Fish stock

Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are traditionally regarded as the significant factors determining the stock's population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are traditionally ignored.

The stock concept

All species have geographic limits to their distribution, which are determined by their tolerance to environmental conditions, and their ability to compete successfully with other species. In marine environments this may be less evident than on land because there are fewer topographical boundaries, however, discontinuities still exist, produced for example by mesoscale and sub-mesoscale circulations that minimize long-distance dispersal of fish larvae.

For fish, it is rare for an individual to reproduce randomly with all other individuals of that species within its biological range. There is a tendency to form a structured series of discrete populations which have a degree of reproductive isolation from each other in space, in time, or in both. This isolation is reflected in the development between sub-populations of genetic differences, morphological variations and exposure to different chemical regimes and parasitic species. Sub-populations also respond to fishing in such a way that fishing on one population appears to have no effect on the population dynamics of a neighbouring population.

The currently accepted definition of a stock in fisheries science, is that of Begg et al. (1999), “…[a “stock”] describes characteristics of semi-discrete groups of fish with some definable attributes which are of interest to fishery managers.”

Stock identification is a field of fisheries science which aims to identify these subpopulations, based on a number of techniques.

Straddling stock

Internationalwaters
The high seas, or international waters, are highlighted in blue.

The United Nations defines straddling stocks as "stocks of fish such as pollock, which migrate between, or occur in both, the economic exclusion zone (EEZ) of one or more states and the high seas".[1] Sovereign responsibility must be worked out in collaboration with neighbouring coastal states and fishing entities. Usually this is done through the medium of an intergovernmental regional organisation set up for the purpose of coordinating the management of that stock.

Straddling stocks are usually pelagic, rather than demersal. Demersal species move less than pelagic species, since they tend to relate to bottom topography. Pelagic species are more mobile, their movements influenced by ocean temperatures and the availability of zooplankton as food. Example pelagic fish are capelin, herring, whiting, mackerel and redfish, There are, however, a few demersal species that are straddling, such as the Greenland halibut migrates in feeding/spawning migrations to Greenland in the west and to the Faeroes in the east.[2]

Straddling stock can be compared with transboundary stock. Straddling stock range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas. Transboundary stock range in the EEZs of at least two countries. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[3]

Stock assessment

In fisheries science and ecology, stock assessment is an important tool in fisheries management.

In particular, to ensure continued, healthy, fish stocks, measurements of the Spawning Stock Biomass (the stock population capable of reproducing) allows sensible conservation strategies to be developed and maintained through the application of sustainable fishing quotas.[4]

The World Wildlife Fund and the Zoological Society of London jointly issued their "Living Blue Planet Report" on 16 September 2015 which states that there was a dramatic fall of 74% in world-wide stocks of the important scombridae fish such as mackerel, tuna and bonitos between 1970 and 2010, and the global overall "population sizes of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish fell by half on average in just 40 years."[5]

Stock fluctuations

The stocks for individual marine species can "boom and bust" in linked and compensatory ways. For example, in billfish longline fisheries, the Atlantic catch of blue marlin declined in the 1960s. This was accompanied by an increase in sailfish catch. The sailfish catch then declined from the end of the 1970s to the end of the 1980s, compensated by an increase in swordfish catch. As a result, the overall billfish catch remained fairly stable. At Georges Bank, a decline in cod during the 1960s was accompanied by a rise in flatfish, and more recently, with the collapse of the predatory Atlantic cod, lobster catches in Maine have boomed.[6]

Notes

  1. ^ Straddling stocks Archived 2015-06-03 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Pelagic and straddling stocks
  3. ^ FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.
  4. ^ International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) website Archived 2011-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ .http://awsassets.wwf.org.au/downloads/mo038_living_blue_planet_report_16sep15.pdf
  6. ^ Duffy, J. Emmett (2008) Marine biodiversity and food security Encyclopedia of Earth. Updated 25 July 2008.

