Fitzhugh Lee

Fitzhugh Lee (November 19, 1835 – April 28, 1905) was a Confederate cavalry general in the American Civil War, the 40th Governor of Virginia, diplomat, and United States Army general in the Spanish–American War. He was the son of Sydney Smith Lee, a captain in the Confederate States Navy, and the nephew of General Robert E. Lee.

Fitzhugh Lee
Fitzhugh Lee cph.3b04429
Fitzhugh Lee in 1895
40th Governor of Virginia
In office
January 1, 1886 – January 1, 1890
LieutenantJohn E. Massey
Preceded byWilliam E. Cameron
Succeeded byPhilip W. McKinney
Personal details
BornNovember 19, 1835
Fairfax County, Virginia
DiedApril 28, 1905 (aged 69)
Washington, D.C.
Resting placeHollywood Cemetery
Richmond, Virginia
ParentsSydney Smith Lee
Anne Marie Mason
RelativesSee Lee family
Signature
Fitzhugh Lee's signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
 Confederate States
Service/branch United States Army
 Confederate States Army
Years of service1856–1861, 1898–1901 (USA)
1861–1865 (CSA)
RankUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Major General (USA)
Confederate States of America General-collar.svg Major General (CSA)
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War
Spanish–American War

Early life

Lee was born at Clermont in Fairfax County, Virginia. He was the grandson of "Light Horse Harry" Lee, a nephew of Robert E. Lee and Samuel Cooper, and cousin of George Washington Custis Lee, W.H.F. "Rooney" Lee, and Robert E. Lee, Jr.[1] His father, Sydney Smith Lee,[2] served under Commodore Perry in Japanese waters and rose to the rank of Captain; his mother, Anna Maria Mason Lee, was a granddaughter of George Mason and the sister of James Murray Mason.[3]

Graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1856, Lee was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd Cavalry Regiment (later redesignated the 5th Cavalry Regiment), which was commanded by Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, and in which his uncle, Robert E. Lee, was lieutenant colonel. As a cavalry subaltern, he distinguished himself by his gallant conduct in actions against the Comanches in Texas, and was severely wounded in a fight in Nescutunga, Texas, in 1859. [4] In May 1860, he was appointed instructor of cavalry tactics at West Point, but resigned his commission upon the secession of Virginia.[3]

Civil War

Lee joined the Confederate States Army as a lieutenant of cavalry and served at first as a staff officer to Brig. Gen. Richard S. Ewell at the First Battle of Bull Run. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the 1st Virginia Cavalry in September 1861, serving under Colonel J.E.B. Stuart. Lee became colonel of the regiment in March 1862 and was promoted to brigadier general on July 24, 1862. During the Northern Virginia Campaign, Lee received notoriety by arriving late for a concentration of cavalry, which allowed Federal cavalry to raid Stuart's headquarters and capture his famous plumed hat and cape. However, during the subsequent Confederate raid on Catlett's Station, he captured the headquarters tent and dress uniform of Union Maj. Gen. John Pope. Lee gave Pope's coat to Stuart as compensation for the hat he had lost.

Lee performed well in the Maryland Campaign of 1862, covering the Confederate infantry's withdrawal from South Mountain, delaying the Union Army advance to Sharpsburg, Maryland, before the Battle of Antietam, and covering his army's recrossing of the Potomac River into Virginia. Stuart's cavalry made its second ride around the Union Army in the Chambersburg Raid before returning in time to screen Robert E. Lee's movement towards Fredericksburg where the cavalry defended the extreme right of the Confederate line. Fitzhugh Lee conducted the cavalry action of Kelly's Ford (March 17, 1863) with skill and success, where his 400 troopers captured 150 men and horses with a loss of only 14 men. In the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, Lee's reconnaissance found that the Union Army's right flank was "in the air", which allowed the successful flanking attack by Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, a movement led by Lee's cavalry.

