Fishing net

A fishing net is a net used for fishing. Nets are devices made from fibers woven in a grid-like structure. Some fishing nets are also called fish traps, for example fyke nets. Fishing nets are usually meshes formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. Early nets were woven from grasses, flaxes and other fibrous plant material. Later cotton was used. Modern nets are usually made of artificial polyamides like nylon, although nets of organic polyamides such as wool or silk thread were common until recently and are still used.

A fishing net in Brandon Creek - geograph.org.uk - 921094
Nylon fishing net with float line attached to small plastic floats

History

Astyanax vs Kalendio mosaic
A retiarius ("net fighter"), with a trident and cast net, fighting a secutor (mosaic, 4th century BC)
FusaioleCucuteni
Cucuteni-Trypillian ceramic weights

Fishing nets have been used widely in the past, including by stone age societies. The oldest known fishing net is the net of Antrea, found with other fishing equipment in the Karelian town of Antrea. The net was made from willow, and dates back to 8300 BC.[1] Recently, fishing net sinkers from 27,000 BC were discovered in Korea, making them the oldest fishing implements discovered, to date, in the world. [2] The remnants of another fishing net dates back to the late Mesolithic, and were found together with sinkers at the bottom of a former sea.[3][4] Some of the oldest rock carvings at Alta (4200–500 BC) have mysterious images, including intricate patterns of horizontal and vertical lines sometimes explained as fishing nets. American Native Indians on the Columbia River wove seine nets from spruce root fibers or wild grass, again using stones as weights. For floats they used sticks made of cedar which moved in a way which frightened the fish and helped keep them together.[5] With the help of large canoes, pre-European Maori deployed seine nets which could be over one thousand metres long. The nets were woven from green flax, with stone weights and light wood or gourd floats, and could require hundreds of men to haul.[6]

Fishing nets are well documented in antiquity. They appear in Egyptian tomb paintings from 3000 BC. In ancient Greek literature, Ovid makes many references to fishing nets, including the use of cork floats and lead weights.[7][8][9] Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics which show nets.[10] In a parody of fishing, a type of gladiator called retiarius was armed with a trident and a cast net. He would fight against a secutor or the murmillo, who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front.[11] Between 177 and 180 the Greek author Oppian wrote the Halieutica, a didactic poem about fishing. He described various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open by a hoop, and various traps "which work while their masters sleep". Here is Oppian's description of fishing with a "motionless" net:

The fishers set up very light nets of buoyant flax and wheel in a circle round about while they violently strike the surface of the sea with their oars and make a din with sweeping blow of poles. At the flashing of the swift oars and the noise the fish bound in terror and rush into the bosom of the net which stands at rest, thinking it to be a shelter: foolish fishes which, frightened by a noise, enter the gates of doom. Then the fishers on either side hasten with the ropes to draw the net ashore.

In Norse mythology the sea giantess Rán uses a fishing net to trap lost sailors. References to fishing nets can also be found in the New Testament.[12] Jesus Christ was reputedly a master in the use of fishing nets. The tough, fibrous inner bark of the pawpaw was used by Native Americans and settlers in the Midwest for making ropes and fishing nets.[13][14] The archaeological site at León Viejo (1524–1610) has fishing net artifacts including fragments of pottery used as weights for fishing nets.

Fishing nets have not evolved greatly, and many contemporary fishing nets would be recognized for what they are in Neolithic times. However, the fishing lines from which the nets are constructed have hugely evolved. Fossilised fragments of "probably two-ply laid rope of about 7 mm diameter" have been found in one of the caves at Lascaux, dated about 15,000 BC.[15] Egyptian rope dates back to 4000 to 3500 BC and was generally made of water reed fibers. Other rope in antiquity was made from the fibers of date palms, flax, grass, papyrus, leather, or animal hair. Rope made of hemp fibres was in use in China from about 2800 BC.

