Flag of China

The flag of China, also known as the Five-starred Red Flag,[2] is a Chinese red field charged in the canton (upper corner nearest the flagpole) with five golden stars. The design features one large star, with four smaller stars in a semicircle set off towards the fly (the side farthest from the flag pole). The red represents the communist revolution; (proletarian) the five stars and their relationship represent the unity of the Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC). The first flag was hoisted by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) on a pole overlooking Beijing's Tiananmen Square on October 1, 1949, at a ceremony announcing the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

Other flags used in the People's Republic use a red background to symbolize the revolution in conjunction with other symbols. The flag of the People's Liberation Army uses the gold star with the Chinese characters 8-1 (for August 1, the date of the PLA's founding). The flag of the Communist Party of China replaces all of the stars with the party emblem. Due to government regulations, cities and provinces of China cannot have their own flags; the only sub-national flags that exist are those of the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions. Despite this, at least two cities have adopted flags after the law was passed. The cities of Kaifeng and Shangrao adopted their flags in March 2006 and March 2009 respectively. This implies that the law is either repealed or not enforced.

China
Flag of the People's Republic of China
NameWǔxīng Hóngqí ("Five-starred Red Flag")
UseCivil and state flag, civil and state ensign
Proportion2:3
AdoptedSeptember 27, 1949[1]
DesignA large golden star within an arc of four smaller golden stars, in the canton, on a field of Chinese red.
Designed byZeng Liansong
Flag of the People's Liberation Army
UseWar flag
Proportion4:5
Adopted1948
DesignA Chinese red field with a yellow star at the canton, and the Chinese numerals for "8" and "1", the date of the PLA's establishment on August 1, 1927.
Flag of China
Literal meaningState flag of China
Flag of the People's Republic of China
Literal meaningState flag of the People's Republic of China
Five-star Red Flag

History

Early flags

One of the first earlier flags of China was the "Yellow Dragon Flag" used by the Qing dynasty from 1862 until the overthrow of the monarchy during the Xinhai Revolution. The Qing dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China's history. The flag that was adopted in 1862 was triangular, but the dynasty adopted a rectangular version of the dragon flag in 1889.

Republic of China

Flag of the Republic of China
Flag of the Republic of China

The canton (upper corner on the hoist side) originated from the "Blue Sky with a White Sun flag" (青天白日; qīngtiān báirì qí) designed by Lu Haodong, a martyr of the Xinhai Revolution. He presented his design to represent the revolutionary army at the inauguration of the Society for Regenerating China, an anti-Qing society in Hong Kong, on February 21, 1895. This design was later adopted as the KMT party flag and the Coat of Arms of the Republic of China. The "red Earth" portion was added by Sun Yat-sen in winter of 1906, bringing the flag to its modern form. According to George Yeo, the Foreign Minister of Singapore, in those days the Blue Sky with a White Sun flag was sewn in the Sun Yat Sen Villa or Wan Qing Yuan in Singapore by Teo Eng Hock and his wife.[3][4]

During the Wuchang Uprising in 1911 that heralded the Republic, the various revolutionary armies had different flags. Lu Hao-tung's "Blue Sky with a White Sun" flag was used in the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guizhou. In Wuhan, a flag with 18 yellow stars was used to represent the 18 administrative divisions at the time. In Shanghai and northern China, a "Five-Colored Flag" (五色; wǔ sè qí) (Five Races Under One Union flag) was used of five horizontal stripes representing the five major nationalities of China: the Han (red), the Manchu (yellow), the Mongol (blue), the Hui (white), and the Tibetan (black).

When the government of the Republic of China was established on January 1, 1912, the "Five-Colored Flag" was selected by the provisional Senate as the national flag. The "18-Star Flag" was adopted by the army[5] and the modern flag was adopted as a naval ensign.[6] Sun Yat-sen, however, did not consider the five-colored flag appropriate, reasoning that horizontal order implied a hierarchy or class like that which existed during dynastic times.

After President Yuan Shikai assumed dictatorial powers in 1913 by dissolving the National Assembly and outlawing the KMT, Sun Yat-sen established a government-in-exile in Tokyo and employed the modern flag as the national ROC flag. He continued using this design when the KMT established a rival government in Guangzhou in 1917. The modern flag was made the official national flag on December 17, 1928 after the successful Northern Expedition that overthrew the Beijing government, though the Five-Colored Flag still continued to be used by locals in an unofficial capacity. One reason for this discrepancy in use was lingering regional biases held by officials and citizens of northern China, who favored the Five-Colored Flag, against southerners such as the Cantonese/Hakka Sun Yat-sen.