Fitzhugh Lee General
Lee during the American Civil War

After Chancellorsville, Lee was incapacitated by inflammatory rheumatism, missing a month of action, which included the significant cavalry operations at the Battle of Brandy Station. He recovered in time to lead a brigade in Jeb Stuart's third ride around the Union Army, in the early days of the Gettysburg Campaign, with his most significant contribution being at the Battle of Carlisle. During the Battle of Gettysburg, his brigade fought unsuccessfully in the action at East Cavalry Field. Stuart's report singled out no officer in his command for praise except Fitz Lee, who he said was "one of the finest cavalry leaders on the continent, and richly [entitled] to promotion."[5] During the withdrawal from Gettysburg, Lee's brigade held the fords at Shepherdstown to prevent the Union army from following across the Potomac River. Lee was promoted to major general on August 3, 1863,[1] and continued to serve under Maj. Gen. Stuart's command, despite Stuart not receiving promotion following his questionable conduct in the Gettysburg Campaign. While his uncle maneuvered the Army of Northern Virginia back into central Virginia, Lee's division launched a successful ambush on Union cavalry at the Battle of Buckland Mills that fall.

In the Overland Campaign the following spring, Lee was constantly employed as a divisional commander under Stuart. Following the Battle of the Wilderness, Lee's cavalry division played a pivotal role in impeding the Union Army in its race to the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. During the fighting at Spotsylvania, Gen. Stuart was detached from the army for the purpose of thwarting Union cavalry commander Phillip Sheridan's raid on Richmond. Stuart took Fitzhugh Lee's division with him. The mission ultimately ended in the mortal wounding of Gen. Stuart at the Battle of Yellow Tavern and Lee's inability to break through United States Colored Troops defense of Fort Pocohontas in Charles City County. After Stuart's death, Lee served under Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton. Hampton, who had been Lee's peer for much of the war, was promoted to replace Stuart due to his seniority and greater level of experience; some observers at the time had cynically expected Robert E. Lee's nephew to receive the command.

At the Battle of Trevillian Station, Hampton's cavalry prevented Gen. Sheridan's cavalry from aiding General David Hunter's force in western Virginia, where it was certain to have inflicted great damage on General Robert E. Lee's supply and communication lines. The battle also served to screen Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early's move from Richmond to aid Lynchburg, which Hunter was set to besiege. Hampton's cavalry corps shadowed Sheridan's return to Petersburg.

Lee subsequently joined Early for his campaign against Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, and at Third Winchester (September 19, 1864) three horses were shot under him and he was severely wounded.[4] When General Hampton was sent to assist General Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina, the command of the whole of Robert E. Lee's cavalry devolved upon Fitzhugh Lee on March 29, 1865, but the surrender at Appomattox followed quickly upon the opening of the campaign. Fitzhugh Lee himself led the last charge of the Confederates on April 9 that year at Farmville, Virginia.[4]

Postbellum life

After the war, Lee devoted himself to farming in Stafford County, Virginia, and was conspicuous in his efforts to reconcile the Southern people to the issue of the war, which he regarded as a final settlement of the questions at issue. In 1875, he attended the Battle of Bunker Hill centennial at Boston and delivered a remarkable address. In 1885, he was a member of the board of visitors of West Point, and from 1886 to 1890 was governor of Virginia having defeated in 1885 Republican John Sergeant Wise with 52.77% of the vote.[4]

Lee commanded the third division at both of President Grover Cleveland's inaugural parades in 1885 and 1893.[6]

In April 1896, Lee was appointed consul-general at Havana by President Cleveland, with duties of a diplomatic and military character added to the usual consular business. In this post (in which he was retained by President William McKinley until 1898) he was from the first called upon to deal with a situation of great difficulty, which culminated with the destruction of the warship USS Maine. Upon the declaration of war between Spain and the United States, he re-entered the army.

He was one of four ex-Confederate general officers who were made major generals of United States Volunteers (the others being Matthew Butler, Joseph Wheeler and Thomas L. Rosser). Fitzhugh Lee commanded the 7th Army Corps, but took no part in the actual operations in Cuba. He was military governor of Havana and Pinar del Río in 1899, subsequently commanded the Department of the Missouri, and retired in 1901 as a brigadier general, U.S. Army.[4]

Lee was an early leader of the committee for the Jamestown Exposition, which would be held after his death at Sewell's Point on Hampton Roads in 1907. Lee died in Washington, D.C., and is buried in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

