Fishing line

A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Fishing line is strong like, but not string. Important parameters of a fishing line are its length, material, and weight (thicker lines are more visible to fish). Factors that may determine what line an angler chooses for a given fishing environment include breaking strength, knot strength, UV resistance, castability, limpness, stretch, abrasion resistance, and visibility. Most modern lines are made from nylon or silk.[1]

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Fishing line with hooks attached

Terminology

Fish are caught with a fishing line by encouraging a fish to bite on a fish hook. A fish hook will pierce the mouthparts of a fish and is normally barbed to make escape less likely. Another method is to use a gorge, which is buried in the bait such that it would be swallowed end first. The tightening of the line would fix it cross-wise in the quarry's stomach or gullet and so the capture would be assured.

Fishing with a hook and line is called angling. In addition to the use of the hook and line used to catch a fish, a heavy fish may be landed by using a landing net or a hooked pole called a gaff.

Trolling is a technique in which a fishing lure on a line is drawn through the water. Trolling from a moving boat is a technique of big-game fishing and is used to catch large open-water species such as tuna and marlin. Trolling is also a freshwater angling technique often used to catch salmon, northern pike, muskellunge and walleye. This technique allows anglers to cover a large body of water in a short time.

Long-line fishing, also known as a trot line is a commercial fishing technique that uses many baited hooks hanging from a single line.

Snagging is a technique where the object is to hook the fish in the body. Generally, a large treble hook with a heavy sinker is cast into a river containing a large amount of fish, such as a Salmon, and is quickly jerked and reeled in. Due to the often illegal nature of this method some practitioners have added methods to disguise the practice, such as adding bait or piercing the jerking motion.

Early lines

As written in 1667 by Samuel Pepys, the fishing lines in his time were made from catgut.[2] Later, silk fishing lines were used around 1724.[3]

Modern lines

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Fishing line

Modern fishing lines intended for spinning, spin cast, or bait casting reels are almost entirely made from artificial substances, including nylon, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF, also called fluorocarbon), polyethylene, Dacron and UHMWPE (Honeywell's Spectra or Dyneema). The most common type is monofilament, made of a single strand. Fishermen often use monofilament because of its buoyant characteristics and its ability to stretch under load. The line stretch has advantages, such as dampening the force when setting the hook and when fighting strong fish. On very far distances the dampening may become a disadvantage. Recently, other alternatives to standard nylon monofilament lines have been introduced made of copolymers or fluorocarbon, or a combination of the two materials. Fluorocarbon fishing line is made of the fluoropolymer PVDF and it is valued for its refractive index, which is similar to that of water, making it less visible to fish. Fluorocarbon is also a denser material, and therefore, is not nearly as buoyant as monofilament. Anglers often utilize fluorocarbon when they need their baits to stay closer to the bottom without the use of heavy sinkers. There are also braided fishing lines, cofilament and thermally fused lines, also known as 'superlines' for their small diameter, lack of stretch, and great strength relative to standard nylon monofilament lines. Braided, thermally fused, and chemically fused varieties of 'superlines' are now readily available.

Specialty lines

Fly lines consist of a tough braided or monofilament core, wrapped in a thick waterproof plastic sheath, often of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In the case of floating fly lines, the PVC sheath is usually embedded with many 'microballoons' or air bubbles, and may also be impregnated with silicone or other lubricants to give buoyancy and reduce wear. In order to fill up the reel spool and ensure an adequate reserve in case of a run by a powerful fish, fly lines are usually attached to a secondary line at the butt section, called backing. Fly line backing is usually composed of braided dacron or gelspun monofilaments. All fly lines are equipped with a leader of monofilament or fluorocarbon fishing line, usually (but not always) tapered in diameter, and referred to by the 'X-size' (0X, 2X, 4X, etc.) of its final tip section, or tippet. Tippet size is usually between 0X and 8X, where 0X is the thickest diameter and 8X is the thinnest. There are exceptions to this, and tippet sizes do exist outside of the 0X-8X paramter. [4]


Tenkara lines are special lines used for the fixed-line fishing method of tenkara. Traditionally these are furled lines the same length as the tenkara rod. Although original to Japan, these lines are similar to the British tradition of furled leader. They consist of several strands being twisted together in decreasing numbers toward the tip of the line, thus creating a taper that allows the line to cast the fly. It serves the same purpose as the fly-line, to propel a fly forward. They may be tied of various materials, but most commonly are made of monofilament.