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the invading Japanese established a variety of puppet governments using several flag designs. The "Reform Government" established in March 1938 in Nanjing to consolidate the various puppet governments employed the Five-Colored Flag. When Wang Jingwei was slated to take over the Japanese-installed government in Nanjing in 1940, he demanded to use the modern flag as a means to challenge the authority of the Nationalist Government in Chongqing under Chiang Kai-shek and position himself as the rightful successor to Sun Yat-sen. However, the Japanese preferred the Five-Colored flag. As a compromise, the Japanese suggested adding a triangular yellow pennant on top with the slogan "Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction" (和平反共建國; Hépíng fǎngòng jiàn guó) in black, but this was rejected by Wang. In the end, Wang and the Japanese agreed that the yellow banner was to be used outdoors only, until 1943 when the banner was abandoned, leaving two rival governments with the same flag, each claiming to be the legitimate National Government of China.[7]

The flag was specified in Article Six of the 1947 Constitution. After the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the government of Chiang Kai-shek relocated the sovereign independent country of the Republic of China (ROC) to the island of Taiwan. On the mainland, the communist forces of Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China (PRC) and adopted their own national flag. On October 23, 1954, the National Emblem and National Flag of the Republic of China Act (中華民國國徽國旗法; Zhōnghuá Mínguó guóhuī guóqífǎ) was promulgated by the Legislative Yuan to specify the size, measure, ratio, production, and management of the flag.[8]

People's Republic of China

Zeng Liansong's proposal for the PRC flag
The original design submitted by Zeng Liansong

On July 4, 1949, the sixth working group of the Preparatory Committee of the New Political Consultative Conference (新政治協商會議籌備會, PCNPCC) created a notice to submit designs for the national flag. After a few changes, the notice was published in the papers People's Daily, Beiping Liberation News, Xinmin News, Dazhong Daily, Guangming Daily, Jinbu Daily and Tianjin Daily during a period between July 15–26.[9] The list requirements for the national flag were also posted in the notice:

  1. Chinese characteristics (Geography, nationality, history, culture, etc.)
  2. Power characteristics (A people's democratic government, led by the working class and based on the worker-peasant alliance.)
  3. The shape should be rectangular and the length-breadth ratio should be 3:2
  4. The color should mainly be bright red[10] (an early draft of the notice had the color at dark red, but was changed to bright red by Zhou Enlai).[11]
Mao Zedong's proposal for the PRC flag
The "Yellow River" flag design originally preferred by Mao Zedong.

Zeng Liansong, a citizen from Wenzhou, Zhejiang, was working in Shanghai at the time the announcement came out; he wanted to create a flag design to express his patriotic enthusiasm for the new country. In the middle of July, he sat down in his attic for multiple nights to come up with designs. His inspiration for the current design comes from the stars shining in the night sky. He thought of a Chinese proverb "longing for the stars, longing for the moon", (盼星星盼月亮, pàn xīngxīng pàn yuèliàng) which shows yearning. He viewed the CPC as the great saviour (大救星, dà jiùxīng "great saving star") of the Chinese people, being represented by a larger star. The idea for four small stars came from On the People's Democratic Dictatorship a speech by Mao Zedong, which defined the Chinese people as consisting of four social classes, also referred to in Asian cultures as the four occupations (士農工商) shi, nong, gong, shang ("the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie"[12]). Yellow also implies that China belongs to the Chinese people, a "yellow race".[11] After working out the details of the placement of the stars and their sizes (he had tried to put all of the stars in the center, but believed it would be too heavy and dull), he sent his "Five Stars on a Field of Red" (紅地五星旗, hóng dì wǔxīng qí) design to the committee in the middle of August.[1][11]

As of August 20, a total of 2,992 (or 3,012)[13] designs were sent to the flag committee,[14] which included input from committee members themselves, such as Guo Moruo and Tan Kah Kee.[15] From August 16 to 20, the designs were viewed at the Beijing Hotel and culled down to a list of 38.[1][9] These designs are collected into a book named A Reference of National Flag Designs (國旗圖案參考資料). This book was then submitted to the newly established Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) for further discussion. However, Zeng's design was not included until Tian Han nominated it again.[16]

