Fisher Scientific International, Inc. (NYSE: FSH) (colloquially known as Fisher) was a laboratory supply and biotechnology company that provided products and services to the global scientific research and United States clinical laboratory markets until its merger with Thermo Electron in 2006.
Its customers included pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, colleges, universities, and secondary education institutions, medical research institutions, hospitals and reference labs and quality control, process control and research and development laboratories. The company offered more than 600,000 products and services to over 350,000 customers located in approximately 150 countries. No single customer represented more than 3% of its total sales in the year ended December 31, 2004.
|Industry||Scientific tools and reagents|
|Successor||Thermo Fisher Scientific (company)|
|Paul Montrone, last CEO|
David T. Della Panta, last president/COO
|Parent||Thermo Fisher Scientific[a][b]|
The company was founded in Pittsburgh in 1902 by Chester Garfield Fisher (1881-1965), originally called the "Scientific Materials Co.". After obtaining his degree in engineering at Western University of Pennsylvania (now University of Pittsburgh), C.G. Fisher purchased the stockroom of the Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory. Fisher became a supplier of lab equipment and reagents for the area's industrial research. Early products included microscopes, burets, pipettes, litmus, balances, colorimeters, dissecting kits, and anatomical models. The first catalog, the 400 page Scientific Materials Co. Catalog of Laboratory Apparatus & Supplies, was published in 1904. Fisher established an R&D lab at his company in 1915. Edwin Fisher, Chester's brother, developed the Fisher burner in 1921, an advancement on the design of the Bunsen burner. The company manufactured an electric-combustion furnace and combustion train for analyzing carbon levels in steel, and an electrically heated and thermostatically controlled bacteriological incubator. In 1925, the company purchased Montreal-based Scientific Supplies, Ltd.
Aiken Fisher, Chester's oldest son, became president of the company in 1949. In 1955, Fisher established a chemical manufacturing facility in Fair Lawn, New Jersey. In 1959 the company opened an instrument and supplies facility in Indiana, Pennsylvania. Chester Fisher died in 1965 at age 84. His sons maintained leadership of the company, with Aiken becoming Chairman and Benjamin becoming president. The youngest son, James Fisher, had the title Senior Vice President.
In 1957, the company purchased the New York-based medical apparatus supply company E. Machlett & Sons. In 1962, the company installed an IBM computer system to record and track inventory levels for more than 40,000 items.
Fisher Scientific Company issued its first public stock in 1965, and that year the company had $58 million in sales and close to a million customer transactions. In 1968 Fisher shares were listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1965 the company introduced the Differential Thermalyzer, a Differential thermal analysis instrument. It acquired Pfeiffer Glass, Inc. in 1966, manufacturer of high accuracy volumetric pipettes. The company released the Photometric Titralyzer that year, and a Hem-alyzer in 1968. In 1968, it purchased Massachusetts-based Jarrell-Ash Company, producer of optical instrumentation, particularly for emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy. It acquired Stansi Scientific Company, of Chicago, in 1967, expanding into educational science supplies. In 1976, Fisher Scientific established an Instrument Service Division.
Fisher was acquired by Morristown, New Jersey-based Allied Corporation in 1981 for $330 million. At this time Benjamin R. Fisher was Chairman of the company, having gained the position in 1975 upon Aiken's retirement. Operating as a subsidiary of Allied Corporation (and later AlliedSignal Inc., and The Henley Group), Fisher established a Biotechnology Division in 1985.
In 1991, The Henley Group sold a majority interest in Fisher through a public stock offering. The public entity was called Fisher Scientific International Inc., and based in Hampton, New Hampshire. Fisher Scientific Company remained in Pittsburgh as an operating subsidiary. In 1992, Fisher facilities were ISO-9000 certified.
In the 90's, Fisher, with partner Intertech Corporation of Atkinson, New Hampshire, set up a pharmaceutical testing and certification lab in Moscow, Russia, to serve with the Russian Federation's Ministry of Health and Medical Industry needs. Fisher acquired Eastman Kodak Company's organic-chemicals business and Janssen Chimica, forming Acros Organics.
In August 2004, the company merged with Apogent Technologies Inc., a company engaged primarily in the manufacture and sale of laboratory products in the United States and other countries.
In May 2006, Fisher Scientific and Thermo Electron announced that they would merge in a tax-free, stock-for-stock exchange. The merger closed on November 9, 2006 and the merged company is now called Thermo Fisher Scientific.