See also

References

  • Begg GA, Friedland KD and Pearce JB (1999) "Stock identification and its role in stock assessment and fisheries management: an overview." Fisheries Research, 43:1–8.
  • Booke HE (1999) "The stock concept revisited: perspectives on its history in fisheries" Fisheries Research, 43 (1–3): 9–11. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00063-6
  • Cadrin SX, Friedland KD and Waldman JR (2004) Stock Identification Methods : Applications in Fishery Science. ISBN 0-12-154351-X
  • Pintassilgo, P and Lindroos, M "Management of Straddling Fish Stocks: A Bioeconomic Approach" In: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems – Volume 5, UNESCO.

External links

Arròs a banda

Arròs a banda (Valencian term for rice on the side, translated as Arroz a banda in Spanish) is a dish of rice cooked in fish stock, typical of the coastal area of Alicante (and, per extension, in most of Land of Valencia), Spain, and distinct from the paella of Valencia. It is popular up to Garraf, Barcelona (Catalonia) and down to Murcia (Region of Murcia).

It originated with the fishermen of Alicante, who sold off their best fish and kept the leftovers for stock, used to cook the rice. It is usually served with alioli.

Bagoong monamon

Bagoong monamon, bagoong monamon-dilis, or simply bagoong and bugguong munamon in Ilocano, is a common ingredient used in the Philippines and particularly in Northern Ilocano cuisine. It is made by fermenting salted anchovies ("monamon" or "munamon" in Ilocano) which is not designed, nor customarily used for immediate consumption since it is completely raw. Therefore, it is used as a cooking ingredient, upon when it is cooked alone, it can be used as an accompaniment to traditional food dishes. To most Westerners unfamiliar with this condiment, the smell can be extremely repulsive. Bagoong is however, an essential ingredient in many curries and sauces.

This bagoong is smoother than bagoong terong, however, they are similar in flavor. The odor is unique and smells strongly of fish. Fish sauce, common throughout Southeast Asian cuisine, is a by-product of the bagoong process. Known as patis, it is distinguished as the clear refined layer floating on the thicker bagoong, itself. Patis and bagoong can be interchanged in recipes, depending on personal taste and preference.

Bagoong is used as a flavor enhancing agent, in the place of salt, soy sauce, or monosodium glutamate. It is used in creating the fish stock that is the base for many Ilocano dishes, like pinakbet, or as a dressing to greens in the dish called kinilnat or ensalada. Bagoong is also used as a condiment, in many cases, a dipping sauce for chicharon, green and ripe mangoes, or hard boiled eggs.

It is similar in taste and smell to that of anchovy paste.

Bagoong munamon is marketed either with bits of fermented fish (which is often used to make flavorful soups, especially in the Ilocano "Dinengdeng;" or it can be fried for a quick meal) or without (marketed as "boneless" bagoong munamon, usually stored in bottles). Boneless bagoong, if left undisturbed for quite some time, will settle to the bottom of its container, separating the clear patis from the solids, as patis comes from bagoong.

In other areas of the Philippines, this type of bagoong can be named for the locale they came from, e.g. bagoong balayan (which is produced in the coastal town of Balayan in the Province of Batangas).

Bagoong terong

Bagoong Terong or bagoong, and bugguong in the Ilocano language, is a common ingredient used in the Philippines and particularly in Northern Ilocano cuisine. It is made by salting and fermenting the bonnet mouth fish. This bagoong is coarser than Bagoong Monamon, and contains fragments of the salted and fermented fish [1]; they are similar in flavor. The odor is distinct and unique. Those who are unfamiliar with this condiment may find the smell repulsive. Bagoong is an essential ingredient in many curries and sauces. Fish sauce, common throughout Southeast Asian cuisine, is a by-product of the bagoong process.[2] Known in the Philippines as patis, it is distinguished as the clear refined layer floating on the thicker bagoong. Patis and bagoong can be interchanged in recipes, depending on personal taste and preference.

Bagoong is used as a flavor enhancing agent in the place of salt, soy sauce, or monosodium glutamate (MSG). It is used to make a fish stock, the base of many Ilocano dishes, such as pinakbet, dinengdeng, inabraw or as a dressing for cold steamed greens in the dish kinilnat (ensalada), like ferns, bitter melon leaves, or sweet potato leaves. Bagoong is used as a condiment, or dipping sauce, for chicharon, whole fried fish, green and ripe mangoes, or hard boiled eggs.

It is similar in taste and odor to anchovy paste.

