red); this symbolism was referenced in Krzysztof Kieślowski's three colours film trilogy, for example.

In the aftermath of the November 2015 Paris attacks, many famous landmarks and stadiums were illuminated in the flag colours to honour the victims.


Kingdom of France

During the early Middle Ages, the oriflamme, the flag of Saint Denis, was used—red, with two, three, or five spikes. Originally, it was the royal banner under the Capetians. It was stored in Saint-Denis abbey, where it was taken when war broke out. French kings went forth into battle preceded either by Saint Martin's red cape, which was supposed to protect the monarch, or by the red banner of Saint Denis.

Later during the Middle Ages, these colours came to be associated with the reigning house of France. In 1328, the coat-of-arms of the House of Valois was blue with gold fleurs-de-lis bordered in red. From this time on, the kings of France were represented in vignettes and manuscripts wearing a red gown under a blue coat decorated with gold fleurs-de-lis.

During the Hundred Years' War, England was recognised by a red cross, Burgundy, a red saltire, and France, a white cross. This cross could figure either on a blue or a red field. The blue field eventually became the common standard for French armies. The French regiments were later assigned the white cross as standard, with their proper colours in the cantons.

The French flag of a white cross on a blue field is still seen on some flags derived from it, such as those of Quebec and Martinique.

The flag of Joan of Arc during the Hundred Years' War is described in her own words, "I had a banner of which the field was sprinkled with lilies; the world was painted there, with an angel at each side; it was white of the white cloth called 'boccassin'; there was written above it, I believe, 'JHESUS MARIA'; it was fringed with silk.".[11] Joan's standard led to the prominent use of white on later French flags.[11]

From the accession of the Bourbons to the throne of France, the green ensign of the navy became a plain white flag, the symbol of purity and royal authority. The merchant navy was assigned "the old flag of the nation of France", the white cross on a blue field.[12]

The Oriflamme, the banner of the Capetians

Flag of France (XII-XIII)

Banner of the Kingdom of France during 12th to 13th century

Pavillon royal de la France

Blue Capetian flag was still used during the French Renaissance. It is now the flag of present-day Île-de-France.

Pavillon royal de France

Standard of the French royal family prior to 1789 and from 1815 to 1830.

Flag of the Kingdom of France (1814-1830)

Flag of the Kingdom of France from 1814 to 1830 (Bourbon Restoration) also naval ensign prior to 1789 and then from 1814-1830

Royal flag of France during the Bourbon Restoration

Alternative Flag of the Kingdom of France from 1814 to 1830 (Bourbon Restoration): white flag with Bourbon coat of arms

Royal Standard of the King of France

After the end of the French Wars of Religion (1598), the white Bourbon flag was commonly used.

Naval Flag of the Kingdom of France (Civil Ensign)

Naval Flag of the Kingdom of France.

Royal Standard of King Louis XIV

Flag of New France.

Flag of France (1790–1794)

Flag used by the Kingdom of France and the First French Republic from 1790 to 1794.

The Tricolore

The national flag of France at the Arc de Triomphe.
Lar7 cogniet 001z
The White flag of the monarchy transformed into the Tricolore as a result of the July Revolution, painting by Léon Cogniet (1830).
Lar9 philippo 001z
Lamartine, before the Hôtel de Ville, Paris, rejects the Red Flag, 25 February 1848. By Henri Felix Emmanuel Philippoteaux.