Affymetrix, Inc. was an American company that manufactured DNA microarrays; it was based in Santa Clara, California, United States. The company was acquired by Thermo Fisher Scientific in March 2016.The company was founded by Stephen Fodor in 1992. It began as a unit in Affymax N.V. in 1991 by Fodor's group, which had in the late 1980s developed methods for fabricating DNA microarrays, called "GeneChip" according to the Affymetrix trademark, using semiconductor manufacturing techniques. The company's first product, an HIV genotyping GeneChip, was introduced in 1994 and the company went public in 1996. As a result of its pioneering work and the ensuing popularity of microarray products, Affymetrix derived significant benefit from its patent portfolio in this area.
Affymetrix acquired Genetic MicroSystems for slide-based microarrays and scanners,
Neomorphic for bioinformatics,
ParAllele Bioscience for custom SNP genotyping,
USB/Anatrace for biochemical reagents,
eBioscience for flow cytometry,
and Panomics and True Materials to expand its offering of low to mid-plex applications.
In 2000, Perlegen Sciences spun out from Affymetrix to focus on wafer-scale genomics for massive data creation and collection required for characterizing population variance of genomic markers and expression for the drug discovery process.
On January 8, 2016, Thermo Fisher Scientific announced the acquisition of Affymetrix for approximately $1.3 billion. The acquisition closed on March 31, 2016.Alexa Fluor
The Alexa Fluor family of fluorescent dyes is a series of dyes invented by Molecular Probes, now a part of Thermo Fisher Scientific, and sold under the Invitrogen brand name. Alexa Fluor dyes are frequently used as cell and tissue labels in fluorescence microscopy and cell biology. Alexa Fluor dyes can be conjugated directly to primary antibodies or to secondary antibodies to amplify signal and sensitivity or other biomolecules.
The excitation and emission spectra of the Alexa Fluor series cover the visible spectrum and extend into the infrared. The individual members of the family are numbered according roughly to their excitation maxima (in nm).Alexander Alexeyevich Makarov
Alexander Alexeyevich Makarov is a Russian physicist who led the team that developed the Orbitrap, a type of mass spectrometer, and received the 2008 American Society for Mass Spectrometry Distinguished Contribution in Mass Spectrometry Award for this development. In November 2013 he was appointed to Professor by Special Appointment of High Resolution Mass Spectrometry at the Department of Chemistry and the Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research of Utrecht University in the Netherlands.As of 2016, he is Director of Global Research for Life Sciences Mass Spectrometry at Thermo Fisher Scientific.Amira (software)
Amira (pronounce: Ah-meer-ah) is a software platform for 3D and 4D data visualization, processing, and analysis. It is being actively developed by Thermo Fisher Scientific in collaboration with the Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB), and commercially distributed by Thermo Fisher Scientific.Applied Biosystems
Applied Biosystems is one of the various brands under the Life Technologies brand of Thermo Fisher Scientific corporation. The brand is focused on integrated systems for genetic analysis, which include computerized machines and the consumables used within them (such as reagents).
In 2008, a merger between Applied Biosystems and Invitrogen was finalized, creating Life Technologies. The latter was acquired by Thermo Fisher Scientific in 2014. Prior to 2008, the Applied Biosystems brand was owned by various entities in a corporate group parented by PerkinElmer. The roots of Applied Biosystems trace back to GeneCo (Genetic Systems Company), a pioneer biotechnology company founded in 1981 in Foster City, California. Through the 1980s and early 1990s, Applied Biosystems, Inc. operated independently and manufactured biochemicals and automated genetic engineering and diagnostic research instruments, including the principal brand of DNA sequencing machine used by the Human Genome Project consortium centers. Applied Biosystems' close ties to the consortium project led to the idea for the founding of Celera Genomics in 1998 as one of several independent competitors to the consortium.In 1993 Applied Biosystems, Inc. was delisted from the NASDAQ when it was acquired by the old company known then as Perkin-Elmer. As the PE Applied Biosystems Division under that parent in 1998, it became consolidated with other acquisitions as the primary PE Biosystems Division. In 1999 its parent company reorganized and changed its name to PE Corporation, and the PE Biosystems Group (formerly again became publicly traded, as a tracking stock of its parent, along with its sister tracking stock company, Celera Genomics. In 2000 the parent became Applera Corporation. The Applied Biosystems name also returned that year, in the name change of the tracking stock from PE Biosystems Group to Applera Corporation-Applied Biosystems Group, an S&P 500 company, which remains as a publicly traded operating group within Applera Corp., along with its sibling operating group, Applera Corporation-Celera Group. Applera derives its name from the combination of its two component groups' names, Appl(iedCel)era In November 2008, a merger between Applied Biosystems and Invitrogen was finalized "creating a global leader in biotechnology reagents and systems". The new company was called Life Technologies.Bovine serum albumin
Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA or "Fraction V") is a serum albumin protein derived from cows. It is often used as a protein concentration standard in lab experiments.