On the morning of September 23, the representatives of the CPPCC discussed the national flags, but came to no conclusion. Some disliked the symbolism which Zeng attached to the four smaller stars, and said it should not include the bourgeoisie. The design Mao and others liked had a giant golden star in the corner on a red flag that was charged with a golden horizontal bar. But this design was strongly opposed by Zhang Zhizhong, who saw the golden bar as symbolizing the tearing apart of the revolution from the country.[17] In the night, Peng Guanghan (彭光涵) recommended Zeng's design to Zhou Enlai, Zhou was satisfied with it and asked for a larger copy of the design to be made. Tan Kah Kee also gave his advice to Mao and Zhou that the power characteristics are more important than Chinese geography characteristics, so there was no need to insist on the golden bar which stands for the Yellow River. Two days later, Mao had a meeting in his office about the flag. He persuaded everyone to adopt Zeng's design, with some slight modifications.[18] According to earlier discussions at the Beijing Hotel, the hammer and sickle from Zeng's original design was removed since it was similar to the Flag of the Soviet Union.[16] On September 27, 1949, Zeng's modified design was selected unanimously by the First Plenary Session of CPPCC, which changed the flag's name to "Five-star Red Flag".[1][19]

The first flag of China
Mao Zedong pressed the button and raised the flag of China for the first time in the announcement of the establishment of the People's Republic of China at Tiananmen Square on October 1, 1949

On September 29, the new flag was published in the People's Daily, so the design could be copied by other local authorities.[20] The flag was officially unveiled in Beijing's Tiananmen Square on October 1, 1949, the formal announcement of the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The first flag flown over Tiananmen Square was sewn together by Zhao Wenrui(赵文瑞), a seamstress who finished the task around 1 pm on September 30.[21] Zeng had a hard time believing that his design was picked, due to the missing hammer and sickle from the giant star. However, he was officially congratulated by the General Office of the Central People's Government as the designer of the flag and received 5 million yuan for his work.[11][22]

Proposal 2 for the PRC flag
Proposal 3 for the PRC flag
Proposal 4 for the PRC flag
Proposed PRC national flags 006

Proposal by Wu Yuzhang

Proposed-PRC-10

Proposal by Ai Qing

Proposed PRC national flag 014

Proposal by Zhu De

Proposed PRC national flag 015

Proposal by Liang Congjie

Proposed PRC flag (Design 8, Guo Moruo)

Proposal by Guo Moruo

Proposed flag of China (Guo Moruo)

Proposal by Guo Moruo

Symbolism

Chinese flag (Beijing) - IMG 1104
Flag of China, Beijing

According to the current government interpretation of the flag, the red background symbolises the revolution and the golden colors were used to "radiate" on the red background though the colors represents one of the Five Elements of fire and earth. The five stars and their relationship represents the unity of Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. The orientation of the stars shows that the unity should go around a center.[13] In the original description of the flag by Zeng, the larger star symbolizes the Communist Party of China, and the four smaller stars that surround the big star symbolize the four social classes (the working class, the peasantry, the urban petite bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie) of China's New Democracy mentioned in Mao's "On the People's Democratic Dictatorship". The five stars that formed an ellipse represent the territory of China which is shaped like a Begonia leaf. It is sometimes stated that the five stars of the flag represent the five largest ethnic groups: Han Chinese, Zhuangs, Hui Chinese, Manchus and Uyghurs.[23][24] This is generally regarded as an erroneous conflation with the "Five Races Under One Union" flag, used 1912–28 by the Beiyang Government of Republic of China, whose different-colored stripes represented the Han Chinese, Hui Chinese, Manchus, Mongols and Tibetans.[23][25]

Construction details, sizes and colors

The construction sheet for the national flag was published on September 28, 1949 by an order from the Presidium of the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.[26] The information can also be found in the document "GB 12982-2004: National flag" that was released by the Standardization Administration of China.[27]

Construction sheet Standard
Construction sheet of Flag of the People's Republic of China
  1. The flag is split into 4 sections, with the top hoist part of the flag being a grid of 15 by 10 units.
  2. The centre of the biggest star is placed at 5 units from the hoist and 5 units from the top of the flag. The diameter of the biggest star's circumscribed circle is 6 units.
  3. Of the 4 smaller stars, the first one is centred 2 units from the top of the flag, 10 units from the hoist; the second one is centred 4 units from the top of the flag and 12 units from the hoist; the third one is centred 7 units from the top of the flag and 12 units from the hoist; the fourth one is centred 9 units from the top of the flag and 10 units from the hoist.
  4. The diameter of each small star's circumscribed circle is 2 units. Each of the top points of the 4 smaller stars are rotated such that they point towards the center point of the larger star.[28]