The tricolour flag is derived from the cockades used during the French Revolution. These were circular rosette-like emblems attached to the hat. Camille Desmoulins asked his followers to wear green cockades on 12 July 1789. The Paris militia, formed on 13 July, adopted a blue and red cockade. Blue and red are the traditional colours of Paris, and they are used on the city's coat of arms. Cockades with various colour schemes were used during the storming of the Bastille on 14 July.[13] The blue and red cockade was presented to King Louis XVI at the Hôtel de Ville on 17 July.[3] Lafayette argued for the addition of a white stripe to "nationalise" the design.[3] On 27 July, a tricolour cockade was adopted as part of the uniform of the National Guard, the national police force that succeeded the militia.[14]

A drapeau tricolore with vertical red, white and blue stripes was approved by the Constituent Assembly on 24 October 1790. Simplified designs were used to illustrate how the revolution had broken with the past. The order was reversed to blue-white-red, the current design, by a resolution passed on 15 February 1794. Despite its official status, the tricolore was rarely used during the revolution. Instead, the red flag of the Jacobin Club, symbolizing defiance and national emergency, was flown. The tricolore was restored to prominence under Napoleon.

When the Bourbon dynasty was restored following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the tricolore—with its revolutionary connotations—was replaced by a white flag, the pre-revolutionary naval flag. However, following the July Revolution of 1830, the "citizen-king", Louis-Philippe, restored the tricolore, and it has remained France's national flag since that time.

On 25 February 1848 Lamartine, during the Revolution of 1848, said about the Tricoloured Flag :"I spoke as a citizen earlier, Now listen to me, your Foreign Minister. If I remove the tricolor, know it, you will remove me half the external force of France! Because Europe knows the flag of his defeats and of our victories in the flag of the Republic and of the Empire. By seeing the red flag, they'll see the flag of a party! This is the flag of France, it is the flag of our victorious armies, it is the flag of our triumphs that must be addressed before Europe. France and the tricolor is the same thought, the same prestige, even terror, if necessary, for our enemies! Consider how much blood you would have to make for another flag fame! Citizens, for me, the red flag, I am not adopting it, and I'll tell you why I'm against with all the strength of my patriotism. It's that the tricolor has toured the world with the Republic and the Empire with your freedoms and your glory, and the red flag was that around the Champ-de-Mars, dragged into the people's blood".[15]

Following the overthrow of Napoleon III, voters elected a royalist majority to the National Assembly of the new Third Republic. This parliament then offered the throne to the Bourbon pretender, Henri, comte de Chambord. However, he insisted that he would accept the throne only on the condition that the tricolour be replaced by the white flag. As the tricolour had become a cherished national symbol, this demand proved impossible to accommodate. Plans to restore the monarchy were adjourned and ultimately dropped, and France has remained a republic, with the tricolour flag, ever since.

The Vichy régime, which dropped the word "republic" in favour of "the French state", maintained the use of the tricolore, but Philippe Pétain used as his personal standard a version of the flag with, in the white stripe, an axe made with a star-studded marshal's baton. This axe is called the "Francisque" in reference to the ancient Frankish throwing axe. During this same period, the Free French Forces used a tricolore with, in the white stripe, a red Cross of Lorraine.

The constitutions of 1946 and 1958 instituted the "blue, white, and red" flag as the national emblem of the Republic.

Flag of Paris

Flag of Paris, source of the tricolour's blue and red stripes.

Tricolour Cockade

The tricolour cockade, created in July 1789. White was added to "nationalise" an earlier blue and red design.

Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1958)

Flag of France since 1794 (interruption 1815–30 and 1848).

Drapeau france 1848

The French Second Republic adopted a variant of the tricolour for a few days between 24 February and 5 March[5]

Flag of the Constitutional Kingdom of France (proposed)

The French tricolore with the royal crown and fleur-de-lys was possibly designed by the Count of Chambord in his younger years as a compromise[16][17]


From 1912 onwards to today, the French Air Force originated the use of roundels on military aircraft shortly before World War I. Similar national cockades, with different ordering of colours, were later adopted as aircraft roundels by their allies.[18]

Flag of Philippe Pétain, Chief of State of Vichy France

Personal standard of Philippe Pétain, as Chief of the French State.

Flag of Free France (1940-1944)

Flag used by the Free French Forces during World War II; in the centre is the Cross of Lorraine; later, the personal standard of President Charles de Gaulle.