Wire lines are frequently used as leaders to prevent the fishing line from being severed by toothy fish. Usually braided from several metal strands, wire lines may be made of stainless steel, titanium, or a combination of metal alloys coated with plastic.

Stainless steel line leaders provide:

- bite protection - it is extremely hard for fish to cut the steel wire, regardless of jaw and teeth strength and sharpness,

- abrasion resistance - sharp rocks and objects can damage other lines, while steel wire can cut through most of the materials,

- single wire (single strand) leaders are not as flexible as multi strand steel wire, but are extremely strong and tough,

- multi strand steel wire leaders are very flexible, but are somewhat more abrasive and more damage prone than single strand wires.

Titanium fishing fishing leaders are actually titanium-nickel alloys that have several very important features:

- titanium leader lines are very flexible, regardless if they are single or multi strand lines/wires,

- these lines are very elastic - they can stretch up to 10% without permanent damage to the line itself - perfect for hook setting,

- these lines are knottable just as nylon monofilament lines,

- surface is rather hard and abrasion resistant - great for fishing toothy fish,

- titanium wire is corrosion resistant and can last for a long time, even surpassing stainless steel wires,

- due to the strength and elasticity, titanium wires are almost entirely kink-proof.

Copper, monel and lead core fishing lines are used as heavy trolling main lines, usually followed with fluorocarbon line near the lure or bait with fishing swivel between the lines. Due to their high density, these fishing lines sink rapidly in water and they require less line for achieving desired trolling depth. On the other hand, these lines are relatively thick for desired strength, especially when compared with braided fishing lines and they often require reels with larger spools.

Environmental impact

Discarded monofilament fishing line takes up to 600 years to decompose.[5] There have been several types of biodegradable fishing lines developed to minimize the impact on the environment.[6][7][8][9]

See also

References

  1. ^ The World Book Encyclopedia Volume 7. Field Enterprises Educational Corp. 1968.
  2. ^ The World Book Encyclopedia Volume 7. Field Enterprises Educational Corp. 1968.
  3. ^ The World Book Encyclopedia Volume 7. Field Enterprises Educational Corp. 1968.
  4. ^ Carter Reschke, "What Tippet Size to Use", Fly Fever Magazine, October 24 2018
  5. ^ "Approximate Time it Takes for Garbage to Decompose in the Environment" (PDF). NH Department of Environmental Services. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  6. ^ Merwin: Does Bioline (Biodegradeable Fishing Line) Measure Up? September 30, 2009 Field and StreamRetrieved March 15, 2017
  7. ^ New Fishing Line Safer for Environment The Daily Comet Retrieved March 15, 2017
  8. ^ fishing line kicks goals in Australia sea breeze.com.au
  9. ^ Bird, Levi Environmentally-Friendly Biodegradable Fishing Line chum-bucket.com Retrieved March 15, 2017
Arbor knot

The Arbor knot is a typical fishers' knot. Its primary use is to attach fishing line to the arbor of a fishing reel.

Artificial muscle

Artificial muscle is a generic term used for actuators, materials or devices that mimic natural muscle and can reversibly contract, expand, or rotate within one component due to an external stimulus (such as voltage, current, pressure or temperature). The three basic actuation responses – contraction, expansion, and rotation – can be combined together within a single component to produce other types of motions (e.g. bending, by contracting one side of the material while expanding the other side). Conventional motors and pneumatic linear or rotary actuators do not qualify as artificial muscles, because there is more than one component involved in the actuation.

Due to their high flexibility, versatility and power-to-weight ratio compared with traditional rigid actuators, artificial muscles have the potential to be a highly disruptive emerging technology. Though currently in limited use, the technology may have wide future applications in industry, medicine, robotics and many other fields.