The nickname "Fraction V" refers to albumin being the fifth fraction of the original Edwin Cohn purification methodology that made use of differential solubility characteristics of plasma proteins. By manipulating solvent concentrations, pH, salt levels, and temperature, Cohn was able to pull out successive "fractions" of blood plasma. The process was first commercialized with human albumin for medical use and later adopted for production of BSA.Dharmacon, Inc.
Dharmacon Inc., now known as Dharmacon, a Horizon Discovery Group company, was founded in 1995 by Stephen Scaringe as Dharmacon Research to develop and commercialize a new technology for RNA oligonucleotide synthesis. The original Dharmacon focus and vision was to develop 2'-ACE RNA technology as the standard for RNA synthesis and to advance RNA oligo-dependent applications and technologies. When RNA interference (RNAi) emerged in the late 1990s, Dharmacon was poised to provide RNAi-related products to the multitude of academic and industry researchers. Dharmacon has become an important resource for those investigating the mechanisms of siRNA (small interfering RNA)-induced gene knockdown and applying the specificity and potency of RNAi to human biotherapeutics. Dharmacon's expertise in bioinformatics, RNA biology, and synthesis chemistry has allowed it to develop a complete line of products for the RNAi researcher.
In November 2002, Dharmacon Research, Inc. officially changed its name to Dharmacon, Inc., to reflect the increasing capabilities and future growth potential of the company, as it had advanced beyond research and development and into whole solutions for RNA oligo-dependent applications and technologies. In March 2004, Dharmacon became a wholly owned subsidiary of Fisher Scientific International, Inc. In November 2006, Fisher Scientific International, Inc. merged with Thermo Electron Corporation to become Thermo Fisher Scientific.In October 2012 the websites for the companies formerly known as Dharmacon, Open Biosystems, Fermentas, Finnzymes, and ABgene were merged, creating the new Thermo Scientific Life Sciences Research eCommerce site.
In April 2013, Thermo Fisher Scientific reached an agreement to buy Life Technologies Corporation. The acquisition of Life Technologies Corporation received conditional approval from the European Commission in November 2013. The conditional requirement was the divestment of Thermo Fisher Scientific's cell culture (sera and media), magnetic beads and Dharmacon gene modulation businesses for antitrust reasons.
In early January 2014, GE Healthcare reached an agreement with Thermo Fisher Scientific to acquire the cell culture, magnetic bead and Dharmacon gene modulation businesses for 1.05 billion USD. The acquisition of Dharmacon is viewed as complementary to GE Healthcare's drug discovery research technologies.
In the fall of 2014, GE Healthcare announced it had reached a licensing agreement with the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard granting access to CRISPR-Cas9 intellectual property. Under the agreement, GE Healthcare is able to incorporate the patented technologies, and develop and launch additional complementary gene editing reagents. Then, in October 2014, GE Healthcare Dharmacon launched its first CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering products under the “Edit-R” brand. In July 2015, GE Healthcare Dharmacon launched synthetic crRNA and lentiviral sgRNA pre-designed with a functionally validated algorithm against entire human, mouse and rat genomes.In July 2017, UK firm Horizon Discovery reached an agreement to acquire Dharmacon from GE Healthcare for a total consideration of $85 million. The acquisition is expected to complement Horizon's portfolio of gene editing products and engineered cell lines.Dionex
Dionex Corporation is an American company based in Sunnyvale, California. It develops, manufactures, sells, and services analytical chromatography systems for separating, isolating, and identifying the components of chemical mixtures. Such equipment is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing, medical research, environmental monitoring, and food testing.In December 2010 Thermo Fisher Scientific announced its acquisition of Dionex for $2.1 billion.FEI Company
FEI Company (Field Electron and Ion Company, FEI) is an American company that designs, manufactures, and supports microscope technology. Headquartered in Hillsboro, Oregon, FEI has over 2,800 employees and sales and service operations in more than 50 countries around the world. Formerly listed on the NASDAQ, it is a subsidiary of Thermo Fisher Scientific.Invitrogen
Invitrogen is one of several brands under the Thermo Fisher Scientific corporation. The product line includes various subbrands of biotechnology products, such as machines and consumables for polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription, cloning, culturing, stem cell production, cell therapy, regenerative medicine, immunotherapy, transfection, DNA/RNA purification, diagnostic tests, antibodies, and immunoassays.