Lee wrote the article about Robert E. Lee in the Great Commanders series (1894), General Lee, a wartime biography (1894), and Cuba's Struggle Against Spain (1899).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1.
  2. ^ Freeman, Douglas S. (1934–35) R. E. Lee, A Biography. vol. 1, p. 332. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. OCLC 166632575.
  3. ^ a b "Fitzhugh Lee (1835–1905)". Encyclopedia Virginia. March 9, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d e Chisholm 1911.
  5. ^ Tagg, Larry (1998). The Generals of Gettysburg. Campbell, California: Savas Publishing. p. 364. ISBN 1-882810-30-9.
  6. ^ "Gen. Lee to Command: He Will Head a Division in the Inaugural Parade". The New York Times. February 19, 1893. Retrieved: July 8, 2008
Attribution

Further reading

  • Longacre, Edward G. Lee's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of Northern Virginia. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 2002. ISBN 0-8117-0898-5.
  • Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4.
  • Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
William E. Cameron
Governor of Virginia
1886–1890
Succeeded by
Philip W. McKinney
1885 Virginia gubernatorial election

The 1885 Virginia gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1885 to elect the governor of Virginia.

Battle of Five Forks

The Battle of Five Forks was fought on April 1, 1865, southwest of Petersburg, Virginia, around the road junction of Five Forks, Dinwiddie County, at the end of the Siege of Petersburg, near the conclusion of the American Civil War.

The Union Army commanded by Major General Philip Sheridan defeated a Confederate force from the Army of Northern Virginia commanded by Major General George Pickett. The Union force inflicted over 1,000 casualties on the Confederates and took up to 4,000 prisoners while seizing Five Forks, the key to control of the South Side Railroad, a vital supply line and evacuation route.

After the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House (March 31st) at about 10:00 p.m., V Corps infantry began to arrive near the battlefield to reinforce Sheridan's cavalry. Pickett's orders from his commander General Robert E. Lee were to defend Five Forks "at all hazards" because of its strategic importance.

At about 1:00 p.m., Sheridan pinned down the front and right flank of the Confederate line with small arms fire, while the massed V Corps of infantry, commanded by Major General Gouverneur K. Warren, attacked the left flank soon afterwards. Owing to an ‘acoustic shadow’ in the woods, Pickett and cavalry commander Major General Fitzhugh Lee did not hear the opening stage of the battle, and their subordinates couldn’t find them. Although Union infantry could not exploit the enemy’s confusion, owing to lack of reconnaissance, they were able to roll up the Confederate line by chance, helped by Sheridan’s personal encouragement. After the battle, Sheridan controversially relieved Warren of command of V Corps, largely due to private enmity. Meanwhile the Union held Five Forks and the road to the South Side Railroad, causing General Lee to abandon Petersburg and Richmond, and begin his final retreat.

Battle of Kelly's Ford

The Battle of Kelly's Ford, also known as the Battle of Kellysville or Kelleysville, took place on March 17, 1863, in Culpeper County, Virginia, as part of the cavalry operations along the Rappahannock River during the American Civil War. It set the stage for Brandy Station and other cavalry actions of the Gettysburg Campaign that summer. Twenty-one hundred troopers of Brig. Gen. William W. Averell's Union cavalry division crossed the Rappahannock to attack the Confederate cavalry that had been harassing them that winter. Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee counterattacked with a brigade of about 800 men. After achieving a localized success, Union forces withdrew under pressure in late afternoon, without destroying Lee's cavalry.

Battle of Meadow Bridge

The Battle of Meadow Bridge (also known as Meadow Bridges and the Battle of Richmond Heights) was an engagement on May 12, 1864, in Henrico County, Virginia, during Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign of the American Civil War. Following their victory at the Battle of Yellow Tavern on May 11, Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan advanced in the direction of the Confederate capital of Richmond. Caught in the narrow area between the fortifications of Richmond and the rain-swollen Chickahominy River, the Union troopers were subjected to fire from the artillery of Confederate Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee. Michigan cavalry under Brig. Gen. George A. Custer forced a crossing of a damaged railroad bridge, which was quickly rebuilt by engineers, allowing the troopers to escape to safety and continue their raid.

Battle of Trevilian Station

The Battle of Trevilian Station (also called Trevilians) was fought on June 11–12, 1864, in Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan fought against Confederate cavalry under Maj. Gens. Wade Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee in the bloodiest and largest all-cavalry battle of the war.