Regimental flags

Vigiles du roi Charles VII 32

The French soldiers started to use white crosses, during the Hundred Years' War, to distinguish themselves from the English soldiers wearing red crosses (battle of Formigny).

Rég d Auvergne 1635

A white-crossed regimental flag during the Ancien Régime (here, Régiment d'Auvergne).

Rég de La Sarre 1685

La Sarre Regiment (Régiment de la Sarre)

Rég du Roi 1757

King's Regiment (Régiment du Roi)

Rég de La Reine 1661

Queen's Regiment (Régiment de la Reine)

Flag of Levis

General Lévis's Regiment Flag in North America. Now official flag of the city of Lévis, Quebec

Franche de la Marine1

The pre-revolutionary regimental flags inspired the flag of Quebec (here, the Compagnies Franches de la Marine).

Grenadier Pied 1 1812 Revers

Regimental flag of the 1st Regiment of Grenadiers of the French Imperial Guard (1812).

Drapeaux 1RE et 2REI Paris 2003

Current regimental flags of the 1st and 2nd Regiments of the French Foreign Legion

Colonial flags

Most French colonies either used the regular tricolour or a regional flag without the French flag. There were some exceptions:

Flag of French Laos
Flag of Laos, French Indochina
Flag of Togo (1957-1958)
Flag of the Autonomous Republic of Togo (1957–1958)
Flag of Gabon 1959-1960
Flag of Gabon (1959–1960)
Flag of Tunisia with French canton
Flag used by some military units based in the French protectorate of Tunisia
Flag of the French Mandate of Syria (1920)
Flag of the French Mandate of Syria in 1920
Flag of the State of Alawites, later Sanjak of Latakia, in the French Mandate of Syria
Flag of the State of Aleppo
Flag of the State of Aleppo, in the French Mandate of Syria
Flag of the State of Damascus
Flag of the State of Damascus, in the French Mandate of Syria
Flag of Jabal ad-Druze (state)
Flag of Jabal ad-Druze, in the French Mandate of Syria
Flag of the Madagascar Protectorate (1885-1896)
Flag of Madagascar under French protection (1885–1895)
Civil ensign of French Morocco
Merchant flag of the French protectorate of Morocco (1912–1956)
Flag of the Republic of Independent Guyana (1886-1887)
Flag of Republic of Independent Guyana (1886–1887)
Flag of Franceville
Flag of New Hebrides (Vanuatu) under the Anglo-French Joint Naval Commission (1887–1906)
Flag of the Tahiti Protectorate 1843-1880
Flag of French Polynesia under the Protectorate of France (1845–1880)
Flag of Lebanon during French Mandate (1920-1943)

Flag of the State of Greater Lebanon during the French mandate 1920–1943

Flag of Tay Dam

Flag of the Sip Song Chau Tai, French Indochina (1948-1955)

Drapeau du Royaume de Uvéa (1860-1886)

Flag of the French Protectorate of Wallis and Futuna (Uvea) (1860–1886)

Flag of French Sudan (1958-1959)

Flag of French Sudan (1958–1959)

Drapeau Protectorat Français RuRutu (1858-1889)

Flag of the French protectorate of Rurutu in French Polynesia (1858–1889)

Flag of French Governor in French Colony

Flag of French Governor


Many provinces and territories in Canada have French-speaking communities with flags representing their communities:

Flag of Acadia

The Acadian flag used in Canada is based on the tricolour flag of France, but this flag was never used during French rule of Acadia. It was adopted in 1884, for more see Flag of Acadia. Acadians live mainly in New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia

Flag of Quebec

The current Flag of Quebec. The use of blue and white is characteristic of pre-revolutionary flags

Franco-Ontarian flag

The Franco-Ontarian flag used by Francophone Ontario since 1975 and officially recognised in 2001

Bandera dels Fransaskois

Flag of Fransaskois or French speaking Saskatchewans

Flag of the FrancoTenois

Flag of Franco-Ténois

Flag of the Franco-Nunavois

Flag of Franco-Nunavois

Many areas in the United States have substantial French-speaking and ancestral communities:

Flag of Acadiana

Flag of Acadiana

Drapeau Franco-Américain

Flag of United Franco-Americans

Drapeau français-américain

Flag of New England Franco-Americans

Drapeau de l'Acadie occidentale

Flag of Aroostook county Franco-Americans

Drapeau de la Louisiane septentrionale

Flag of Mid-West Franco-Americans

Flag of New Orleans, Louisiana

Flag of New Orleans, Louisiana

Although part of France, the flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon does not incorporate the current national flag. The island's flag is based on the historic regional emblems of France. This flag lacks official status.

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Drapeau Français". promo-drapeaux.fr. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  2. ^ Smith, Whitney. "Flag of France". Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert Du Motier Lafayette (marquis de), Memoirs, correspondence and manuscripts of General Lafayette, vol. 2, p. 252.
  4. ^ Gaines, James (September 2015). "Washington & Lafayette". Smithsonian Magazine.
  5. ^ a b https://www.persee.fr/doc/r1848_1155-8806_1931_num_28_139_1209_t1_0237_0000_2
  6. ^ https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/Droit-francais/Constitution/Constitution-du-4-octobre-1958
  7. ^ a b c d "Die Symbole der französischen Republik" (in German). Embassy of the French Republic in Germany. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
  8. ^ "France". Flags of the World. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  9. ^ "Le drapeau français" (in French). Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  10. ^ "France, the tricolour banner". Retrieved 22 March 2008.
  11. ^ a b Whitney Smith, Flags through the ages and across the world, McGraw-Hill, England, 1975 ISBN 0-07-059093-1, pp. 66–67, The Standard of Joan of Arc, after quoting her from her trial transcript he states: "it was her influence which determined that white should serve as the principal French national colour from shortly after her death in 1431 until the French Revolution almost 350 years later."
  12. ^
    • "...the standard of France was white, sprinkled with golden fleur de lis..." (Ripley & Dana 1879, p. 250).
    • On the reverse of this plate it says: "Le pavillon royal était véritablement le drapeau national au dix-huitième siecle...Vue du chateau d'arrière d'un vaisseau de guerre de haut rang portant le pavillon royal (blanc, avec les armes de France)" (Vinkhuijzen collection 2011).
    • "The oriflamme and the Chape de St Martin were succeeded at the end of the 16th century, when Henry III., the last of the house of Valois, came to the throne, by the white standard powdered with fleurs-de-lis. This in turn gave place to the famous tricolour"(Chisholm 1911, p. 460).
  13. ^ Crowdy, Terry, French Revolutionary Infantry 1789–1802, p. 42 (2004).
  14. ^ Clifford, Dale, "Can the Uniform Make the Citizen? Paris, 1789–1791," Eighteenth-Century Studies, 2001, p. 369.
  15. ^ Alphonse de Lamartine, Trois mois au pouvoir, Paris, Michel Lévy, 1848.
  16. ^ La France du Renouveau - Bourbon Royalist design.
  17. ^ Whitney Smith. Flags through the ages and cross the world. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1975. p. 75.
  18. ^ Royal Air Force Museum Archived 2 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine


Further reading

  • Flags Through the Ages and Across the World, Smith, Whitney, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Ltd, England, 1975. ISBN 0-07-059093-1.

External links

Adidas Tricolore

Tricolore was the official match ball of 1998 FIFA World Cup in France. The tricolour flag and cockerel, traditional symbols of France were used as inspiration for the design. Made by Adidas, it was the first multi-coloured ball to be used in the tournament's final stage and was also the final World Cup ball to bear the classic Tango design, introduced in the 1978 tournament. The design of blue triads decorated with cockerel motifs was adopted to represent the colours of the flag of France. Tricolore was also the first Adidas World Cup match ball manufactured outside of Europe (made in Morocco & Indonesia) since the 1970 Adidas Telstar. "Tricolore" means "three-colored" in French.