Banmian

Banmian (板麵) is a popular Chinese noodle dish, consisting of handmade noodles served in soup.The name banmian (board/block noodle) came from the Hakka method of cutting the noodle into straight strands using a wooden block as ruler. In Hakka, some might call it Man-Foon-Char-Guo (麵粉茶粿) or Dao-Ma-Chet (刀嬤切).

In Hokkien, it was called Mee-Hoon-Kueh (麵粉粿; lit. "wheat snack") but what can be found at hawker stalls is generally called banmian. The current style is a mix between the traditional methods of Hakka and Hokkien. The Hakka initially made the noodle by shaving pieces off a block of dough, while the Hokkien would roll the dough into a large, flat piece that would then be torn by hand into bite-sized bits.

Banmian is a culinary dish that is popular in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It consists of egg noodles served in a flavorful soup, often with some type of meat or fish, vegetables and various spices. The meal is considered one of the healthier food choices and can be found for sale by restaurants, street vendors and food stalls in the region. The base of the entire meal is a soup, so there are numerous variations in ingredients, stocks and noodle shapes. In many instances, the completed soup is topped with an egg that is cooked in the hot liquid above the noodles.

Most versions of banmian use egg noodles that are simply a blend of egg, flour, water and salt that is kneaded and then formed into noodles. However, the modern day banmian is mainly made by using a pasta maker which cuts noodles in all sizes.

The base of the soup can be water but is more commonly a type of fish stock. Normal fish stock can be used, but anchovy stock is a common choice. Various ingredients, such as onions, garlic, ginger and bean paste, also can be added to the stock to provide more flavor, although some preparations are so simple that nothing more than plain stock is used. In Malaysia, dry noodles and soup are served separately.

Two common ingredients that are often found across different versions of banmian are mushrooms and anchovies. The exact type of each might vary, but they are generally added to the stock base. The mushrooms can be dried and are reconstituted in the broth, while the anchovies could be fried until crispy and then served on top of the soup. The anchovies also can be added to the stock for flavor and allowed to break down as it cooks.

Once the base stock is completed, nearly anything can be added to complete the banmian. This includes vegetables such as green onions, spinach, cabbage and bamboo shoots. Some vinegar is usually added, occasionally with sugar to balance the flavor. Restaurants may offer minced pork that has been fried or chunks of white fish to act as a protein-rich addition to the soup. Finally, an egg is cracked into the hot broth and allowed to cook until the whites are set and the yolk is warmed through.

Cock Beck

Cock Beck is a stream in the outlying areas of East Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, which runs from its source due to a runoff north-west of Whinmoor, skirting east of Swarcliffe and Manston (where a public house has been named 'The Cock Beck'), past Pendas Fields, Scholes, Barwick-in-Elmet, Aberford, Towton, Stutton, and Tadcaster, where it flows into the River Wharfe.

It is a tributary of the River Wharfe, formerly known as the River Cock or Cock River, having a much larger flow than today. The name 'cock' may refer to a mature salmon, as it was a spawning ground for salmon and trout. Industrial pollution reduced the fish stock, but it has been recovering in the 21st century, aided by work from the Environment Agency. In places the beck was relatively narrow, but too deep to cross unaided; a feature which can still be seen today at many points.

Depensation

In population dynamics, depensation is the effect on a population (such as a fish stock) whereby, due to certain causes, a decrease in the breeding population (mature individuals) leads to reduced production and survival of eggs or offspring. The causes may include predation levels rising per offspring (given the same level of overall predator pressure) and the allee effect, particularly the reduced likelihood of finding a mate.

Espagnole sauce

Espagnole sauce (French pronunciation: ​[ɛspaɲɔl]) is a basic brown sauce, and is one of Auguste Escoffier's five mother sauces of classic French cooking. This sauce was already compiled in different Spanish cooking handbooks of the late 19th century, and Escoffier popularized the recipe, which is still followed today.Espagnole has a strong taste, and is rarely used directly on food. As a mother sauce, it serves as the starting point for many derivatives, such as sauce africaine, sauce bigarade, sauce bourguignonne, sauce aux champignons, sauce charcutière, sauce chasseur, sauce chevreuil, and demi-glace. Hundreds of other derivatives are in the classical French repertoire.