Types

Type Image Target fish Description Environmental impact
Bottom trawl Trawling Drawing Demersal fish such as groundfish, cod, squid, halibut and rockfish A trawl is a large net, conical in shape, designed to be towed along the sea bottom. The trawl is pulled through the water by one or more boats, called trawlers or draggers. The activity of pulling the trawl through the water is called trawling or dragging. Bottom trawling results in a lot of bycatch and can damage the sea floor. A single pass along the seafloor can remove 5 to 25% of the seabed life.[16] A 2005 report of the UN Millennium Project, commissioned by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, recommended the elimination of bottom trawling on the high seas by 2006 to protect seamounts and other ecologically sensitive habitats. In mid-October 2006, US President Bush joined other world leaders calling for a moratorium on deep-sea trawling.
Cast net Payallarfishing Schooling and other small fish Cast nets (throw nets) are small round nets with weights on the edges which are thrown by the fisher. Sizes vary up to about four metres in diameter. The net is thrown by hand in such a manner that it spreads out on the water and sinks. Fish are caught as the net is hauled back in.[17] High discrimination possible. Non targeted fish can be released unharmed.
Coracle net fishing Coracles River Teifi Coracle fishing is performed by two people, each seated in a coracle, plying their paddle with one hand and holding a shared net with the other. When a fish is caught, each hauls up their end of the net until the two coracles are brought to touch and the fish is secured.
Dragnet Salmon Netting below Paxton House - geograph.org.uk - 216572 This is a general term which can be applied to any net which is dragged or hauled across a river or along the bottom of a lake or sea. An example is the seine net shown in the image. The fishing depth of this net can be adjusted by adding weights to the bottom.
Drift net Gill net hauled in over a power-driven drum The drift net is a net that is not anchored, but is drifting with the current. It is usually a gill or tangle net, and is commonly used in the coastal waters of many countries. Its use on the high seas is prohibited, but still occurs.
Drive-in net A drive-in net is another fixed net, used by small-scale fishermen in some fisheries in Japan and South Asia, particularly in the Philippines. It is used to catch schooling forage fish such as fusiliers and other reef fish. It is a dustpan-shaped net, resembling a trawl net with long wings. The front part of the net is laid along the seabed. The fishermen either wait until a school swims into the net, or they drive fish into it by creating some sort of commotion. Then the net is closed by lifting the front end so the fish cannot escape.[18]
Fixed gillnet (on stakes) Fishing nets (8377175145) Fixed gillnets[19] are nets for catching fish in shallow intertidal zones. It consists of a sheet of network stretched on stakes fixed into the ground, generally in rivers or where the sea ebbs and flows, for entangling and catching the fish.
Fyke net Fyke net in a museum Fyke nets are bag-shaped nets which are held open by hoops. These can be linked together in long chains, and are used to catch eels in rivers. If fyke nets are equipped with wings and leaders, they can also be used in sheltered places in lakes where there is plenty of plant life. Hundreds of these nets can be connected into systems where it is not practical to build large traps.[20] It is similar to putcher fishing.
Gillnet Eilif Peterssen-Laksefiskeren (1889) Sardines, salmon, cod The gillnet catches fish which try to pass through it by snagging on the gill covers. Thus trapped, the fish can neither advance through the net nor retreat. Uses a system of nets with floats and weights. The nets are anchored to the sea floor and allowed to float at the surface Animals cannot see the net, so they swim into it and are tangled. High risk of bycatch.
Ghost net Turtle entangled in marine debris (ghost net) Ghost nets are nets that have been lost at sea. They may continue to be a menace to marine life for many years.
Hand net FraserRiverSalmonFishing Hand nets, also called scoop or dip nets, are held open by a hoop and may be attached to a short or a long stiff handle. They have been known since antiquity and can be used for sweeping up fish near the water surface like muskellunge and northern pike. When such a net is used by an angler to help land a fish, it is a landing net.[21] In England, hand netting is the only legal way of catching eels and has been practised for thousands of years on the Rivers Parrett and Severn.
Landing net Net.gsfc Landing nets are large handheld nets that are used to lift caught fish out of the water, most commonly in angling and fly fishing. Landing nets are commonly used for large fish such as the common carp.
Lave net Lave net A special form of large hand net is the lave net, now used in very few locations on the River Severn in England and Wales. The lave net is set in the water and the fisherman waits till he feels a fish hit against the mesh and the net is then lifted. Fish as large as sturgeon are caught in lave nets.[22]
Lift net Thookku Valai A lift net has an opening which faces upwards. The net is first submerged to a desired depth, and then lifted or hauled from the water. It can be lifted either manually (hand lift net) or mechanically (shore-operated lift net), and can be operated on a boat (boat-operated lift net)[23]
Midwater trawl Pelagisches Schleppnetz Pelagic fish such as anchovies, shrimp, tuna and mackerel In midwater trawling a cone-shaped net is towed behind a single boat and spread by trawl doors (image), or it can be towed behind two boats (pair trawling) which act as the spreading device. Midwater trawling is relatively benign compared to the damage bottom trawling can inflict on the sea bottom.
Plankton net Planktonnetzbgar Plankton Research vessels collect plankton from the ocean using fine mesh plankton nets. The vessels either tow the nets through the sea or pump sea water onboard and then pass it through the net.[24]
Purse seine Purse seine illustration, Historic American Engineering Record Schooling fish The purse seine, widely used by commercial fishermen, is an evolution of the surround net, which in turn is an evolution of the seine net. A large net is used to surround fish, typically an entire fish school, on all sides. The bottom of the net is then closed by pulling a line arranged like a drawstring used to close the mouth of a purse. This completely traps the fish. Higher chance of bycatch
Push net Banks shrimper Shrimp A push net is a "small triangular fishing net with a rigid frame that is pushed along the bottom in shallow waters and is used in parts of the southwestern Pacific for taking shrimps and small bottom-dwelling fishes".[25]
Seine net Seining for wild fish A seine is a large fishing net that may be arranged in a number of different ways. In purse seine fishing the net hangs vertically in the water by attaching weights along the bottom edge and floats along the top. A simple and commonly used fishing technique is with beach seine, where the seine net is operated from the shore. Danish seine is a method which has some similarities with trawling. In the UK seine netting for Salmon and Sea-trout in coastal waters is only permitted in a very few locations and where it is permitted one end of the seine must remain fixed and the other end is then waded out and returns to the fixed point. This variant is called Wade netting and is strictly controlled by law.[26]
Shore-operated lift net Kochi chinese fishing-net-20080215-01a Pelagic species These are held horizontally by a large fixed structure and periodically lowered into the water. Huge mechanical contrivances hold out horizontal nets with diameters of twenty metres or more. The nets are dipped into the water and raised again, but otherwise cannot be moved. The nets may hold bait or be fitted with lights to attract more fish.[27][28] The most famous examples are found at Kochi, India, where they are known as Chinese fishing nets (Cheena vala). Despite this name, this technique is used all over the world. They are also widely used on the Atlantic coast of France, where they are operated from small huts built over the water on stilts, known as carrelets, and on the Adriatic coast of Italy as trabucco.
Surrounding net Salmon purse seining A surrounding net surrounds fish on all sides. It is an evolution of the seine, and is typically used by commercial fishers.[29]
Tangle net Tangle Net Tangle nets, also known as tooth nets, are similar to gillnets except they have a smaller mesh size designed to catch fish by the teeth or upper jaw bone instead of by the gills.[30]
Trammel A trammel is a fishing net with three layers of netting that is used to entangle fish or crustacea.[31] A slack central layer with a small mesh is sandwiched between two taut outer layers with a much larger mesh. The net is kept vertical by the floats on the headrope and weights on the bottomrope.