Bite indicator

A bite indicator is a mechanical or electronic device which indicates to an angler that something is happening at the hook end of the fishing line.

Blood knot

A blood knot (barrel knot) is most usefully employed for joining sections of monofilament nylon line while maintaining a high portion of the line's inherent strength. Other knots used for this purpose can cause a substantial loss of strength. In fly fishing, this serves to build a leader of gradually decreasing diameter with the castable fly line attached at the large diameter end and the fly or hook at the small diameter end. The principal drawback to the blood knot is the dexterity required to tie it. It is also likely to jam, which is not a concern in fishing line, which is no great loss to cut, but may be a concern in normal rope. "Blood knot" may refer to, "a double overhand knot tied in a cat-o'-nine-tails."

The barrel knot, called blood knot by Keith Rollo, is the best bend there is for small, stiff or slippery line. The ends may be trimmed short and the knot offers the least resistance possible when drawn through water.

A half blood knot (also clinch knot) is a knot that is used for securing a fishing line to a fishing lure, snap or swivel. When two half blood knots are used to join two lines they are considered as one knot and called a blood knot. A half blood knot is one of the strongest knots for tying a medium-size hook to a medium-size line such as hooksize 4 to 4/0 onto line size 6 lb to 30 lb.

Braided fishing line

Braided line was one of the earliest types of fishing line, and in its modern incarnations it is still very popular in some situations because of its high knot strength, lack of stretch, and great overall power in relation to its diameter. Braids were originally made from natural fibers such as cotton and linen, but natural fiber braids (with the very rare exception of braided silk) have long since been replaced by braided or woven fibers of a man-made materials like Dacron, Spectra or micro-dyneema into a strand of line. Braided fishing lines have low resistance to abrasion, sharp objects can easily cut braided line. Their actual breaking strength will commonly well exceed their pound-test rating.

Braided lines often have 1/3 to 1/4 the diameter of mono or fluorocarbon lines at a given test breaking strength. Therefore, it is easy to fit much longer braided line on a spool than monofilament or fluorocarbon line for the same strength. This is very important for deep sea fishing, since reels don't have to be very big to accommodate long lines. Also, thin braided lines provide less resistance to sea currents.

Braided lines have very little stretch, making fishing rigs very sensitive to fish bites; This is very important for both deep sea fishing and when targeting fish with a gentle bite. Due to the minimal stretch of braided line, hard-hitting fish will frequently cause the line to break. Thus it is very important to set the drag on reels on very low values.

Braided fishing lines are very flexible and can be easier to cast long distances. Braided line typically floats, and as such, is a common choice for topwater rigs, etc.

One drawback of braided lines is that they are highly visible in the water, and thus visible to fish. Hence, it is common to attach a monofilament or fluorocarbon line to the end of the braided fishing line to serve as a leader and to reduce the high visibility of the braided fishing line.When cutting braided line to tie new lures, it's best to use a sharp pair of scissors rather than a nail clipper. The clipper will leave frayed ends because of the multi-stranded braided line. A clean cut is possible with sharp scissors.Due to their flexibility, lack of stretch and most important, slippery surface, braided lines are hard to knot properly. There are several knots that can be used with braided lines: Palomar knot , Berkley Braid Knot, San Diego Jam Knot, Trilene knot, Albright knot etc. It is very important to tie the knots very carefully.

Braided lines, particularly the newer synthetics, can be successfully used on any type of fishing reel, but are perhaps most well known as excellent lines for bait casting reels, in particular for trolling where they remain especially popular among many fishermen.

Downrigger

A downrigger is a device used while fishing using the trolling method, which places a lure at the desired depth. A downrigger consists of a three to six-foot horizontal pole which supports a cannonball, generally 10 to 15 pounds, by a steel cable (generally stainless steel or wire). A clip, also known as a "release" attaches a fishing line to the cannonball weight. The bait or lure is attached to the release.

