Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge is at the southern end of the Great Salt Lake Desert, part of the Great Basin in Juab County, Utah. The Refuge is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. As an oasis in the Great Basin Desert in western Utah, Fish Springs serves a variety of species including fish, migratory birds, deer, coyotes, pronghorn, cougars and other native species. The reserve can be reached by paved road from Lynndyl, Utah to Topaz Mountain and then by improved dirt road to the Pony Express Road/Lincoln Highway improved dirt road which runs through the Refuge. The Refuge also is a recreational area for permitted outdoor activities. The Fish Springs Range runs north to south and is immediately west of the Wildlife Refuge.[1]

Sunrise at Middle Spring.

Fish Springs started as a Pony Express and Overland Stage station, and got its name from the fish that populated the springs, which were reported to be over 6 inches (15 cm) in length.[2]

The fish are left over from ancient Lake Bonneville which receded about 14,000 years ago. Several natural springs feed the wetlands. These are along a linear path at the range front (that is, fault controlled), and include North Springs, Deadman Springs, House Springs, Middle Springs, Thomas Springs, South Springs, and Percy Springs. Fish Springs is thought to be the end of a long flowpath of groundwater, starting in the Schell Creek Range and Snake Range area and flowing along permeable bedrock (for example, limestones) or faults toward Fish Springs.[3] This comes from the fact the annual discharge of the springs is 27,500 acre feet (33,900,000 m3)/year, and the annual recharge for the drainage area (the range front and Fish Springs Flat) is about 4,000 acre feet (4,900,000 m3)/year, meaning over 6 times more water flows out of the springs than falls in the valley annually by precipitation. The springs and several wells in the area are monitored by Fish and Wildlife personnel and/or the Utah Geological Survey. The water of Fish Springs is not suited for human consumption, being warm (~80 °F (27 °C)) and highly saline.[4]

Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
Fish Springs Utah
Marsh land at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge
Map showing the location of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge
Map showing the location of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge
LocationJuab County, Utah, United States
Nearest cityDugway, Utah
Coordinates39°51′29″N 113°22′01″W / 39.85806°N 113.36694°WCoordinates: 39°51′29″N 113°22′01″W / 39.85806°N 113.36694°W
Area17,992 acres (7,281 ha)
Governing bodyU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
WebsiteFish Springs National Wildlife Refuge


  1. ^ Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Description, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, retrieved September 29, 2011
  2. ^ Van Cott, J. W. (1990), Utah Place Names, ISBN 978-0-87480-345-7
  3. ^ Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System Study, U.S. Geological Survey, retrieved September 29, 2011
  4. ^ The Utah Geological Survey's Snake Valley (and greater area) Ground Water Monitoring Program, archived from the original on November 3, 2010, retrieved September 29, 2011

External links


Archaeocin is the name given to a new type of potentially useful antibiotic that is derived from the Archaea group of organisms. Eight archaeocins have been partially or fully characterized, but hundreds of archaeocins are believed to exist, especially within the haloarchaea. Production of these archaeal proteinaceous antimicrobials is a nearly universal feature of the rod-shaped haloarchaea.The prevalence of archaeocins from other members of this domain is unknown simply because no one has looked for them. The discovery of new archaeocins hinges on recovery and cultivation of archaeal organisms from the environment. For example, samples from a novel hypersaline field site, Wilson Hot Springs in the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in eastern Utah, recovered 350 halophilic organisms; preliminary analysis of 75 isolates showed that 48 were archaeal and 27 were bacterial.

California Trail

The California Trail was an emigrant trail of about 3,000 mi (4,800 km) across the western half of the North American continent from Missouri River towns to what is now the state of California. After it was established, the first half of the California Trail followed the same corridor of networked river valley trails as the Oregon Trail and the Mormon Trail, namely the valleys of the Platte, North Platte and Sweetwater rivers to Wyoming. In the present states of Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, the California and Oregon trails split into several different trails or cutoffs.