Alphonse de Lamartine

Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, Knight of Pratz (French: [alfɔ̃s maʁi lwi dəpʁa də lamaʁtin]; 21 October 1790 – 28 February 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician who was instrumental in the foundation of the Second Republic and the continuation of the Tricolore as the flag of France.

Bleu, blanc et rouge

Bleu blanc et rouge (French for "blue, white and red") may refer to:

The Flag of France, whose colors are given as "bleu, blanc et rouge"

Montreal Bleu Blanc Rouge, a junior ice hockey team

A common nickname for the professional ice hockey team Montreal Canadiens

Blue, White and Red Rally (Rassemblement Bleu Blanc Rouge) a nationalist political association in France

The Three Colors trilogy films

Bleu-Blanc-Rouge, a 1998 novel by Alain Mabanckou

Coat of arms of Wallis and Futuna

The coat of arms of Wallis and Futuna consists of elements from the unofficial flag of Wallis and Futuna featuring a red saltire on a white square, which in turn is placed on a red field (alternatively, a larger white cross pattée is used). The cross is placed on the lower right; the flag of France outlined in white on two sides is in the upper left quadrant.The coat of arms, like the flag, is apparently unofficial.

Flag of Belgium

The national flag of the kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: Vlag van België, French: Drapeau belge, German: Flagge Belgiens) is a tricolour of three bands of black, yellow, and red. The colours were taken from the coat of arms of the Duchy of Brabant, and the vertical design may be based on the flag of France. When flown, the black band is nearest the pole (at the hoist side). It has the unusual proportions of 13:15.

Flag of Chad

The national flag of Republic of Chad (French: Drapeau du Tchad, Arabic: علم تشاد‎) is a vertical tricolour consisting (left to right) of a blue, a gold and a red field. Its similarity to the flag of Romania, which differs only in having a lighter shade of blue (cobalt rather than indigo) has caused international discussion. In 2004, Chad asked the United Nations to examine the issue, but then-president of Romania Ion Iliescu announced no change would occur to the flag.

Flag of French Polynesia

The flag of French Polynesia is the state flag of the French overseas collectivity French Polynesia. It was adopted in 1984.

Flag of Réunion

The flag of Réunion is the flag of the department of Réunion, France. The country uses the flag of France, the national flag of its mother country. Although the federal period of France installed a number of flags of the metropolitan regions, Réunion does not have a separate official flag. However, the regional council of Réunion does have a flag.

The Vexillological Association of Réunion selected a flag in 2003. It depicts the volcano of Fournaise, bedecked by gold sunbeams. It was designed in 1974 by Guy Pignolet with help of Jean Finck and Didier Finck who called it Lö Mahavéli but it really started to be promoted once the association chose it in 2003. It does not have official recognition but since 2014, it is flying on top of many public buildings after several city councils have taken the decision to do so.Independentists and nationalists of Reunion also have their flag (green, yellow, red) which was created in 1986. Green symbolizes the marronage, yellow symbolizes the working class and red symbolizes the period of slavery and indentured labour, struck by a yellow star with five points.

Flag of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

The flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is officially the flag of France, as Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is a self-governing overseas collectivity of France.

Flag of Wallis and Futuna

The official flag of Wallis and Futuna is the French national flag, as it is a French territory. Wallis and Futuna has a locally used unofficial flag which bears the French flag in the canton.

Flags of New Caledonia

Two flags are in use in New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France. Up to 2010, the only flag used to represent New Caledonia was the flag of France, a tricolor featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red known to English speakers as the French Tricolour or simply the Tricolour.

However, in July 2010, the Congress of New Caledonia voted in favour of a wish to fly the Kanak flag of the independentist movement FLNKS alongside the French tricolor. The wish, legally non-binding, proved controversial. . A majority of Neo-Caledonian communes, but not all, now fly both flags, the rest flying only the Tricolour.

Flags of South America

This is a gallery of flags of South American countries and affiliated international organizations.