During the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, flags that failed to adhere to the regulations were used in connection with China. The flags, used during the opening ceremony and two medal ceremonies, featured the four small stars incorrectly angled in the same direction, inciting fury at the Olympic organisers.[29]

The Law on the National Flag mentions five possible sizes that could be made for the national flag:[30] According to Article 4 of the Law On the National Flag, people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government are directed to authorize companies to make any copy of the national flag.[26] Besides five official sizes for flying on flagpoles, there are another four smaller sizes for other purposes, such as decoration on cars or display in meeting rooms.[31]

Size 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Length × width (cm) 288 × 192 240 × 160 192 × 128 144 × 96 96 × 64 66 × 44 45 × 30 30 × 20 21 × 14

Colours

The colours of the national flag are regulated in the document "GB 12983-2004: Standard Color Sample of the National Flag," also released by the Standardization Administration of China. The colors are in the CIE Standard illuminant D65 and the CIE 1964 Supplementary Standard Colorimetric System.[32]

Standard color sample of the national flag[32]
Fabric Stimulus value Y10 Color coordinate Allowable error margin
x10 y10
Synthetic fiber Red 9.4 0.555 0.328 All are
Gold 41.2 0.446 0.489
Silk Red 12.3 0.565 0.325
Gold 32.4 0.450 0.463
Cotton cloth Red 9.2 0.595 0.328
Gold 33.0 0.467 0.463
Sleeve White 78.0 The stimulus value Y10 must not be less than 78

Colours scheme

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Red Gold
RGB 222/41/16 255/222/0
Hexadecimal #de2910ff #ffde00ff
CMYK 0/82/93/13 0/13/100/0

Unicode

The Flag of China is represented as the Unicode emoji sequence U+1F1E8 🇨 REGIONAL INDICATOR SYMBOL LETTER C and U+1F1F3 🇳 REGIONAL INDICATOR SYMBOL LETTER N.[33]

Regulations

The current law about the national flag was passed by 14th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People's Congress on June 28, 1990 and was enforced starting October 1, 1990. The main point of the law was to not only set down regulations on how to make the Chinese flag, what it looks like, where it can be flown and how it can be flown. The law also stresses that the national flag is "the symbol and hallmark of the People's Republic of China" and that everyone "shall respect and care for the National Flag."[26]

Folding the flag

  1. Fold horizontally along the center.
  2. Repeat, fold horizontally along the centre.
  3. Fold vertically along the centre of the flag.
  4. Repeat, fold vertically along the centre of the flag.
  5. Repeat, fold vertically along the centre of the flag.
  6. Repeat, fold vertically along the top

Desecration

On 29 September 2017, Hong Kong elected legislator Cheng Chung-tai was convicted of desecrating the flag under the National Flag and National Emblem Ordinance.[34] He had been seen turning representations of the flags (not of standard dimensions) upside down in the legislative chamber in October the previous year.[35]

Flags of the Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China

HKSARFlagNational(PRC)
The regional flag (Hong Kong) displayed with national flag.

Due to an order passed by the CPC Central Committee General Office and General Office of the State Council, cities and provinces are no longer allowed to adopt their own symbols.[36] However, both of the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions of China have their own special flags. The precise use of the SAR flags are regulated by laws passed by the National People's Congress.[37][38]

The Flag of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region features a stylized, white, five-petal Bauhinia blakeana flower in the center of a red field. On each petal is a red star; the stars demonstrate that Hong Kong residents love their motherland while the overall flag design signifies the link re-established between post-colonial Hong Kong and China while demonstrating the "One country, two systems" political principle applied to the region.[39][40] The flag of Hong Kong was adopted on 16 February 1990.[41] On 10 August 1996, it received formal approval from the Preparatory Committee, a group which advised the People's Republic of China (PRC) on Hong Kong's transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to the PRC in 1997.[37] The flag was first officially hoisted on 1 July 1997, in the handover ceremony marking the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China.[42]

Flags of the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Flag of Hong Kong
Flag of Macau