Fishing lines

Ropes and lines are made of fibre lengths, twisted or braided together to provide tensile strength. They are used for pulling, but not for pushing. The availability of reliable and durable ropes and lines has had many consequences for the development and utility of fishing nets, and influences particularly the scale at which the nets can be deployed.

Floats

Some types of fishing nets, like seine and trammel, need to be kept hanging vertically in the water by means of floats at the top. Various light "corkwood"-type woods have been used around the world as fishing floats. Floats come in different sizes and shapes. These days they are often brightly coloured so they are easy to see.

Birch bark fishing net weights

Finnish fishing net corks made out of birch bark and stones

Pentagram float

Cork float of a fisher net engraved with a protective pentagram, Hvide Sande, Denmark

Strombus canarium.shelll004

Dog conches are used to weigh down fishing nets

Providing a safety 'net' for Syrian women in Lebanon (11173910046)

A plastic float being sewn onto a net

Weights and anchors

The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture, c. 5500 BC to 2750 BC in Eastern Europe, created ceramic weights in various shapes and sizes which were used as loom weights when weaving, and also were attached to fishing nets.[34]

Despite their ornamental value, dog conches are traditionally used by local fishermen as sinkers for their fishing nets.[35][36]

Production

"The training is good, it's great. It helps us to learn and to earn a living" (11173845336)
Syrian refugee in Lebanon manually manufacturing from her home a fishing net intended for sale.[37]

Fishing nets are usually manufactured on industrial weaving machines, though traditional methods are still used where the nets are manually weaved and assembled in home or cottage industries.

Environmental impact

Fisheries often use large-scale nets that are indiscriminate and catch whatever comes along; sea turtle, dolphin, or shark. Bycatch is a large contributor to sea turtle deaths.[38] Longline, trawl,[39] and gillnet fishing are three types of fishing with the most sea turtle accidents. Deaths occur often because of drowning, where the sea turtle was ensnared and could not come up for air.[40]

Fishing nets, usually made of plastic, can be left or lost in the ocean by fishermen. Known as ghost nets, these entangle fish, whales, dolphins, sea turtles, sharks, dugongs, crocodiles, seabirds, crabs, and other creatures, restricting movement, causing starvation, laceration and infection, and, in those that need to return to the surface to breathe, suffocation.[41]