Dropline

A dropline is a commercial fishing device, consisting of a long fishing line set vertically down into the water, with a series of fishing hooks attached to snoods.

Droplines may be set either down underwater cliffs or just in the water column. They have a weight at the bottom of the line and a float at the top. They are not usually as long as longlines and have fewer hooks.

Droplines can be contrasted with trotlines. Whereas a dropline has a series of hooks suspended vertically in the water, a trotline has a series of hooks suspended horizontally in the water.

Fishing lure

A fishing lure is a type of artificial fishing bait which is designed to attract a fish's attention. The lure uses movement, vibration, flash and color to bait fish. Many lures are equipped with one or more hooks that are used to catch fish when they strike the lure. Some lures are placed to attract fish so a spear can be impaled into the fish or so the fish can be captured by hand. Most lures are attached to the end of a fishing line and have various styles of hooks attached to the body and are designed to elicit a strike resulting in a hookset. Many lures are commercially made but some are hand made such as fishing flies. Hand tying fly lures to match the hatch is considered a challenge by many amateur entomologists.

Modern commercial lures usually are often used with a fishing rod and fishing reel but there are some who use a technique where they hold the line in their hands. Handlining is a technique in which the line is held directly in the hands versus being fed through the guides of a fishing rod. Longlining also can employ lures to catch fish. When a lure is used for casting, it is continually cast out and retrieved, the retrieve making the lure swim or produce a popping action. A skilled angler can explore many possible hiding places for fish through lure casting such as under logs and on flats.

Fishing sinker

A fishing sinker or knoch is a weight used in conjunction with a fishing lure or hook to increase its rate of sink, anchoring ability, and/or casting distance. Fishing sinkers may be as small as 1 gram for applications in shallow water, and even smaller for fly fishing applications, or as large as several pounds or considerably more for deep sea fishing. They are formed into nearly innumerable shapes for diverse fishing applications. Environmental concerns surround the usage of lead and other materials in fishing sinkers.

Fishing tackle

Fishing tackle is the equipment used by anglers when fishing. Almost any equipment or gear used for fishing can be called fishing tackle. Some examples are hooks, lines, sinkers, floats, rods, reels, baits, lures, spears, nets, gaffs, traps, waders and tackle boxes.

Gear that is attached to the end of a fishing line is called terminal tackle. This includes hooks, leaders, swivels, sinkers, floats, split rings and wire, snaps, beads, spoons, blades, spinners and clevises to attach spinner blades to fishing lures. Sometimes the term fishing rig is used for a completed assembly of tackle ready for fishing.

Fishing tackle can be contrasted with fishing techniques. Fishing tackle refers to the physical equipment that is used when fishing, whereas fishing techniques refers to the manner in which the tackle is used when fishing.

The term tackle, with the meaning "apparatus for fishing", has been in use from 1398 AD. Fishing tackle is also called fishing gear. However the term fishing gear is more usually used in the context of commercial fishing, whereas fishing tackle is more often used in the context of recreational fishing. This article covers equipment used by recreational anglers.

Garrote

A garrote or garrote vil (a Spanish word; alternative spellings include garotte and similar variants) is a weapon, most often a handheld ligature of chain, rope, scarf, wire or fishing line used to strangle a person.

Handline fishing

Handline fishing, or handlining, is a fishing technique where a single fishing line is held in the hands. It is not to be confused with handfishing. One or more fishing lures or baited hooks are attached to the line. A hook, fishing lure, or a fishing jig and many times a weight and/or a fishing float can be attached to the line. Handlining is among the oldest forms of fishing and is commonly practiced throughout the world today.

The fishing bait can be still fished, trolled or jigged up and down in a series of short movements. Often handling is done close to the bottom of the body of water but can also be done near or on the surface.

Improved clinch knot

The improved clinch knot is a knot that is used for securing a fishing line to the fishing lure, but can also affix fishing line to a swivel, clip, or artificial fly. This is a common knot used by anglers because of its simple tie and strong hold. When more pull is being applied, the harder the knot turns into itself, increasing the strength of the connection. It can be used with many kinds of line including mono-filament, fluorocarbon, and braided fishing line.