The Regional flag of the Macau Special Administrative Region is "Macau green" with a lotus flower above a stylized image of the Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large star in the center of the arc and four smaller ones. The lotus was chosen as the floral emblem of Macau. The Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge is a bridge linking the Macau Peninsula and the island of Taipa.[43] The bridge is one of the most recognizable landmarks of the territory. The water beneath the lotus and the bridge symbolize Macau's position as a port and its role played in the territory. The five five-pointed stars echo the design of the national flag, symbolizing the relationship Macau has with its mother country.[44] The design was chosen on 15 January 1993 by a committee that was drafting the Basic Law for the Macau SAR and was formally adopted by the Macau SAR Preparatory Committee on 16 January 1999.[45] The flag was first officially hoisted on 20 December 1999, in the handover ceremony marking the transfer of sovereignty from Portugal to China.[46]

Military flags

There are five flags that are used by the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The main feature of these flags is a golden star at the top left corner and two Chinese characters "八一" to the right of the star, all placed on a red background. The characters "八一" (literally "eight one") pay homage to the events on August 1, 1927 (8th month, 1st day); this was when the PLA was created by the Communist Party to start their rebellion against the Kuomintang Government in Nanchang.[47] The main flag of the PLA was created on June 15, 1949 by a decree issued from Mao.[48] The flag has a ratio of 5 by 4, which has a white sleeve measuring ​116 of the flag's length. For ceremonies, a PLA flag with golden fringe is placed on a pole with gold and red spiral stripes and topped with a golden finial and red tassel.[49] Each branch of the PLA, the Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force and Rocket Force, also have their own flags to use. In a 1992 order, the flags of the three branches were defined. The top ​58 of the flags is the same as the PLA flag; the bottom ​38 are occupied by the colors of the branches.[50] The flag of the Ground Forces has a forest green bar at the bottom, the naval ensign has stripes of blue and white at the bottom, the Air Force uses a sky blue bar and the Rocket Force uses a yellow bar at the bottom. The forest green represents the earth, the blue and white stripes represent the seas, the sky blue represents the air and the yellow represents the flare of missile launching.[51][52]

Flag of the People's Liberation Army

PLA

Organizational flags

After the Communist Party of China was founded in 1920, various sections of the party made flags based on what the Bolsheviks used, producing various designs and patterns. The current flag of the CPC was not created until April 28, 1942. On that date, the CPC Central Committee Political Bureau issued a decree announcing the flag and the pattern it should follow.[53] The design was further defined in the CPC Constitution in 1996.[54] The flag has a red background that is charged with the emblem of the CPC in gold at the top left corner.[55] The flag ratio is defined as two by three (24×36 units); the size of the emblem is eight units square, placed four units away from the hoist and three units away from the top of the flag.[54]

The flag of the Communist Youth League of China was adopted on May 4, 1950. The design of the flag consists of the group emblem, a gold star surrounded by a ring of gold, charged on a red field. The construction of the flag consists of making the top hoist portion of the flag into twelve by eighteen units, placing the emblem in the middle of that rectangle. The radius of the emblem is four units.[56]

There are two flags used by the Young Pioneers of China. The first flag that is used is for pioneer battalions. The length of the flag is 90 centimetres and the width is 120 centimeters. A golden badge of the Young Pioneers is placed in the center of the flag. For a company, a modified flag is used. The flag has a length of 60 centimetres and a width of 80 centimetres. A 20-centimeter triangle is cut out of the fly edge of the flag and the golden emblem is shifted closer towards the hoist.[57]

Flag of the Chinese Communist Party

Communist Party of China

Flag of the Communist Youth League of China

Communist Youth League of China

中国少年先锋队队旗 (大队旗)

Young Pioneers of China (Pioneer Battalions)

中国少年先锋队队旗 (中队旗)

Young Pioneers of China (Pioneer Companies)

Customs flag

Flag of the Customs of the People's Republic of China
Customs flag of China

The customs flag is a China's national flag with the emblem of customs at the lower right corner, which consists of a golden key and the Caduceus of Hermes, crossing with each other. The current customs flag was officially adopted in October 1, 1953. The customs flag should be hung at the bow of the customs vessel.[58]

Historical flags

Flag of China (1862–1889)

Flag of the Qing dynasty (1862–1889)

Flag of China (1889–1912)

Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889–1912)

Flag of China (1912–1928)

Flag of the Republic of China (1912–1928), representing the Five Races Under One Union principle

Flag of the Empire of China (1915–1916)

National flag of Empire of China 1916

Flag of the Empire of China (1916)

National flag of Empire of China 1916

Flag of the Republic of China Army

Flag of the National Revolutionary Army (1928–1947) and the flag of the Republic of China Army (1947–present)

Naval Jack of the Republic of China

Flag of the Kuomintang and the naval jack of the Republic of China Navy (1947–present)

Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games

Flag of Chinese Taipei used by ROC (1984-present)

National Flag of Chinese Soviet Republic

Flag of the Chinese Soviet Republic (1931–1937)

Flag of the Chinese Communist Party (Pre-1996)

Flag of the Chinese Communist Party before 1996

Second War Flag of Chinese Soviet Republic

War flag of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army

Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction)

The Flag of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, a Japanese puppet state during World War II, was based on the Flag of the Republic of China.