Sea turtle entangled in a ghost net

Sea turtle entangled in a net

Logger ted 01

Loggerhead sea turtle exits from fishing net through a turtle excluder device

Miscellany

Aa scuba netcutter
Scuba diver's net cutter

Divers may become trapped in fishing nets; monofilament is almost invisible underwater. Divers often carry a net cutter. This is a small handheld tool carried by scuba divers to extricate themselves if trapped by a fishing net or fishing line. It has a small sharp blade such as a replaceable scalpel blade inside the small notch. There is a small hole at the other end to for a lanyard to tether the cutter to the diver.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The palaeoenvironment of the Antrea Net Find". University of Helsinki Research Portal. Finnish Antiquarian Society. 2008.
  2. ^ "Cast from the past: World's oldest fishing net sinkers found in South Korea". m.phys.org.
  3. ^ Kriiska, Aivar (1996) "Stone age settlements in the lower reaches of the Narva River, north-eastern Estonia" Coastal Estonia: Recent Advances in Environmental and Cultural History. PACT 51. Rixensart. Pages 359–369.
  4. ^ Indreko R (1932) "Kiviaja võrgujäänuste leid Narvas" (Stone Age find of fishing net remnants), in Eesti Rahva Muuseumi Aastaraamat VII, Tartu, pp. 48–67 (in Estonian).
  5. ^ Smith, Courtland L Seine fishing Oregon Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  6. ^ Meredith, Paul "Te hī ika – Māori fishing" Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Updated 2 March 2009.
  7. ^ Radcliffe W (1926) Fishing from the Earliest Times John Murray, London.
  8. ^ Johnson WM and Lavigne DM (1999) Monk Seals in Antiquity Fisheries, pp. 48–54. Netherlands Commission for International Nature Protection.
  9. ^ Gilroy, Clinton G (1845) "The history of silk, cotton, linen, wool, and other fibrous substances: including observations on spinning, dyeing and weaving" pp. 455–464. Harper & Brothers, Harvard University.
  10. ^ Image of fishing illustrated in a Roman mosaic Archived 2011-07-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Auguet, Roland [1970] (1994). Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10452-1.
  12. ^ Luke 5:4-6; John 21:3-7a
  13. ^ Werthner, William B. (1935). Some American Trees: An intimate study of native Ohio trees. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. xviii + 398 pp.
  14. ^ Bilton, Kathy. "Pawpaws: A paw for you and a paw for me". Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  15. ^ J.C. Turner and P. van de Griend (ed.), The History and Science of Knots (Singapore: World Scientific, 1996), 14.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ Casting net.
  18. ^ Gabriel, Otto; Andres von Brandt (2005). Fish Catching Methods of the World. Blackwell. ISBN 0-85238-280-4.
  19. ^ FAO, Fishing Gear Types : Fixed Gillnets (on stakes), Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2011
  20. ^ fyke net (2008) In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 24, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  21. ^ Fishing Tools - Landing Nets Archived 2008-09-15 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Lave Net Fishing". severnsideforum.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-03-25. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
  23. ^ FAO, Lift net Fishing Gear Types. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  24. ^ Ichthyoplankton sampling methods Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA. Modified 3 September 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  25. ^ Commission of the European Communities, Multilingual dictionary of fishing gear, 2nd edition, 1992 (n° 3247 p.[183]205).
  26. ^ studio, TalkTalk web. "TalkTalk Webspace is closing soon!!". web.onetel.net.uk.
  27. ^ Commission of the European Communities, Multilingual dictionary of fishing gear, 2nd edition, 1992 (n° 3062 p.[56]78).
  28. ^ "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Fishing gear type". www.fao.org.
  29. ^ "MONOGRAPH". map.seafdec.org.
  30. ^ Selective Fishing Methods Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  31. ^ Fishing Gear Types: Trammel nets, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, retrieved 2010-09-27
  32. ^ a b Wild Singapore - Berembang Sonneratia caseolaris
  33. ^ "Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae)". Meet the Plants. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
  34. ^ Prehistoric textiles: the development of cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze By E.J.W. Barber
  35. ^ Poutiers, J. M. (1998). "Gastropods". In Carpenter, K. E. (ed.). The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific (PDF). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). p. 471. ISBN 92-5-104051-6.
  36. ^ Purchon, R. D. & Purchon D. E. A. (1981). "The marine shelled Mollusca of West Malaysia and Singapore. Part I. General introduction and account of the collecting stations". Journal of Molluscan Studies 47: 290–312.
  37. ^ "Fishing nets for a future: helping Syrian women in Lebanon". Archived from the original on 2015-08-28. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
  38. ^ Stokstad, Erik. "Sea Turtles Suffer Collateral Damage From Fishing." Science AAAS 07 Apr 2010: n. pag. Web. 8 Dec 2010."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2012-05-12.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ Sasso, Christopher, and Sheryan Epperly. "Seasonal sea turtle mortality risk from forced submergence in bottom trawls." Fisheries Research 81.1 (2006): 86-88. Web. 15 Dec 2010.
  40. ^ Haas, Heather, Erin LaCasella, Robin LeRoux, Henry Miliken, and Brett Hayward. "Characteristics of sea turtles incidentally captured in the U.S. Atlantic sea scallop dredge fishery." Fisheries Research 93.3 (2008): 289-295. Web. 15 Dec 2010.
  41. ^ "'Ghost fishing' killing seabirds". BBC News. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-01.