The predecessor corporation was Invitrogen Corporation (formerly traded as NASDAQ: IVGN), headquartered in Carlsbad, California. In 2008, a merger between Applied Biosystems and Invitrogen was finalized, creating Life Technologies. The latter was acquired by Thermo Fisher Scientific in 2014.Judy Lewent
Judith Carol Lewent is on the board of directors for GlaxoSmithKline since April 2011, Thermo Fisher Scientific and Motorola Solutions. She worked from 1980 to 2007 at Merck & Co. where she spent time as executive vice president and chief financial officer. She was also on the board of US Company Purdue Pharma until 2014Life Technologies (Thermo Fisher Scientific)
Life Technologies Corporation was a biotech company founded in November 2008 through a US$6.7 billion merger of Invitrogen Corporation and Applied Biosystems Inc. The joint sales of the combined companies were about $3.5 billion; they had about 9,500 employees, and owned more than 3,600 licenses and patents.Thermo Fisher Scientific Corporation acquired the company in 2014 and used the Life Technologies brand name for a family of biotechnology products and services from Feb 2014 to July 2015. Thermo Fisher retired the Life Technologies brand name and logos in late July 2015, following a world-wide release letter to all customers in five languages.List of LIMS software packages
This is a list of proprietary laboratory information management systems (LIMS) from businesses and organizations listed in Wikipedia.Nalgene
Nalgene is a brand of plastic products developed originally for laboratory use, including such items as jars, bottles, test tubes, graduated cylinders, and Petri dishes, that were shatterproof and lighter than glass. The properties of plastic products make them suitable for work with many substances in various temperature ranges.
Nalgene products are manufactured by Nalge Nunc International, which in 2004 became a subsidiary of Fisher Scientific, now Thermo Fisher Scientific. The name Nalgene is a registered trademark.Scoopula
Scoopula is a brand name of a spatula-like scoop utensil used primarily in chemistry lab settings to transfer solids: to a weigh paper for weighing, to a cover slip to measure melting point, or a graduated cylinder, or to a watch glass from a flask or beaker through scraping. "Scoopula" is a registered trademark owned by Thermo Fisher Scientific. They are very often made of metal.TaqMan
TaqMan probes are hydrolysis probes that are designed to increase the specificity of quantitative PCR. The method was first reported in 1991 by researcher Kary Mullis at Cetus Corporation, and the technology was subsequently developed by Roche Molecular Diagnostics for diagnostic assays and by Applied Biosystems (now part of Thermo Fisher Scientific) for research applications.
The TaqMan probe principle relies on the 5´–3´ exonuclease activity of Taq polymerase to cleave a dual-labeled probe during hybridization to the complementary target sequence and fluorophore-based detection. As in other quantitative PCR methods, the resulting fluorescence signal permits quantitative measurements of the accumulation of the product during the exponential stages of the PCR; however, the TaqMan probe significantly increases the specificity of the detection. TaqMan probes were named after the videogame Pac-Man (Taq Polymerase + PacMan = TaqMan) as its mechanism is based on the Pac-Man principle.Thermo Electron
Thermo Electron Corporation (NYSE: TMO) (incorporated 1956) was a major provider of analytical instruments and services for a variety of domains. It was co-founded in 1956 by George N. Hatsopoulos, an MIT PhD in mechanical engineering, and Peter M. Nomikos, a Harvard Business School graduate.After graduating from Northeastern University in 1959 John Hatsopoulos (brother of George) joined the company as CFO. Arvin Smith joined the company in 1970, and was President from January 1998.In 2011, Thermo Fisher Scientific, its successor, had revenues of over $11 billion, and employed 37,000 people.
On May 14, 2006, Thermo and Fisher Scientific announced that they would merge in a tax-free, stock-for-stock exchange. The merged company became Thermo Fisher Scientific. On November 9, 2006, the companies announced that the merger had been completed. However, the Federal Trade Commission ruled that this acquisition was anticompetitive with regard to centrifugal evaporators, requiring Fisher to divest Genevac. In April 2007, Genevac was sold to Riverlake Partners LLC and the merger closed with FTC approval.Thermo Fisher Scientific
Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American biotechnology product development company located in Waltham, Massachusetts, and was created in 2006 by the merger of Thermo Electron and Fisher Scientific. In April 2013, after a competitive bidding with Hoffmann-La Roche, Thermo Fisher acquired Life Technologies Corporation for US$13.6 billion in a deal that would rank the firm as one of the leading companies in the genetic testing and precision laboratory equipment markets.William G. Parrett
William G. Parrett is a senior manager who has served public, private, governmental, and state-owned clients worldwide. In October 2008, Parrett was elected to the board of directors of UBS AG and, in November 2014, to the Board of Directors of UBS Group AG. In May 2018, he stepped down from this role and is focussing on the position of President of UBS Americas Holding LLC.