Monofilament fishing line

Monofilament fishing line (shortened to just mono) is fishing line made from a single fiber of plastic. Most fishing lines are now monofilament because monofilament fibers are cheap to produce and are produced in a range of diameters which have different tensile strengths (called "tests" after the process of tensile testing). Monofilament line is also manufactured in different colors, such as clear, white, green, blue, red, and fluorescent.

Monofilament is made by melting and mixing polymers and then extruding the mixture through tiny holes, forming strands of line, which is then spun into spools of various thicknesses. The extrusion process controls not only the thickness of the line but its test as well.

Multifilament fishing line

Multifilament line, also referred to as The Super Lines, is a type of fishing line. It is a braided line which is made up of a type of polyethylene, an extremely thin line for its strength. By weight, polyethylene strands are five to ten times sturdier than steel. Multifilament line is similar to braided dacron in terms of sensitivity but a diameter about one-third that of monofilament.

Multifilament works best on conventional and baitcasting reels. On spinning and spincasting reels, the line's limpness can make sure for awkward manipulation, as it doesn't "spring" off the reel like monofilament. Consequently, knot-tying is more difficult with multifilaments. Certain knots work better with superline, like the palomar knot. Applying a type of super glue will help to prevent other types of knots from slipping.

This type of fishing line is expensive, sometimes four times the cost of equivalent monofilament. This can become a considerable expense, especially considering that the line is so thin that you need more of it to fill a reel spool. Sometimes, a backing of monofilament or other line is used under the braided line on the spool.

Sniggle

A sniggle is a type of fish hook used for catching eels (known as snigs), using the method of sniggling.

A typical method of sniggling is to tie a fishing line to the middle of a large needle or fish hook. The needle is then inserted along the body of an earthworm which is used as bait. The needle is then stuck into a slender sniggling pole such as a hazel wand, eight to ten feet long. This is used to insert the bait into promising holes or crannies in which eels tend to lurk. When an eel takes the bait then, after a minute or two, the bait will have been swallowed whole and the line is then pulled to rotate the needle or hook within the body of the eel so snagging and catching it. Eels of two or three pounds weight may be caught by this method but may require a protracted tug of war to pull them from their hole. This provides better sport and amusement than the use of traps or clod-fishing and is a good alternative for the angler when game fish such as trout will not rise.

Trolling (fishing)

Trolling is a method of fishing where one or more fishing lines, baited with lures or bait fish, are drawn through the water. This may be behind a moving boat, or by slowly winding the line in when fishing from a static position, or even sweeping the line from side-to-side, e.g. when fishing from a jetty. Trolling is used to catch pelagic fish such as salmon, mackerel and kingfish.

Trolling can be phonetically confused with trawling, a different method of fishing where a net (trawl) is drawn through the water instead of lines. Trolling is used both for recreational and commercial fishing whereas trawling is used mainly for commercial fishing.

Trolling from a moving boat involves moving quite slowly through the water. This can be accomplished with the use of a special trolling motor. Multiple lines are often used, and outriggers can be used to spread the lines more widely and reduce their chances of tangling. Downriggers can also be used to keep the lures or baits trailing at a desired depth.

Trotline

A trotline is a heavy fishing line with baited hooks attached at intervals by means of branch lines called snoods. A snood is a short length of line which is attached to the main line using a clip or swivel, with the hook at the other end. A trotline can be set so it covers the width of a channel, river, or stream with baited hooks and can be left unattended. There are many ways to set a trotline, with most methods involving weights to hold the cord below the surface of the water. They are used for catching crabs or fish (particularly catfish). Trotlines should be used with caution as they are illegal in many states.

Trotlines can be contrasted with droplines. Whereas a trotline has a series of hooks suspended horizontally in the water, a dropline has a series of hooks suspended vertically in the water.

Uni knot

The uni knot is a multi purpose fishing knot that can be used for attaching the fishing line to the arbor of a reel, for joining lines, and for attaching lures, snaps, and swivels.

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