References

External links

AntreaNet
Fragments from the net of Antrea 8300 BC
36-pesca,Taccuino Sanitatis, Casanatense 4182.
Tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis, Baghdad, 14th century
Albrecht Dürer - Wunderbare Errettung eines ertrunkenen Knaben aus Bregenz
Albrecht Dürer c. 1490-1493
Hdgs Fishing
Medieval Scandinavian ice fishing technique 1555
36-pesca,Taccuino Sanitatis, Casanatense 4182.
Albrecht Dürer - Wunderbare Errettung eines ertrunkenen Knaben aus Bregenz
Hdgs Fishing
Fischer-1568
Fisherman with net and trap in Germany, 1568
The fisherfolks at Chinese Fishing Nets
The Chinese fishing nets of Fort Cochin, India (depiction from the 1840s)
Wd b172
Crab fishing, 1891–1895
Salmon fishing with large loop nets by Native Americans2
Native American fishing salmon with loop net 1938
The fisherfolks at Chinese Fishing Nets
Wd b172
Salmon fishing with large loop nets by Native Americans2
Fuiken
Three fykes at the Zuiderzeemuseum, Netherlands
A close look at a fishing net, Bangor - geograph.org.uk - 958876
Commercial trawl net, Bangor
BD-fishermen
Fishermen in Bangladesh
Fisherman mending net
Moroccan fisherman mending his nets
Carrelet, Esnandes, Charente-Maritime, august 2015
Fishing nets on pontoons
A close look at a fishing net, Bangor - geograph.org.uk - 958876
BD-fishermen
Fisherman mending net
Carrelet, Esnandes, Charente-Maritime, august 2015
Vissersboot(01)
Fishing nets on a shrimp boat, Ostend, Belgium
Fishing.cropped
Fishing with a cast net
Fishing equipment on Lyme Regis Cobb - geograph.org.uk - 371792
Fishing nets and marker flags used on a small fishing vessel at Lyme Regis, England
Bordeaux Maison Larrieu R01
Net manufacturer Larrieu Frères in Bordeaux, France, founded 1622
Fishing.cropped
Fishing equipment on Lyme Regis Cobb - geograph.org.uk - 371792
Bordeaux Maison Larrieu R01
Caloosahatchee culture

The Caloosahatchee culture is an archaeological culture on the Gulf coast of Southwest Florida that lasted from about 500 to 1750 CE. Its territory consisted of the coast from Estero Bay to Charlotte Harbor and inland about halfway to Lake Okeechobee, approximately covering what are now Charlotte and Lee counties. At the time of first European contact, the Caloosahatchee culture region formed the core of the Calusa domain.

Some Archaic artifacts have been found in the Caloosahatchee culture region, including one site classified as early Archaic. There is evidence that Charlotte Harbor aquatic resources were being intensively exploited before 3500 BC. Undecorated pottery belonging to the early Glades culture appeared in the region around 500 BC. Pottery distinct from the Glades tradition developed in the Caloosahatchee region around 500 AD, and a complex society with high population densities developed by 800 AD. Later periods in the Caloosahatchee culture are defined by the appearance of pottery from other traditions in the archaeological record.

The coast in the Caloosahatchee culture region is a very rich estuarine environment. An extensive network of bays and sounds are protected behind barrier islands. The Caloosahatchee, Myakka and Peace rivers flow into the estuary. There are extensive areas of mangrove and seagrass in the estuary, resulting in high biological production.

The people of the Caloosahatchee culture built mounds. Some of the mounds in Caloosahatchee settlements were undisturbed shell middens, but other were constructed from midden and earth materials. The hundreds of sites identified range from simple small middens to complex sites with earthwork platform mounds, plazas, "water courts," causeways, and canals. Mound Key, in the middle of Estero Bay, covers 70–80 acres (28–32 ha), and includes mounds up to 31 feet (9.4 m) tall. A canal penetrates more than halfway into Mound Key, passing between two mounds and ending in a roughly rectangular pool.