Sheridan's objectives for his raid were to destroy stretches of the Virginia Central Railroad, provide a diversion that would occupy Confederate cavalry from understanding Grant's planned crossing of the James River, and to link up with the army of Maj. Gen. David Hunter at Charlottesville. Hampton's cavalry beat Sheridan to the railroad at Trevilian Station and on June 11 they fought to a standstill. Brig. Gen. George A. Custer entered the Confederate rear area and captured Hampton's supply train, but soon became surrounded and fought desperately to avoid destruction.

On June 12, the cavalry forces clashed again to the northwest of Trevilian Station, and seven assaults by Brig. Gen. Alfred T. A. Torbert's Union division were repulsed with heavy losses. Sheridan withdrew his force to rejoin Grant's army. The battle was a tactical victory for the Confederates and Sheridan failed to achieve his goal of permanently destroying the Virginia Central Railroad or of linking up with Hunter. Its distraction, however, may have contributed to Grant's successful crossing of the James River.

Battle of Williamsport

The Battle of Williamsport, also known as the Battle of Hagerstown or Falling Waters, took place from July 6 to July 16, 1863, in Washington County, Maryland, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. It is not to be confused with the fighting at Hoke's Run which was also known as the Battle of Falling Waters

During the night of July 4–July 5, Gen. Robert E. Lee's battered Confederate army began its retreat from Gettysburg, moving southwest on the Fairfield Road toward Hagerstown and Williamsport, screened by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry. The Union infantry followed cautiously the next day, converging on Middletown, Maryland.

By July 7, Brig. Gen. John D. Imboden stopped Brig. Gen. John Buford's Union cavalry from occupying Williamsport and destroying Confederate trains. On July 6, Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick's cavalry division drove two Confederate cavalry brigades through Hagerstown before being forced to retire by the arrival of the rest of Stuart's command. Lee's infantry reached the rain-swollen Potomac River but could not cross, the pontoon bridge having been destroyed by a cavalry raid.

On July 11, Lee entrenched a line, protecting the river crossings at Williamsport and waited for Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's Army of the Potomac to advance. On July 12, Meade reached the vicinity and probed the Confederate line. On July 13, skirmishing was heavy along the lines as Meade positioned his forces for an attack. In the meantime, the river fell enough to allow the construction of a new bridge, and Lee's army began crossing the river after dark on the 13th.

On the morning of July 14, Kilpatrick's and Buford's cavalry divisions approached from the north and east respectively. Before allowing Buford to gain a position on the flank and rear, Kilpatrick attacked the rearguard division of Maj. Gen. Henry Heth taking more than 500 prisoners. Confederate Brig. Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew was mortally wounded in the fight.

On July 16, Brig. Gen. David McM. Gregg's cavalry approached Shepherdstown where the brigades of Brig. Gens. Fitzhugh Lee and John R. Chambliss, supported by Col. Milton J. Ferguson's brigade, held the Potomac River fords against the Union infantry. Fitzhugh Lee and Chambliss attacked Gregg, who held out against several attacks and sorties, fighting sporadically until nightfall when he withdrew.

Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

The Cavalry Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia was an organized unit of cavalry in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. Starting out as a brigade in late 1861, becoming a division in 1862 and finally a Corps in 1863; it served in the Eastern Theater until the ANV's surrender in April 1865.

Clermont (Alexandria, Virginia)

Clermont was an 18th-century plantation in Fairfax County (now Alexandria), Virginia, United States. Clermont is best known as the home of John Mason (April 4, 1766 – March 19, 1849), an early American merchant and planter and a son of George Mason, a Founding Father of the United States. Clermont is also known for being the birthplace of Fitzhugh Lee (November 9, 1835 – April 18, 1905), nephew of Robert E. Lee, grandson of John Mason, Confederate cavalry general in the American Civil War, Governor of Virginia, diplomat, and United States Army general in the Spanish–American War.

Dahlgren affair

The Dahlgren affair was an incident in the American Civil War involving a failed Union raid on the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia on March 2, 1864. According to mysterious papers found on the body of the raid's commanding officer, Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, one of their mission objectives was to assassinate Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his cabinet.

Ulric Dahlgren was killed outside Richmond, near the King & Queen County Court House, on March 2 during a bungled raid on the Confederate capital, ostensibly to free Union prisoners. (See Battle of Walkerton). Late that evening, thirteen-year-old William Littlepage discovered Dahlgren's body and searched its pockets for a pocketwatch. Instead, he found a pocketbook and two folded papers, which he promptly turned over to his teacher Edward W. Halbach, a captain in the Confederate Virginia Home Guard. Halbach examined the papers the next morning, discovering that they contained signed orders on Union army stationery for a plot to assassinate Davis.