Dugway Range

The Dugway Range is a 13-mile (21 km) long mountain range located in central-south Tooele County, Utah, on the Juab County north border.

The Dugway Range extends northwesterly into the south of the Great Salt Lake Desert, the region at the west and southwest of the Great Salt Lake, about three times its area, a region of a flat white, salt flat, flat alluvial plains, and some alluvial mountain range pediments. It is the location of the Bonneville Salt Flats.

The 8-mi long Granite Mountain lies 4-mi north of the range; the mountain is a traveler's landmark with landscape sketches made in the 1800s (1859).

Fish Springs

Fish Springs may refer to a location in the United States:

Fish Springs, California

Fish Springs, Nevada

Fish Springs, Tennessee

Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah

Fish Springs Range, Utah

Fish Springs, Utah

Fish Springs Range

The Fish Springs Range is a 16-mile (26 km) long narrow, and north-trending mountain range located in center-west Juab County, Utah. The northeast of the range borders the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge; the entire east of the range borders the Fish Springs Flat, where the east region of the flat borders the Thomas Range.

The Fish Springs Range lies at the south of the Great Salt Lake Desert; southwards, as well as southwest and southeastwards, north-trending valleys and mountain ranges drain northwards to the Great Salt Lake Desert. The sequence of these landforms west-to-east, are Snake Valley (Great Basin), Confusion Range, Tule Valley-(Fish Springs Range-north), House Range, Whirlwind Valley, and Drum Mountains.

The south of the range borders the north of Tule Valley.

Great Basin Desert

The Great Basin Desert is part of the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevada and the Wasatch Range. The desert is a geographical region that largely overlaps the Great Basin shrub steppe defined by the World Wildlife Fund, and the Central Basin and Range ecoregion defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and United States Geological Survey. It is a temperate desert with hot, dry summers and snowy winters. The desert spans a large part of the state of Nevada, and extends into western Utah, eastern California, and Idaho. The desert is one of the four biologically defined deserts in North America, in addition to the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Deserts.Basin and range topography characterizes the desert: wide valleys bordered by parallel mountain ranges generally oriented north-south. There are more than 33 peaks within the desert with summits higher than 9,800 feet (3,000 m), but valleys in the region are also high, most with elevations above 3,900 feet (1,200 m). The biological communities of the Great Basin Desert vary according to altitude: from low salty dry lakes, up through rolling sagebrush valleys, to pinyon-juniper forests. The significant variation between valleys and peaks has created a variety of habitat niches, which has in turn led to many small, isolated populations of genetically unique plant and animal species throughout the region. According to Grayson, more than 600 species of vertebrates live in the floristic Great Basin, which has a similar areal footprint to the ecoregion. Sixty-three of these species have been identified as species of conservation concern due to contracting natural habitats (for example, Centrocercus urophasianus, Vulpes macrotis, Dipodomys ordii, and Phrynosoma platyrhinos).The ecology of the desert varies across geography, also. The desert’s high elevation and location between mountain ranges influences regional climate: the desert formed by the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada that blocks moisture from the Pacific Ocean, while the Rocky Mountains create a barrier effect that restricts moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Different locations in the desert have different amounts of precipitation, depending on the strength of these rain shadows. The environment is influenced by Pleistocene lakes that dried after the last ice age: Lake Lahontan and Lake Bonneville. Each of these lakes left different amounts of salinity and alkalinity.

Great Salt Lake Desert

The Great Salt Lake Desert is a large dry lake in northern Utah, United States, between the Great Salt Lake and the Nevada border which is noted for white evaporite Lake Bonneville salt deposits.


Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from and eventually flows to the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, also called groundwater hydrology.