The Caloosahatchee people derived 80% to 90% of their animal food from fish. Shellfish, including crabs were also important. Minor components of their diet included white-tailed deer, other mammals, waterfowl such as ducks, American Alligators, turtles, West Indian Manatees and sea urchins. Plants collected as food included various wild roots, mastic fruit, prickly pear cactus fruit, palm fruits, sea grapes, hogplum, and cocoplum.

Tools and ornaments made of wood, bone, stone and shell have been found. Perforated stones and plummets (oblong stones with a groove incised around one end) of limestone are though to have been used as fishing net weights. Dippers, cups, spoons, beads, cutting-edge tools and hammers were made from shells. Awls, beads, pendants, pins, gorges, barbs, and points were made from bone. Ceremonial tablets were incised on non-native stone (presumably imported from other areas).

Although outside the Caloosahatchee region proper, the artifacts found at Key Marco are closely related. These include many wood objects and cordage. The cordage found at Key Marco, probably of palm fiber, was primarily used in fishing nets. Wood artifacts found at Key Marco included masks, painted carvings of animals, incised and painted tablets and toy/model canoes.

Chinese fishing nets

Chinese fishing nets (Cheena vala) are a type of stationary lift net in India. They are fishing nets that are fixed land installations for fishing. While commonly known as "Chinese fishing nets" in India, the more formal name for such nets is "shore operated lift nets". Huge mechanical contrivances hold out horizontal nets of 20 m or more across. Each structure is at least 10 m high and comprises a cantilever with an outstretched net suspended over the sea and large stones suspended from ropes as counterweights at the other end. Each installation is operated by a team of up to six fishermen. While such nets are used throughout coastal southern China and Indochina, in India they are mostly found in the Indian cities of Kochi and Kollam, where they have become a tourist attraction. This way of fishing is unusual in India and almost unique to the area, as it was introduced by Chinese explorers who landed there in the 14th century. Indeed, one interpretation of the city name Kochi is ‘co-chin', meaning ‘like China.’The system is sufficiently balanced that the weight of a man walking along the main beam is sufficient to cause the net to descend into the sea. The net is left for a short time, possibly just a few minutes, before it is raised by pulling on ropes. The catch is usually modest: a few fish and crustaceans, which may be sold to passers-by within minutes.

Rocks, each 30 cm or so in diameter, are suspended from ropes of different lengths. As the net is raised, some of the rocks one-by-one come to rest on a platform thereby keeping everything in balance.

Each installation has a limited operating depth. Consequently, an individual net cannot be continually operated in tidal waters. Different installations will be operated depending on the state of the tide.

The nets may have been introduced by the Chinese explorer Zheng He.The Chinese fishing nets have become a very popular tourist attraction. Their size and elegant construction is photogenic and the slow rhythm of their operation is quite hypnotic. In addition, catches can be purchased individually and need be taken only a short distance to a street entrepreneur who will cook it.

Dragnet

Dragnet may refer to:

Dragnet, a fishing net used in seine fishing

Dragnet (policing), a coordinated search, named for the fishing net

Eel ladder

An eel ladder is type of fish ladder designed to help eels swim past barriers, such as dams and weirs or even natural barriers, to reach upriver feeding grounds. (Many eels are catadromous, living in fresh water but spawning at sea.) The basic design of an eel ladder has the eel swim over the barrier using an eel ascending ramp, which provides the eels a climbing substrate to "push against" while slithering upstream. For some higher barriers, elevator-style systems are also used.

An eel ladder typically consists of four parts: an eel ascending ramp, a supporting structure, a water-feeding system, and a side gutter. The eel ascending ramp can be a fairly simple construction, such as a hollowed out tree filled with recycled fishing net, or a more complex structure designed to accommodate specific species or ages of eels. The supporting structure mounts the ladder to the barrier. The rampside gutter provides an attraction flow to draw eels toward the ladder while the water-feeding system ensures the proper flow of water to the gutter.

Ice jigger

The ice jigger also known as prairie ice jigger, or prairie jigger, is a device for setting a fishing net under the ice between two ice holes, invented by fishermen of Canada in early 1900s.The jigger consists of a slotted wooded board that floats under the ice surface and two levers connected in such a way that when a rope connected to one lever (arm) is pulled, the second lever (leg) jabs into the ice and pushes against the ice to move the board in the direction opposite to the rope pull. After each pull a spring resets the arm, and the action is repeated. In this way a person by an ice hole propels the jigger away. If the ice is transparent enough, one just makes another hole over the jigger when it moves far away. (Otherwise the progress of the jigger may be monitored by the tapping noise of the jigger's leg.) After that the jigger is pulled out of the second hole, together with the rope, and the net may be stretched under the ice using the rope from one hole to another.The simple and effective design remained basically unchanged since its invention. Imler (1971) described the use of a radio transmitter to locate the jigger under heavy ice cover by Colorado fishery biologists.