Escoffier included a recipe for a Lenten espagnole sauce, using fish stock and mushrooms, in Le Guide culinaire, but doubted its necessity.

Fish head

Fish heads, either separated or still attached to the rest of the fish, are sometimes used in food dishes, or boiled for fish stock.

Fish mortality

Fish mortality is a parameter used in fisheries population dynamics to account for the loss of fish in a fish stock through death. The mortality can be divided into two types:

Natural mortality: the removal of fish from the stock due to causes not associated with fishing. Such causes can include disease, competition, cannibalism, old age, predation, pollution or any other natural factor that causes the death of fish. In fisheries models natural mortality is denoted by (M).

Fishing mortality: the removal of fish from the stock due to fishing activities using any fishing gear. It is denoted by (F) in fisheries models.(M) and (F) are additive instantaneous rates that sum up to (Z), the instantaneous total mortality coefficient; that is, Z=M+F. These rates are usually calculated on an annual basis. Estimates of fish mortality rates are often included in mathematical yield models to predict yield levels obtained under various exploitation scenarios. These are used as resource management indices or in bioeconomic studies of fisheries.

Fish stock (food)

Fish stock forms the basis of many dishes, particularly fish soups and sauces. In the West, it is usually made with fish bones and fish heads and finely chopped mirepoix. This fish stock should be cooked for 20–25 minutes—cooking any longer spoils the flavour. Concentrated fish stock is called "fish fumet".

In Japan, a fish and kelp stock called dashi is made by briefly (3–5 minutes) cooking skipjack tuna (bonito) flakes called katsuobushi in nearly boiling water. Other Japanese fish stock is made from fish that have been fried and boiled for several hours, creating a white milky broth. This has a rich feel and sweet umami taste.

Stock can also be made using other seafoods. For example, prawn stock made from simmering prawn shells is used in Southeast Asian dishes such as laksa.

Lenthalls Dam

Lake Lenthall is a lake created by the Lenthalls Dam in Duckinwilla, Fraser Coast Region, Queensland, Australia. It was named after the pioneering family in the district. It was constructed in 1984 on the head waters of the Burrum River which also includes the Isis River, Cherwell River & Gregory Rivers in its 935 square kilometre catchment. As a result of a huge catchment it takes a short time in moderate rain events to fill Lake Lenthall to 100% capacity.

The lake has a relatively small surface area of 766 ha, an average depth of 4 to 5 m. Its main purpose is for town water supply for Hervey Bay and surrounding townships within the Fraser Coast Regional Council area.

Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

The Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA), commonly referred to as the Magnuson–Stevens Act (MSA), is the legal provision for promoting optimal exploitation of U.S. coastal fisheries. Enacted in 1976, it has since been amended in line with sustainability policy.

Regional councils of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) determine when a stock is overfished, and apply both regional and individual catch limits. The NMFS has implemented the Fish Stock Sustainability Index (FSSI), which measures key stocks according to their overfishing status and biomass levels.

Mortality

Mortality is the state of being mortal, or susceptible to death; the opposite of immortality.

Mortality may also refer to:

Fish mortality, a parameter used in fisheries population dynamics to account for the loss of fish in a fish stock through death

Mortality (book), a 2012 collection of essays by Anglo-American writer Christopher Hitchens

Mortality (computability theory), a property of a Turing machine if it halts when run on any starting configuration

Mortality rate, a measure for the rate at which deaths occur in a given population

Mortality/differential attrition, an error in the internal validity of a scientific study

Stock (food)

Stock is a flavored liquid preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups, stews and sauces. Making stocks involves simmering animal bones or meat, seafood, or vegetables in water or wine, adding mirepoix or other aromatics for more flavor.

Sustainable yield

The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i.e. the surplus required to maintain ecosystem services at the same or increasing level over time. This yield usually varies over time with the needs of the ecosystem to maintain itself, e.g. a forest that has recently suffered a blight or flooding or fire will require more of its own ecological yield to sustain and re-establish a mature forest. While doing so, the sustainable yield may be much less.

In forestry terms it is the largest amount of harvest activity that can occur without degrading the productivity of the stock.