Typically, groundwater is thought of as water flowing through shallow aquifers, but, in the technical sense, it can also contain soil moisture, permafrost (frozen soil), immobile water in very low permeability bedrock, and deep geothermal or oil formation water. Groundwater is hypothesized to provide lubrication that can possibly influence the movement of faults. It is likely that much of Earth's subsurface contains some water, which may be mixed with other fluids in some instances. Groundwater may not be confined only to Earth. The formation of some of the landforms observed on Mars may have been influenced by groundwater. There is also evidence that liquid water may also exist in the subsurface of Jupiter's moon Europa.Groundwater is often cheaper, more convenient and less vulnerable to pollution than surface water. Therefore, it is commonly used for public water supplies. For example, groundwater provides the largest source of usable water storage in the United States, and California annually withdraws the largest amount of groundwater of all the states. Underground reservoirs contain far more water than the capacity of all surface reservoirs and lakes in the US, including the Great Lakes. Many municipal water supplies are derived solely from groundwater.Polluted groundwater is less visible and more difficult to clean up than pollution in rivers and lakes. Groundwater pollution most often results from improper disposal of wastes on land. Major sources include industrial and household chemicals and garbage landfills, excessive fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture, industrial waste lagoons, tailings and process wastewater from mines, industrial fracking, oil field brine pits, leaking underground oil storage tanks and pipelines, sewage sludge and septic systems.

Hurricane Aircat

The Hurricane Aircat was an airboat used as a riverine patrol boat by the US Army and South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) during the Vietnam War. It was used to conduct various counterinsurgency (COIN) and patrol missions in riverine and marshy areas where larger boats could not go.

Juab County, Utah

Juab County ( JOO-ab) is a county in western Utah, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 10,246. Its county seat and largest city is Nephi.Juab County is part of the Provo–Orem, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Salt Lake City–Provo–Orem, Utah Combined Statistical Area.

List of aquifers in the United States

This is a list of aquifers in the United States.

Aquifers are basins that yield a usable amount of groundwater. An example of a significant and sustainable carbonate aquifer is the Edwards Aquifer in central Texas. This carbonate aquifer has historically been providing high quality water for nearly 2 million people, and even today, is completely full because of tremendous recharge from a number of area streams, rivers and lakes. The primary risk to this resource is human development over the recharge areas.


In geography, an oasis (; plural: oases ) is the combination of a human settlement and a cultivated area (often a date palm grove) in a desert or semi-desert environment. Oases also provide habitat for animals and spontaneous plants.

Snake Valley (Great Basin)

Snake Valley is a north-south trending valley that straddles the Nevada–Utah border in the central Great Basin. It is bound by the Snake Range and the Deep Creek Mountains to the west and the Confusion Range to the east. The valley is the gateway to Great Basin National Park and Lehman Caves, which is located in the western part of the valley and on the southern Snake Range.

Spring (hydrology)

A spring is a point at which water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface. It is a component of the hydrosphere.

Springs Range

Springs Range may refer to:

Sand Springs Range, a short mountain range in western Nevada in the United States

Maverick Springs Range, a mountain range in White Pine County, Nevada

Ely Springs Range, a mountain range in Lincoln County, Nevada

Burnt Springs Range, a mountain range in Lincoln County, Nevada

Hot Springs Range, a mountain range in Humboldt County, Nevada

Fish Springs Range, the location of the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in Utah

Box Springs Mountains, a mountain range in north-west Riverside County, California

Tule Springs Hills, a mountain range in Lincoln County, Nevada


A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, and support of plants and animals. Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, and the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for rapidly assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, and general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation partly by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.Wetlands occur naturally on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh, bog, and fen; sub-types include mangrove forest, carr, pocosin, floodplains, mire, vernal pool, sink, and many others. Many peatlands are wetlands. The water in wetlands is either freshwater, brackish, or saltwater.

Wetlands can be tidal (inundated by tides) or non-tidal. The largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, and the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta.The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth.Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff. They may also play a role in water-sensitive urban design.

 State of Utah
Largest cities

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