James Dyson Award

The James Dyson Award is an international student design award that challenges young people to, "design something that solves a problem". The contest is open to university level students (or recent graduates) in the fields of product design, industrial design and engineering. The award is run by the James Dyson Foundation, James Dyson’s charitable trust, as part of its mission to get young people excited about design engineering.

To qualify students must have studied in: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ireland,

India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom or the United States.One national winner and four finalists are chosen from each country. James Dyson selects an international winner for the overall prize.

Lampara net

A lampara net is a type of fishing net. It is a surrounding net having the shape of a spoon or a dustpan with a short leadline under a longer floatline. The net has a central bunt to contain the fish and two lateral wings.Lampara nets are used for capturing pelagic fish, those swimming near the water's surface. They are often used in the Mediterranean, the United States, and South Africa to catch sardines. In Argentina they are used for anchoveta and mackerels and in Japan for sea breams and flying fish. They are used in Australia to catch eastern sea garfish (Hyporhamphus australis). In South Florida in the US lampara nets are used to catch ballyhoo (Hemiramphus brasiliensis) and balao (H. balao), which are used as bait fish by anglers. The fishery for opalescent inshore squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) in California became successful after Italian immigrants introduced the lampara net there in 1905.These nets are often utilized on fishing vessels 9 to 18 meters long with 50 to 150 horsepower engines. The nets are hauled in by hand by a team of crewmembers pulling the lateral wings. The fish are removed with a smaller net or a scoop.

Lave net

A lave net is a type of fishing net used in river estuaries, particularly in the Severn Estuary in Wales and England to catch salmon.

The lave net is a "Y" shaped structure consisting of two arms called rimes made from willow, which act as a frame work to the loosely hung net. The handle is called the rock staff and is made of ash or willow. The arms are hinged to the rock staff and are kept in position while fishing with a wooden spreader called the headboard.

Fishermen wade out at low tide with lave nets on their shoulders to the fishing grounds, with the water up to their waists. The net is then opened and lowered into the outgoing tide which rushes through the net. With his fingers placed at the bottom meshes of the net, the fisherman then waits for the fish to hit the net.

The last lave net fishermen in Wales promote the fishery as a tourist attraction at Black Rock, Portskewett, with the aim of maintaining its history and tradition. Demonstrations of lave net fishing can be watched on certain days from the picnic site at Black Rock.On the English side of the Severn, lave net fishing was practised for centuries at Oldbury on Severn. In the 1990s the fishery declined because the fishing stations silted up, claimed by the fishermen to be a result of slower tides caused by the construction of the Second Severn Crossing.In the past, sturgeon have also been caught in lave nets.

Marine Drive, Kochi

Marine Drive is a picturesque promenade in the city of Kochi, Kerala, India.It is built facing the backwaters, and is a popular hangout for the local populace. Ironic to its name, no vehicles are allowed on the walkway. Marine Drive is also an economically thriving part of the city of Kochi.With several shopping malls it is as an important centre of shopping activity in Kochi. Major fast food joints, including Marrybrown, DiMark, Coffee Bar are present along the walkway. The view of the setting and rising sun over the sea mouth, and the gentle breeze from the Vembanad Lake has made Marine Drive an important tourist destination in Kochi. Hundreds of people (both natives, and tourists) throng the walkway during the evenings. The walkway starts from the High Court Junction and continues until the Rajendra Maidan. There are also several boat jetties along the walkway.The walkway has three contemporary constructed bridges, the Rainbow bridge, the Chinese Fishing Net Bridge and the House Boat Bridge.

Mikhmoret

Mikhmoret (Hebrew: מִכְמֹרֶת, מכמורת, lit. Fishing net) is a moshav in central Israel. Located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea around nine kilometres north of Netanya, it falls under the jurisdiction of Hefer Valley Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 1,367.

Peter Gabriel (1982 album)

Peter Gabriel is the fourth eponymous album released by English rock musician Peter Gabriel. It is sometimes known by the title Security. A German-language version, entitled Deutsches Album, was also released.

Seine fishing

Seine ( SAYN) fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats. Seine nets can be deployed from the shore as a beach seine, or from a boat.

Boats deploying seine nets are known as seiners. Two main types of seine net are deployed from seiners: purse seines and Danish seines.