Gallery

Boeing 747-4J6 Air China B-2447 (7288535966)

The PRC flag on an Air China Boeing 747-400.

Yao Ming with the Chinese flag 2008 Summer Olympics - Opening Ceremony

Yao Ming holding the PRC flag during the 2008 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations.

国旗 - panoramio

PRC flag flying on the Tiananmen Square centre.

2012 Anti-Japan demonstrations2

Protesters waving PRC and ROC flags during an anti-Japan demonstrations in Hong Kong in 2012.

2015 China Victory Day Parade (1)

Flag of the PRC flying in the 2015 Victory Day Parade.

Chinese Embassy in Nuku'alofa

PRC embassy in Nuku'alofa, Tonga with its national flag.

March of Nations

Chinese delegates with the PRC flag marching into the stadium for the World Sports Festival.

HKSM 香港太空館 Hong Kong Space Museum Astronaut blue uniform Shen Zhou logo n RPChina red flag Jan-2013

The PRC flag on the uniform of Shenzhou 5 spaceflight mission.

Guy with a large PRC flag running along side of torch 20080409

A man in San Francisco holding the PRC flag during the torch relay for the 2008 Summer Olympics.

Парад в честь 70-летия Великой Победы - 40

The People's Liberation Army with the PRC banner during the 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade.

Élève chinoise Polytechnique

Chinese students with the PRC flag at École Polytechnique.

Great Wall of China may 2007

The flag of the PRC flown on the Great Wall of China.

See also

References

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  4. ^ Dr Sun & 1911 Revolution: Teo Eng Hock (1871–1957) Archived 2009-11-26 at the Wayback Machine
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  12. ^ ""On the People's Democratic Dictatorship : In Commemoration of the Twenty-eighth Anniversary of the Communist Party of China, June 30, 1949"". Retrieved 27 September 2017.
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External links

2008 Summer Paralympics

The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games (Chinese: 第十三届残疾人奥林匹克运动会), the 13th Paralympics, took place in Beijing, China from September 6 to 17, 2008. As with the 2008 Summer Olympics, equestrian events were held in Hong Kong and sailing events in Qingdao.

3,951 athletes from 146 countries took part, the largest number of nations ever (ten more than the 2004 Games in Athens). Five countries competed for the first time. China fielded more athletes than any other country. The slogan for the 2008 Paralympics was the same as the 2008 Summer Olympics, "One World, One Dream" (simplified Chinese: 同一个世界 同一个梦想; traditional Chinese: 同一個世界 同一個夢想 Pinyin Tóng yīge shìjìe tóng yīge mèngxiǎng, lit. "One World, One Dream"). China dominated the medal count, finishing with 89 gold medals and 211 total medals, more than double the next-ranked NPC in both cases.

339 Paralympic records and 279 world records were broken.International Paralympic Committee (IPC) President Philip Craven declared the Games "the greatest Paralympic Games ever."Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Paralympics; it would then become the first city ever to host both a Summer and Winter Games.

2018 Winter Olympics closing ceremony

The closing ceremony of the 2018 Winter Olympics took place at Pyeongchang Olympic Stadium in Pyeongchang, South Korea, on 25 February 2018 at 20:00 KST (UTC+9).

Azure Dragon

The Azure Dragon (青龍 Qīnglóng), also known as Bluegreen Dragon, Green Dragon, or also called the Blue Dragon (蒼龍 Cānglóng), is one of the Dragon Gods who represent the mount or chthonic forces of the Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì). He is also one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations, which are the astral representations of the Wufang Shangdi. The Azure Dragon represents the east and the spring season.The Dragon is frequently referred to in the media, feng shui, other cultures, and in various venues as the Green Dragon and the Avalon Dragon. His cardinal direction's epithet is "Bluegreen Dragon of the East" (東方青龍 Dōngfāng Qīnglóng or 東方蒼龍 Dōngfāng Cānglóng).