According to other sources, e.g. Alexandria Gazette, October 16, 1865, it was Major von Borcke who led the party which killed Ulric Dahlgren. It was von Borcke himself who searched the body and found the papers, and his lieutenant handed them to Fitzhugh Lee. The names 'Halbach' or 'Littlepage' are not to be found in any relation to Dahlgren's death in the Library of Congress's newspaper collection for the years 1864 following.

According to one of the papers:

The men must keep together and well in hand, and once in the city it must be destroyed and Jeff. Davis and Cabinet killed.

Halbach immediately contacted his commander, Captain Richard H. Bagby, and informed him of the discovery. At 2 p.m. on March 3, Bagby transferred the papers to Lieutenant James Pollard with instructions to deliver them to his commander Col. Richard L. T. Beale. Beale instructed that they be delivered to the Confederate command in Richmond immediately. Pollard arrived in Richmond at noon on March 4 and delivered the papers to General Fitzhugh Lee. Lee, astonished at their contents, immediately took the papers to President Davis and Secretary of State Judah P. Benjamin. Davis quietly read through the documents in Lee's presence and paused when he reached the assassination order, remarking "That means you, Mr. Benjamin." Lee was then instructed to take the papers to the War Department where they were received by Secretary of War James A. Seddon. Seddon decided to release the documents publicly and sought Davis' approval to do so. The Richmond newspapers were contacted for a conference at the War Department and given copies of the orders, which were published the next morning on March 5.

In coming months, the papers were widely circulated in the Confederacy and in Europe as evidence of Union barbarism. Dahlgren was likened to Attila the Hun and several Union leaders were accused of participation in the plot up to and including President Abraham Lincoln. In the United States, the papers were denounced as a forgery designed to weaken the Union's war effort. Most historians today, such as Duane Schultz in The Dahlgren Affair: Terror and Conspiracy in the Civil War, agree the papers were forged, intended to justify numerous plots by the Confederate Secret Service to kidnap Lincoln or blow up the White House.

First Battle of Ream's Station

The First Battle of Ream's Station was fought on June 29, 1864, during the Wilson-Kautz Raid of the American Civil War. Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. William Mahone and Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee defeated Union cavalry raiding Confederate railroads south of Petersburg, Virginia.

Fitzhugh Lee (disambiguation)

Fitzhugh Lee (1835–1905) was the 40th Governor of Virginia and United States Army general. Fitzhugh Lee or Fitz Lee may also refer to

Fitzhugh Lee III (1905–1992), Vice Admiral in the United States Navy, grandson of Fitzhugh Lee

Fitz Lee (Medal of Honor) (1866–1899), United States Army soldier

William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (1837–1891), General in the American Civil War and Congressman from Virginia

Harry Fitzhugh Lee, American businessman

Harry Fitzhugh Lee House in North Carolina, U.S.

Lee Mason Fitzhugh (1877–1937), co-founder of the Fitzhugh & Byron architectural partnership in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.

Fitzhugh Lee III

Fitzhugh Lee III (August 19, 1905 – January 20, 1992) was a vice admiral in the United States Navy. A graduate of the United States Naval Academy, he saw combat during World War II, earning the Navy Cross twice while serving as captain of the USS Manila Bay (CVE-61). He was a member of the Lee family.

Harry Fitzhugh Lee House

Harry Fitzhugh Lee House is a historic home located at Goldsboro, Wayne County, North Carolina. It was built in 1922, and is a two-story, five bay, Colonial Revival style brick dwelling with a gambrel roof and frame shed-roof dormers. A 1 1/2-story gambrel roofed addition was built in 1939. It features a covered porch supported by paired Doric order pillars. It was the home of Harry Fitzhugh Lee, a prominent Goldsboro businessman and a great-nephew of General Robert E. Lee.The building was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1984.

Lunsford L. Lomax

Lunsford Lindsay Lomax (November 4, 1835 – May 28, 1913) was an officer in the United States Army who resigned his commission to join the Confederate Army at the outbreak of the American Civil War. He had maintained a close friendship with his West Point classmate Fitzhugh Lee, and served under him as a brigadier in the Overland Campaign. He was then given command of the Valley District, where he supervised intelligence-gathering operations by Mosby's Rangers.