Sou'wester

A Sou'wester is a traditional form of collapsible oilskin rain hat that is longer in the back than the front to protect the neck fully. A gutter front brim is sometimes featured. A possible theory for the derivation of the name is to do with the Sou'wester wind which is the prevailing wind in the seas around the UK. A Sou'west wind tends to bring warm air containing moisture, thus rain. A fishing net would always be brought up in the lee of the wind so that a fisherman facing the net would have his back to the wind and without a hat the rain would be driven down the fisherman's neck, above his oilskin jacket. A Sou'wester hat has a roll up brim at the front which works like a gutter whilst keeping the face clear. The hat extends down the back, bridging and protecting the neck. Sou'wester hats were popular to dress small boys in during the 1950s in Britain.

Surrounding net

A surrounding net is a fishing net which surrounds fish and other aquatic animals on the sides and underneath. It is typically used by commercial fishers, and pulled along the surface of the water. There is typically a purse line at the bottom, which is closed when the net is hauled in.

Sword of Victory

The Sword of Victory or Phra Saeng Khan Chaiyasi (Thai: พระแสงขรรค์ชัยศรี) is part of the royal regalia of the King of Thailand. The sword represents the military might and power of the king. The hilt has a length of 25.4 centimetres (10 inches) with the blade measuring 64.5 centimetres (25 inches). When placed in the scabbard the sword has a total length of 101 centimetres (40 inches) and weighs 1.9 kilograms (4.2 pounds). The swords neck between the blade and the hilt is decorated with a gold inlaid miniature of Vishnu riding the Garuda.

The sword's history has been shrouded in myth and legend. In 1784, Chao Phraya Apai Pubet of Cambodia received the blade from a fisher who found in it in Tonle Sap when it was caught in his fishing net. He gave it to King Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Rama I) of Thailand, his suzerain at the time. According to legend, it was said that the moment the blade arrived in Bangkok, seven lightning strikes hit the city simultaneously, including the city gate, where the blade entered, and over the main gate of the Grand Palace.

The sword's name means 'the wisdom of the king', as it was supposed to remind the king that he must rule over his people with wisdom. King Rama I had the hilt and scabbard made of gold, inlaid with diamonds and precious stones. During the coronation ceremony the king is handed the sword by a Brahmin, then straps it onto his belt himself. The sword features heavily in the Oath of Allegiance Ceremony where the King ceremoniously dip the sword into a bowl of sacred water, and then drink the water as an example, followed by senior civil servants and military officers as a sign of allegiance to the institution of the monarchy.

Tangle net

Similar to a gillnet, the tangle net, or tooth net, is a type of nylon fishing net. Left in the water for no more than two days, and allowing bycatch to be released alive, this net is considered to be less harmful that other nets. The tangle net is used in the Philippines by commercial fishermen, as well as by the scientific community. When spent, these nets can be bundled, and left on the sea floor to collect smaller species. These bundles are known locally as lumen lumen nets.

Trawling

Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. The net that is used for trawling is called a trawl.

The boats that are used for trawling are called trawlers or draggers. Trawlers vary in size from small open boats with as little as 30 hp (22 kW) engines to large factory trawlers with over 10,000 hp (7.5 MW). Trawling can be carried out by one trawler or by two trawlers fishing cooperatively (pair trawling).

Trawling can be contrasted with trolling, where baited fishing lines instead of trawls are drawn through the water. Trolling is used both for recreational and commercial fishing whereas trawling is used mainly for commercial fishing. Trawling is also commonly used as a scientific sampling, or survey, method.

Trento, Agusan del Sur

Trento, officially the Municipality of Trento, (Cebuano: Lungsod sa Trento; Tagalog: Bayan ng Trento), is a 1st class municipality in the province of Agusan del Sur, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 51,565 people.Trento was formerly a barrio of Bunawan called Bahayan (referring to a lead sinker at the base of a fishing net). On June 15, 1968, it became a separate municipality through Republic Act No. 5283. The town’s name was derived from the Council of Trent.

Āraiteuru

In Māori tradition, Āraiteuru is the canoe which brought the ancestors of the Ngāi Tahu people of the South Island.

The canoe was conveyed to New Zealand by the north-east wind, carrying the chiefs Kirikiri-ka-tata, Aroarokaehe, Mangaatua, Aoraki, Kakeroa, Te Horokoatu, Ritua, Ngamautaurua, Pokohiwitahi, Puketapu, Te Maro-tiri-a-te-rehu, Hikuroroa, Pahatea, Te Waioteao, and Hapekituaraki. The fishing net and the water gourd (calabash) of Āraiteuru were turned into stone at Moeraki in the South Island, where they can still be seen in the form of the Moeraki Boulders. The canoe itself remained at a place called Matakaea (Shag Point) (Tregear 1891:20, White 1887-1891, II:178-179).

The main marae in central Dunedin is named Araiteuru Marae after the canoe.

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