Five Power Defence Arrangements

The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a series of defence relationships established by a series of multi-lateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore (all Commonwealth members) signed in 1971, whereby the five powers are to consult each other "immediately" in the event or threat of an armed attack on any of these five countries for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in response. There is no specific commitment to intervene militarily. The Five Powers Defence Arrangements do not refer to exclusive economic zones (EEZ) and the enforcement of a state's EEZ rights is a matter for that state; a state may request the assistance of other states in so doing.[1]

Five Power Defence Arrangements member nations
Five Power Defence Arrangements member nations


The FPDA was set up following the termination of the United Kingdom's defence guarantees of Malaysia and Singapore under the Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement, as a result of the UK's decision in 1967 to withdraw its armed forces east of Suez. Under the Five Powers Defence Arrangements, the five 'powers' (Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Singapore and the UK) are to consult each other "immediately" in the event or threat of an armed attack on any of the five countries for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in response. There is no specific commitment to intervene militarily."[2] The FPDA provides defence co-operation between the countries, establishing an Integrated Air Defence System (IADS) for Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore based at RMAF Butterworth under the command of an Australian Air Vice-Marshal (2-star). RMAF Butterworth, was under the control of the Royal Australian Air Force until 1988, and is now run by the Royal Malaysian Air Force but hosts rotating detachments of aircraft and personnel from all five countries.

In 1981, the five powers organised the first annual land and naval exercises. Since 1997, the naval and air exercises have been combined. In 2001, HQ IADS was redesignated Headquarters Integrated "Area" Defence System. It now has personnel from all three branches of the armed services, and co-ordinates the annual five-power naval and air exercises, while moving towards the fuller integration of land elements. An annual FPDA Defence Chiefs' Conference (FDCC) is hosted by either Malaysia or Singapore, and is the highest military professional forum of the FPDA and serves as an important platform for dialogue and exchange of views among the Defence Chiefs.[3] There is also a Five Powers Defence Arrangements Ministerial Meeting (FDMM).[4]

John Moore, then Minister of Defence of Australia said, "As an established multilateral security framework, the FPDA has a unique role in Asia. It is of strategic benefit to all member nations and, in Australia's view, to the wider Asia-Pacific region."[5] Malaysia's CDF, former General (GEN) Tan Sri Dato' Sri Zulkifeli Bin Mohd Zin concurred: "We can help each other... and cooperate with one another."[6]

In the latest New Zealand defence White Paper released in June 2016, it was outlined that given New Zealand was a longstanding member of the Five Power Defence Arrangements, it would, "meet its commitments should Malaysia or Singapore be subject to a military attack."[7]

40th Anniversary

On 1 November 2011, Singapore hosted FPDA's 40th anniversary celebrations, with the defence ministers, aircraft and servicemen from all five signatory countries converging on Changi Air Base (East) to participate in the event. Later, a gala dinner was hosted by Singapore's defence minister—Dr Ng Eng Hen at Singapore's Istana whereupon they called on the Prime Minister of Singapore—Mr Lee Hsien Loong to discuss a multitude of issues. Codenamed Exercise Bersama Lima, the three days joint exercise is tested the readiness and co-operation between all participating countries and concluded on 4 November 2011.[8]

Personnel and facilities

The UK has the following personnel and facilities based in Malaysia and Singapore in support of the FPDA: a small Naval facility at Sembawang in Singapore operated by Joint Forces Command and staff in the Integrated Area Defence System Headquarters (HQ IADS) at RMAF Butterworth in Penang, Malaysia. Staff at Sembawang total three Ministry of Defence civil servants, one Royal Engineer Warrant Officer, one Chief Petty Officer and one Petty officer (RN). The present UK Defence Adviser to Singapore as of 2015 is a Royal Navy Commander.[9] In HQ IADS, it is one Wing Commander, one Squadron Leader, one Lieutenant Commander, one Major and one Flight Sergeant.[10]


  1. ^ "Malaysia: Military Alliances:Written question - 2257". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 11 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  2. ^ "Military Alliances: 4 Nov 2013: Hansard Written Answers". TheyWorkForYou. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  3. ^ "News - Singapore Hosts 15th FPDA Defence Chiefs' Conference (07 Nov 13)" (Press release). MINDEF. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  4. ^ "Military Alliances: 5 Nov 2013: HansardHansard Written Answers". TheyWorkForYou. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  5. ^ "Media Release: Five Power Defence Meeting" (Press release). Defence Ministers & Parliamentary Secretary(Australia). 4 July 2000. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2007.
  6. ^ "Cyberpioneer - Five Power Defence Arrangements remain relevant (07 Nov 13)". 7 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  7. ^ "Defence White Paper 2016". The New Zealand Ministry of Defence Manatū Kaupapa Waonga. June 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  8. ^ "Singapore Hosts FPDA 40th Anniversary Celebrations" (Press release). Singaporean Ministry of Defence (MINDEF). 1 November 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  9. ^ "Mission Locator". Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  10. ^ "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 17 Jun 2013 (pt 0002)". Retrieved 7 April 2014.