This dragon is also known as Seiryu in Japanese, Cheong-nyong in Korean and Thanh Long in Vietnamese.

Beijing Garrison Honor Guard Battalion

The Beijing Garrison Honor Guard (Chinese: 北京卫戍区仪仗大队), also known as the PLA Honor Guard is a ceremonial honor guard and police unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. It is composed of representatives of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. The Honor Guard soldiers must be at least 192 cm tall. It performs the Changing of the Guard on Tiananmen Square and the raising of the Flag of China as well (starting 2018). It also greets foreign leaders at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. It has also performed at social events such as the 2008 Summer Olympics 2010 Asian Games in and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics. It also has marched on Tiananmen square for the 35th, 50th and 60th anniversary of the People's Republic of China, as well as the Moscow Victory Day Parade in 2015 and the 2017 Pakistan Day parade.This honor guard battalion, while reporting directly to the Central Military Commission, falls under the operational control of the Central Theater Command. During parades, the battalion is led by a color guard detail bearing the PLA flag, a tradition which began in 1981.

Caduceus

The caduceus (☤; ; Latin cādūceus, from Greek κηρύκειον kērū́keion "herald's wand, or staff") is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology and consequently by Hermes Trismegistus in Greco-Egyptian mythology. The same staff was also borne by heralds in general, for example by Iris, the messenger of Hera. It is a short staff entwined by two serpents, sometimes surmounted by wings. In Roman iconography, it was often depicted being carried in the left hand of Mercury, the messenger of the gods, guide of the dead, and protector of merchants, shepherds, gamblers, liars, and thieves.Some accounts suggest that the oldest known imagery of the caduceus has its roots in a Mesopotamian origin with the Sumerian god Ningishzida; whose symbol, a staff with two snakes intertwined around it, dates back to 4000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.As a symbolic object, it represents Hermes (or the Roman Mercury), and by extension trades, occupations, or undertakings associated with the god. In later Antiquity, the caduceus provided the basis for the astrological symbol representing the planet Mercury. Thus, through its use in astrology, alchemy, and astronomy it has come to denote the planet and elemental metal of the same name. It is said the wand would wake the sleeping and send the awake to sleep. If applied to the dying, their death was gentle; if applied to the dead, they returned to life.By extension of its association with Mercury and Hermes, the caduceus is also a recognized symbol of commerce and negotiation, two realms in which balanced exchange and reciprocity are recognized as ideals. This association is ancient, and consistent from the Classical period to modern times. The caduceus is also used as a symbol representing printing, again by extension of the attributes of Mercury (in this case associated with writing and eloquence).

The caduceus is often incorrectly used as a symbol of healthcare organizations and medical practice, particularly in North America, due to confusion with the traditional medical symbol, the Rod of Asclepius, which has only one snake and is never depicted with wings.

China at the 2015 World Aquatics Championships

The People's Republic of China competed at the 2015 World Aquatics Championships in Kazan, Russia from 24 July to 9 August 2015.

China at the 2017 World Aquatics Championships

China is scheduled to compete at the 2017 World Aquatics Championships in Budapest, Hungary from 14 July to 30 July.

China at the 2019 World Aquatics Championships

China competed at the 2019 World Aquatics Championships in Gwangju, South Korea from 12 to 28 July 2019.

China women's national cricket team

The Chinese women's cricket team is the team that represents the People's Republic of China in international women's cricket matches.

The first time Chinese women cricketers making their international debut was in September 2006 in a Sixes game against Scotland in Shanghai, losing by 59 runs..[1] However, the side was not recognised by the Chinese Cricket Association as the official team.The official Chinese National Women Team was incepted in May 2007. After the National Cricket Tournament Final, a total of 21 girls from 19 school teams were gathered in Shenzhen and underwent vigorous centralised training before a final 14 squad was sent to Bangkok for the ACC Women's Tournament 2007. The team turn up to be a semi-finalist.The team was coached by Rashid Khan and captained by MEI Chun-hua, a right arm fast-bowler and final year student from the Shanghai Tongji University. Other notable players included WANG Meng, a consistent fast bowler and HU Tingting, who turned up to be the best batsman for China during the ACC Tournament. Both WANG and HU were students from the Shenyang Sports Institute.In April 2018, the International Cricket Council (ICC) decided to grant full Women's Twenty20 International (WT20I) status to all its members. Therefore, all Twenty20 matches played between China women and other ICC members after 1 July 2018 will be a full WT20I.On 13 January 2019, in their match against the UAE, the team was bowled out for 14 runs, at the time the lowest total in a Women's T20I match.