Ghevont Alishan

Father Ghevont Alishan (Armenian: Ղևոնդ Ալիշան) (1820-1901; also spelled Ghevond Alishan) was an ordained Armenian Catholic priest, historian and a poet. He was awarded by the Legion of Honour of the French Academy (1866), an honorary member of the Asian Society of Italia, Archeological Society of Moscow, Venice Academy and Archeological Society of Saint-Petersburg.

John Ruskin wrote that he "always looked upon him [Padre Alishan] as a sort of saint; he has been our friend for a great many of years."He was a member of the Mkhitarist Congregation in Venice beginning in 1838. In 1885 he created the first modern Armenian flag. His first design was a horizontal tricolor, but with a set of colors different from those used on the Armenian flag of today. The top band would be red to symbolize the first Sunday of Easter (called "Red" Sunday), the green to represent the "Green" Sunday of Easter, and finally an arbitrary color, white, was chosen to complete the combination. While in France, Alishan also designed a second flag inspired by the national Flag of France. Its colors were red, green, and blue respectively, representing the band of colors that Noah saw after landing on Mount Ararat.

A bust of Alishan, created in 1903 by the sculptor Andreas Ter-Marukian, is displayed in the National Gallery of Armenia.


Iowa ( (listen)) is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states; Wisconsin to the northeast, Illinois to the east, Missouri to the south, Nebraska to the west, South Dakota to the northwest and Minnesota to the north.

In colonial times, Iowa was a part of French Louisiana and Spanish Louisiana; its state flag is patterned after the flag of France. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt.In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, processing, financial services, information technology, biotechnology, and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U.S states. Its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in which to live. Its nickname is the Hawkeye State.

List of cultural icons of France

This List of cultural icons of France is a list of links to potential cultural icons of France.

National symbols of France

National symbols of France are emblems of the French nation, and are the cornerstone of the republican tradition.


A roundel is a circular disc used as a symbol. The term is used in heraldry, but also commonly used to refer to a type of national insignia used on military aircraft, generally circular in shape and usually comprising concentric rings of different colours. Other symbols also often use round shapes.

Toisa Pisces

Toisa Pisces is a Liberia-flagged well test and servicing vessel owned and operated by Sealion Shipping Ltd. She is classified by Det Norske Veritas as an oil production and storage unit.Toisa Pisces was built in 1997 by Ulstein Verft in Norway as a drilling platform supplier and cable ship. In 1997–2000 she was owned and operated by France Câbles et Radio under the name of Fresnel and under the flag of France. In 2000–2003 she was owned by FT Marine SAS. In 2003, the ship was purchased by Sealion Shipping and it was converted at the Gdańsk Shipyard as oil processing unit. She was renamed Toisa Pisces and registered in Monrovia, Liberia. She has an oil processing capacity up to 20,000 barrels per day (3,200 m3/d).


In English use, the term Tricolore, French and Italian spelling of tricolour (flag), may refer to:

The flag of France

The flag of Italy

Tricolour (flag)

Tricolore (ballet), a 1978 ballet by Peter Martins, Jean-Pierre Bonnefoux and Jerome Robbins'

Tricolore (album), a 2013 album, by Derbyshire indie band Haiku Salut

Tricolore, a singing group taking part in the BBC's Eurovision Song Contest Making Your Mind Up programme in 2005

Tricolore, a popular Italian appetiser/salad consisting of (most commonly) Buffalo Mozzarella, Sliced Tomato, Fresh Basil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil, also known as a Caprese salad

Tricolore, an Italian salad often containing endive lettuce and strips of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese

Adidas Tricolore, the official football of the 1998 World Cup

Le Tricolore de Montréal, a soccer team

Montreal Canadiens, a hockey team, nicknamed Le Tricolore

Tricolore, idol unit from the anime series PriPara.

Tricolore is a Textbook written by Sylivia Honnor, Michael Spencer and Heather Mascice-Taylor and published by Nelson Thornes.

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