External links

1966 Defence White Paper

The 1966 Defence White Paper (Command Papers 2592 and 2901) was a major review of the United Kingdom's defence policy initiated by the Labour government under Prime Minister Harold Wilson. The review was led by the Secretary of State for Defence, Denis Healey. The document was centred on the need to support NATO in Europe and made the commitment that the UK, "would not undertake major operations of war except in co-operation with allies." The 1966 announcements undertook to retain the UK presence in Singapore and Malaysia.

However, the mid-late sixties brought an economic crisis and the devaluation of pound sterling. In 1967 and 1968 the government published two further supplements to the review, announcing the strategic withdrawal of British forces deployed East of Suez. This marked a watershed in British foreign policy and the end of a major, enduring world-wide military role.

Argentina–Malaysia relations

Argentina–Malaysia relations (Spanish: Relaciones Argentina-Malasia; Malay: Hubungan Argentina–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن الأرجنتين–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Argentina and Malaysia. Argentina has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Buenos Aires.

Australia–Malaysia relations

Australia–Malaysia relations (Malay: Hubungan Australia–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن أستراليا–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Australia and Malaysia. Australia has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a high commission in Canberra. Both Australia and Malaysia are members of the Five Power Defence Arrangements and often participate in military exercises together.Occasional issues such as perceived Australian influence in Southeast Asian affairs, as well as the detention and execution of Australian citizens in Malaysia, further complicate relations between the two nations.

Changi Air Base (East)

Changi Air Base (East), or Changi East Complex is a facility extending the facilities of Changi Air Base, the existing facilities hence renamed Changi Air Base (West). Built on a 2 square kilometre site of reclaimed land, the new base was located approximately 2 kilometres east of Singapore Changi Airport and approximately 1.5 kilometres west of Changi Naval Base. Ground breaking took place on 15 July 2002 and it was officially opened on 29 November 2004. The runway (02R/20L) length was approximately 2,748 metres (9,015 ft).

Croatia–Malaysia relations

Croatia–Malaysia relations (Croatian: Hrvatske–malezija odnosi; Malay: Hubungan Croatia–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن كرواتيا–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Croatia and Malaysia. Croatia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Zagreb.

East of Suez

East of Suez is used in British military and political discussions in reference to interests beyond the European theatre, and east of the Suez Canal—most notably the former military base in Singapore—and may or may not include the Middle East. The phrase was popularized by Rudyard Kipling in his 1890 poem Mandalay. It later became a popular song when a tune was added by Oley Speaks in 1907.

Egypt–Malaysia relations

Egypt–Malaysia relations are foreign relations between Egypt and Malaysia. Egypt has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Cairo.

Italy–Malaysia relations

Italy–Malaysia relations (Italian: Relazioni bilaterali tra Italia e Malaysia; Malay: Hubungan Itali–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن إيطاليا–مليسيا) refers to a foreign relations between the two countries, Italy and Malaysia. Italy has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Rome.

Kenya–Malaysia relations

Kenya–Malaysia relations (Swahili: Uhusiano wa Kenya na Malaysia; Malay: Hubungan Kenya–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن كينيا–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Kenya and Malaysia. Kenya has maintained a resident Mission in Kuala Lumpur since in 1996. Malaysia opened a diplomatic Mission in Nairobi in 2005.

Malaysia and the United Nations

Malaysia and the United Nations is a multilateral relations between Malaysia and the United Nations.

Malaysia–New Zealand relations

Malaysia–New Zealand relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–New Zealand; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–نيوزيلندا; Māori: Ngā whanaungatanga Malaysia-Maori) refers to foreign relations between Malaysia and New Zealand. Malaysia has a high commission in Wellington, and New Zealand has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations and Malaysia is important to New Zealand for strategic, political and economic reasons, with both countries' leaders were engaged in frequent visits to boost their relations.

Malaysia–Norway relations

Malaysia–Norway relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Norway; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–النرويج; Norwegian: Relasjoner mellom Malaysia og Norge) refers to foreign relations between the two countries, Malaysia and Norway. Malaysia has a consulate in Oslo, while Norway has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.

Malaysia–Spain relations

Malaysia–Spain relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Sepanyol; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–سيڤڽول; Spanish: Relaciones entre Malasia y España) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Malaysia and Spain. Malaysia has an embassy in Madrid, and Spain has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.

Malaysia–Switzerland relations

Malaysia–Switzerland relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Switzerland; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–سويتزيرلند; German: Malaysisch-Schweizer Beziehungen French: Relations entre la Malaisie et la Suisse; Italian: Relazioni bilaterali tra la Malesia e la Svizzera) refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Malaysia and Switzerland. Malaysia has an embassy in Bern, and Switzerland has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.