Colour guard

In military organizations, a colour guard (or color guard) is a detachment of soldiers assigned to the protection of regimental colours. This duty is so prestigious that the colour is generally carried by a young officer (Ensign), while experienced non-commissioned officers (colour sergeants) are assigned to the protection of the flag. These NCOs, accompanied sometimes by warrant officers (as is the case in several countries), can be ceremonially armed with either sabres or rifles to protect the colour. Colour guards are generally dismounted, but there are also mounted colour guard formations as well.

Flag of China (disambiguation)

The flag of China is a red field charged in the canton (upper corner nearest the flagpole) with five golden stars.

Flag of China may also refer to:

Flag of the Qing dynasty

Flag of the Republic of China

Flags of the Reorganized National Government of China

Flag of the Qing dynasty

The flag of the Qing dynasty was an emblem adopted in the late 19th century featuring the Azure Dragon on a plain yellow field with the red flaming pearl of the three-legged crow in the upper left corner. It became the first national flag of China and is usually referred to as the "Yellow Dragon Flag" (traditional Chinese: 黃龍旗; simplified Chinese: 黄龙旗; pinyin: huáng lóng qí).

Ruling China from 1644 until the overthrow of the monarchy during the Xinhai Revolution, the Qing dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China's history. Between 1889 and 1912, the dynasty represented itself with the dragon flag.

Flags of Asia

This is a gallery of international and national flags used in Asia.

Gallery of sovereign state flags

This gallery of sovereign state flags shows the flags of sovereign states that appear on the list of sovereign states. For other flags, please see flags of active autonomist and secessionist movements, flags of formerly independent states, and gallery of flags of dependent territories. Each flag is depicted as if the flagpole is positioned on the left of the flag, except for those of Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia which are depicted with the hoist to the right.

List of Chinese flags

This is a list of flags of entities named "China".

National Day of the People's Republic of China

The National Day of the People's Republic of China is a public holiday in the People's Republic of China to celebrate the national day, and is celebrated annually on October 1.

National flag

A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country. The national flag is flown by the government of a country, but can usually also be flown by citizens of the country. A national flag is designed with specific meanings for its colours and symbols. The colours of the national flag may be worn by the people of a nation to show their patriotism, or related paraphernalia that show the symbols or colours of the flag may be used for those purposes.

The design of a national flag may be altered after the occurrence of important historical events. The burning or destruction of a national flag is a greatly symbolic act.

Red flag (politics)

In politics, a red flag is predominantly a symbol of socialism, communism, Marxism, trade unions, left-wing politics, and historically of anarchism; it has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution (1789–99). Socialists adopted the symbol during the Revolutions of 1848 and it became a symbol of communism as a result of its use by the Paris Commune of 1871. The flags of several communist states, including China, Vietnam and the Soviet Union, are explicitly based on the original red flag. The red flag is also used as a symbol by some democratic socialists and social democrats, for example the League of Social Democrats of Hong Kong, French Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Labour Party in Britain used it until the late 1980s. It was the inspiration for the socialist anthem, The Red Flag.

Prior to the French revolution, red flags or banners were not associated with socialism, communism, or anarchism but were seen as a symbol of defiance and battle.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōngguó guóqí
Bopomofoㄓㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛ´ ㄍㄨㄛ´ ㄑㄧ´
Wade–GilesChungkuo kuoch'i
other Mandarin
Xiao'erjingﺟْﻮ ﻗُﻮَع ﻗُﻮَع چِ
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationZùngwók gwókkei
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó guóqí
Bopomofoㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚ´ ㄖㄣ´ ㄇㄧㄣ´ ㄍㄨㄥ` ㄏㄜ´ ㄍㄨㄛ´ ㄍㄨㄛ´ ㄑㄧ´
Wade–GilesChunghua Jenmin Kunghokuo kuoch'i
other Mandarin
Xiao'erjingﺟْﻮ ﺧُﻮَ ژٌ مٍ ﻗْﻮ حْ ﻗُﻮَع ﻗُﻮَع چِ
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationZùngfàa Jànman Gùngwogwók gwókkei
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinWǔ xīng hóng qí
other Mandarin
Xiao'erjingءُ سٍ ﺡْﻮ چِ
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationNgh sèng gùng kei
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
National flags
National coats of arms
History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Culture

Languages

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