This concept is important in fishery management, in which sustainable yield is defined as the number of fish that can be extracted without reducing the base of fish stock, and the maximum sustainable yield is defined as the amount of fish that can be extracted under given environmental conditions. In fisheries, the basic natural capital or virgin population, must decrease with extraction. At the same time productivity increases. Hence, sustainable yield would be within the range in which the natural capital together with its production are able to provide satisfactory yield. It may be very difficult to quantify sustainable yield, because every dynamic ecological conditions and other factors not related to harvesting induce changes and fluctuations in both, the natural capital and its productivity.

In the case of groundwater there is a safe yield of water extraction per unit time, beyond which the aquifer risks the state of overdrafting or even depletion.

The Sunken Billions

The Sunken Billions is a study jointly published in 2008 by the World Bank and by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The report shows that the difference between the potential and actual net economic benefits from marine fisheries is about USD 50 billion per year or some USD 2 trillion over the last three decades.

According to the report “by improving governance of marine fisheries, society could capture a substantial part of this $50 billion annual economic loss. Through comprehensive reform, the fisheries sector could become a basis for economic growth and the creation of alternative livelihoods in many countries. At the same time, a nation’s natural capital in the form of fish stocks could be greatly increased and the negative impacts of the fisheries on the marine environment reduced.”

If fish stock were rebuilt, the current marine catch could be achieved with approximately half of the current global fishing effort. This illustrates the massive overcapacity of the global fleet. The excess competition over the limited fish resources results in declining productivity, economic inefficiency, and depressed fisher incomes.

Uttan

Uttan is a coastal town just north of Mumbai in Thane district of Maharashtra. A coastal town, it comes under the jurisdiction of the Mira-Bhayandar civic council. Part Jurisdiction is also handed over to the Mumbai Meteropolitan Region Development Authority MMRDA. However the locals have been opposing it, since the Tourism Plan proposed by the MMRDA will hamper the peace and tanquility of the locals. The area is famed for its beach, and fresh fish stock,visited by city-goers over the weekend. It is also famous for its lighthouse. The area has a significant East Indian Catholic and Muslims population.Uttan is a coastal village known for its sea food, quiet locales and sparsely populated areas. This village has much fresh fish like prawns, bombil, bangara, pomfret and chala fish that the locals at Uttan village eat. The fish normally is eaten with a flat bread called bhakari or rice crêpe called ghavan.Uttan is located 8 km away from Bhayandar and is full of people of the Koli and Muslim community. Some of the recreational places closest to Uttan are:

Our Lady of Vailankanni Shrine

Essel World

Water Kingdom

Gorai Beach

Keshav Srushti

Pagoda temple

((Hazrat Sayed Bale Shah Peer Dargah))

Velouté sauce

A velouté sauce (French pronunciation: ​[vəluˈte]) is a savoury sauce, made from a roux and a light stock. It is one of the five "mother sauces" of French cuisine listed by Auguste Escoffier in the 19th century, along with espagnole, tomato, béchamel and hollandaise. The term velouté is the French word for velvety.

In preparing a velouté sauce, a light stock (one in which the bones used have not been previously roasted), such as chicken or fish stock, is thickened with a blond roux. Thus the ingredients of a velouté are equal parts (by mass) of butter and flour to form the roux and a light chicken or fish stock, with some salt and pepper to season as needed. The sauce produced is commonly referred to by the type of stock used (e.g. chicken velouté).

Woodside Beach, Victoria

Woodside Beach is a rural locality with a popular surf beach in Victoria, Australia. It is approximately 10 km from the town of Woodside, and can be reached by the Woodside Beach Road. Areas of interest surrounding Woodside Beach include Balloong Natural Interest Reserve, Jack Smith Lake and McLoughlins Beach.

Woodside Beach is close to the starting point of the Ninety Mile Beach, which starts at Port Albert and extends to Lakes Entrance. This led to it being the focal point of light car speed trials in 1938. In the 1950s fish stock in the area were notable. Due to its location it can be affected by storm surges, and at various times items from accidents nearby at sea get washed onto the beach.Woodside Beach is patrolled by volunteers from the Woodside Beach Surf Life Saving Club, which was formed in 1968. It regularly hosts junior lifesaving carnivals, with competing teams including Seaspray and Lakes Entrance.

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