Monument to the Victims of the USS Maine (Havana)

The Monument to the Victims of the USS Maine (Spanish: Monumento a las víctimas del Maine) was built in 1925 in on the Malecón boulevard at the end of Línea street, in the Vedado neighborhood of Havana, Cuba, built in honor of the American sailors who died in the explosion of USS Maine in 1898, which served as the pretext for the United States to declare war on Spain thus starting the Spanish–American War. The ship had anchored at Havana three weeks previously at the request of American Consul Fitzhugh Lee.

The monument was crowned with an American eagle. Its wings extended vertically in such a way that a hurricane damaged the monument the following year. The original eagle was replaced in 1926 by one with horizontal wings. The first one is now in the U.S. Embassy building in Havana.

There were originally three busts of Americans: President William McKinley, who declared war on Spain; Leonard Wood, first military governor in Cuba, and President Theodore Roosevelt.

On 18 January 1961, the eagle and busts of the Americans were removed by a mob, because it was considered a "symbol of imperialism". The following inscription was later added:

To the victims of the Maine who were sacrificed by the imperialist voracity and their desire to gain control of the island of CubaFebruary 1898 – February 1961

(A las víctimas de El Maine que fueron sacrificadas por la voracidad imperialista en su afán de apoderarse de la isla de Cuba.Febrero 1898 – Febrero 1961)

The eagle's head was later given to Swiss diplomats. It, too, is now in the building of the Embassy of the United States, Havana . The body and the wings are stored in the Havana City History Museum. The museum's curator believes that good relations with the U.S. will be symbolized by the reunification of the parts of the eagle.

Other monuments to USS Maine are located in the U.S. including: Columbus Circle in New York City; Key West; Arlington National Cemetery; and Annapolis. (See USS Maine: Memorials)

Myles Ponsonby, 12th Earl of Bessborough

Myles Fitzhugh Longfield Ponsonby, 12th Earl of Bessborough (born 16 February 1941), is a British peer.

He is the son of Arthur Ponsonby, 11th Earl of Bessborough, and his wife Patricia née Minnigerode, daughter of Col. Fitzhugh Lee Minnigerode.

Ravensworth (plantation)

Ravensworth was an 18th-century plantation house near Annandale in Fairfax County, Virginia. Ravensworth was the Northern Virginia residence of William Fitzhugh, William Henry Fitzhugh, Mary Lee Fitzhugh Custis, William Henry Fitzhugh Lee and George Washington Custis Lee. It was built in 1796.

Southern Historical Society

The Southern Historical Society was a public organization founded by Confederate Major General Dabney H. Maury in 1869 in New Orleans, Louisiana. It documented Southern military and civilian viewpoints largely related to the American Civil War. They published the Southern Historical Society Papers in the late 19th Century, comprising 52 volumes of articles written by Southern soldiers, officers, politicians, and civilians. The first 14 volumes were edited by John William Jones. The aim was to offer a Southern perspective on the Civil War and oppose the bias of Northern historians. This approach has led to the group being called by modern historians uninterested in academic history. It played an important role in the development of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy movement, reestablishing regional pride, and fueling conservative movements and white supremacism. The organization continued a campaign started by southern writers such as Edward A. Pollard and Robert Lewis Dabney.The group was supported by many prominent Confederate figures, including former president Jefferson Davis. Other notable members of the group included John Brown Gordon, Daniel H. Hill, Fitzhugh Lee, John William Jones, Jubal A. Early, Walter H. Taylor, Armistead Lindsay Long, Robert M. T. Hunter, Alexander H. Stephens, and Zebulon Baird Vance. The group's influence continues to today, and it is an influence in the Sons of Confederate Veterans and activists in favor of public display of the Confederate battle flag. Historians today use the Society's journal as a source for civil war research as well as an example how historical memory can be shaped and manipulated.

William Henry Fitzhugh Lee

William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (May 31, 1837 – October 15, 1891), known as Rooney Lee (often spelled "Roony" among friends and family) or W.H.F. Lee, was the second son of General Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Custis. He was a planter, a Confederate cavalry General in the American Civil War, and later a Congressman from Virginia.

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