Malaysia–Ukraine relations

Malaysia–Ukraine relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Ukraine; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–أوكرانيا; Ukrainian: Малайзійсько-українські відносини Malayziysʹko-ukrayinsʹki vidnosyny) are foreign relations between Malaysia and Ukraine. Malaysia has an embassy in Kiev, and Ukraine has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.

Max Gaylard

Maxwell "Max" Gaylard (born 1946) is a former Australian diplomat and international public servant.

Born in Nambour, Queensland, he was educated at Nambour State Primary and High Schools, then the University of Queensland and Australian National University.Joining the Department of External Affairs in 1968, Gaylard was the first diplomatic cadet to be conscripted into the army. He then graduated from the Officer Training Unit at Scheyville in 1968 where he was awarded the Sword of Honour. He was then assigned as a Second Lieutenant/Platoon Commander to the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, serving in Malaysia and Singapore as part of a Commonwealth Brigade under the Five-Power Defence Arrangements. He returned to the Department in Canberra in 1970, and subsequently served as an Australian diplomat in Mexico, Burma and Singapore. He was appointed Australian High Commissioner to the Solomon Islands from 1985 - 1988. While resident in the Solomons, he and other diplomats received death threats from an Australian expatriate-dubbed 'Mr Smith' in the media. Reflecting in 2014, Gaylard said that the saga involving Smith had made the posting "fairly tough".At the end of his posting in the Solomons, he was seconded by the Australian Government from 1988 - 1996 to London, as Director of International Relations (later re- named Political Affairs) of the Commonwealth Secretariat. In that capacity, and during an era of democratisation throughout the Commonwealth, Gaylard served as an envoy of the Commonwealth Secretary-General to a range of Commonwealth countries going through the processes of constitutional change and multi-party elections.

In 1997, Gaylard joined the United Nations as an Assistant then Deputy Humanitarian Coordinator with the Oil-for-Food Programme in northern Iraq, after which he served as the Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in Sudan from 1999 - 2002. He was then appointed by the UN Secretary-General as UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Somalia from 2002-2006, and was the Director of the UN Mine Action Service based in New York from 2006-2008. From 2008-2012, he was appointed by the Secretary General as UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Palestine and Deputy Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process. From 2013-2014, Gaylard served as a Senior Adviser to the Government of the United Arab Emirates in Abu Dhabi, and 2015-2016 as a UN Assistant Secretary-General and Senior Adviser to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh.

Naval Party (Royal Navy)

The Royal Navy maintains a number of Naval Parties worldwide to support a number of operations and training activities:

Naval Party 1002 (NP1002) is the largest component of British Forces British Indian Ocean Territories located at the Permanent Joint Operating Base (PJOB) on Diego Garcia, in the British Indian Ocean Territory. The primary role of NP1002 is to act as the islands civil administration.

Naval Party 1011 (NP1011) is the Royal Navy detachment at the Mine Warfare Centre (MWC)/Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center Portsmouth, UK / Miami. This is a U.S. Navy submarine test, evaluation, and exercise facility.

Naval Party 1022 (NP1022) is the permanent Royal Navy posting at Sembawang wharf, Singapore. NP1022 is responsible for managing the British owned and funded naval repair and logistics support facility in support of the Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA). It is fuelled by the Ministry of Defence Fuels Group.

Naval Party 2010 (NP2010) is deployed on the Falkland Islands and are responsible for the day-to-day operation of the East Cove Military Port at Mare Harbour.

New Zealand–Singapore relations

Singapore - New Zealand relations refers to the bilateral relations between the Republic of Singapore and New Zealand. Singapore has a high commission in Wellington. Likewise, New Zealand has a high commission in Singapore. Singapore and New Zealand are both members of the Commonwealth of Nations, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Five Power Defence Arrangements pact.

Singapore is New Zealand's sixth-largest trading partner, with bilateral trade between the two countries in 2017-18 valued at NZ$4.95 billion (approximately S$4.75 billion).

RMAF Butterworth

RMAF Butterworth (Malay: TUDM Butterworth) is an Air Force Station of the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) situated 4.5 nautical miles (8.3 km; 5.2 mi) from Butterworth in Penang, Malaysia. It is also currently home to the Headquarters Integrated Area Defence System (HQIADS), part of the Five Power Defence Arrangements for Malaysia and Singapore, which is commanded by an Australian Air Vice Marshal.

The airfield was formerly known as RAF Station Butterworth, a Royal Air Force airfield of the Royal Air Force (RAF) between 1941 and 1957; and was subsequently known as RAAF Butterworth (IATA: BWH, ICAO: WMKB), an air force airfield of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) between 1957 and 1988.


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