The first inauguration of William McKinley as the 25th President of the United States took place on Thursday, March 4, 1897. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of William McKinley as President and the only term of Garret Hobart as Vice President. Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller administered the presidential oath of office. This was the first inauguration to be recorded on film. Hobart died 2 years, 262 days into this term, and the office remained vacant for the balance of it. (Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, no constitutional provision existed for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency.)
|First Presidential Inauguration of William McKinley|
|Date||March 4, 1897|
|Participants||President William McKinley |
Vice President Garret Hobart
The United States presidential election of 1896 was the 28th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1896. Former Governor William McKinley, the Republican candidate, defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan. The 1896 campaign, which took place during an economic depression known as the Panic of 1893, was a realigning election that ended the old Third Party System and began the Fourth Party System.Incumbent Democratic President Grover Cleveland did not seek election to a second consecutive term, leaving the Democratic nomination open. Bryan, an attorney and former Congressman, galvanized support with his Cross of Gold speech, which called for a reform of the monetary system and attacked business leaders as the cause of ongoing economic depression. The 1896 Democratic National Convention repudiated the Cleveland administration and nominated Bryan on the fifth presidential ballot. Bryan then won the nomination of the Populist Party, which had won several states in 1892 and shared many of Bryan's policies. In opposition to Bryan, some conservative Bourbon Democrats formed the National Democratic Party and nominated Senator John M. Palmer. McKinley prevailed by a wide margin on the first ballot of the 1896 Republican National Convention.
Since the onset of the Panic of 1893, the nation had been mired in a deep economic depression, marked by low prices, low profits, high unemployment, and violent strikes. Economic issues, especially tariff policy and the question of whether the gold standard should be preserved for the money supply, were central issues. McKinley forged a conservative coalition in which businessmen, professionals, and prosperous farmers, and skilled factory workers turned off by Bryan's agrarian policies were heavily represented. McKinley was strongest in cities and in the Northeast, Upper Midwest, and Pacific Coast. Republican campaign manager Mark Hanna pioneered many modern campaign techniques, facilitated by a $3.5 million budget. Bryan presented his campaign as a crusade of the working man against the rich, who impoverished America by limiting the money supply. Silver, he said, was in ample supply and if coined into money would restore prosperity while undermining the illicit power of the money trust. Bryan was strongest in the South, rural Midwest, and Rocky Mountain states. Bryan's moralistic rhetoric and crusade for inflation (to be generated by the institution of bimetallism) alienated conservatives.
Bryan campaigned vigorously throughout the swing states of the Midwest, while McKinley conducted a "front porch" campaign. At the end of an intensely heated contest, McKinley won a majority of the popular and electoral vote. Bryan won 46.7% of the popular vote, while Palmer won just under 1% of the vote. Turnout was very high, passing 90% of the eligible voters in many places. The Democratic Party's repudiation of its Bourbon faction largely gave Bryan and his supporters control of the Democratic Party until the 1920s, and set the stage for Republican domination of the Fourth Party System.Inauguration of William McKinley
Inauguration of William McKinley may refer to:
First inauguration of William McKinley, 1897
Second inauguration of William McKinley, 1901Living presidents of the United States
This article shows the variation in the number of living presidents of the United States from the inauguration of the first president of the United States in 1789 until the present. The following table includes all persons who have taken the presidential oath of office. (Persons who served as Acting President of the United States or as President of the Continental Congress are not included.) Currently, in addition to the incumbent, Donald Trump, there are four living former presidents: Jimmy Carter (1977–1981), Bill Clinton (1993–2001), George W. Bush (2001–2009), and Barack Obama (2009–2017).Oath of office of the President of the United States
The oath of office of the President of the United States is the oath or affirmation that the President of the United States takes after assuming the presidency but before carrying out any duties of the office. The wording of the oath is specified in Article II, Section One, Clause 8, of the United States Constitution.
This clause is one of two oath or affirmation clauses, but it alone actually specifies the words that must be spoken. The other, Article VI, Clause 3, simply requires the persons specified therein to "be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution." The presidential oath, on the other hand, requires much more than this general oath of allegiance and fidelity. This clause enjoins the new president to swear or affirm that he "will to the best of his ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."Second inauguration of William McKinley
The second inauguration of William McKinley as President of the United States was held on Monday, March 4, 1901. The inauguration marked the commencement of the second term of William McKinley as President and the only term of Theodore Roosevelt as Vice President. McKinley died 194 days into this term, and Roosevelt succeeded to the presidency.
Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller administered the oath of office. This was the first inauguration to take place in the 20th century.United States presidential inaugural balls
United States presidential inaugural balls are large social gatherings, both white tie and black tie, held to celebrate the commencement of a new term of the President of the United States. Planned and sanctioned by the Presidential Inaugural Committee, the official inaugural balls occur throughout the evening of Inauguration Day in the Washington D.C. area and are invitation-only, attended by guests who are issued pre-paid tickets. The President, First Lady, Vice-President and Second Lady, all make personal appearances at each of the inaugural balls held in their honor. Catered food, beverages, and live entertainment performed by national and globally acclaimed musicians are provided at the inaugural balls.
Other inaugural balls, unofficial and often less formal that occur before and on Inauguration Day, are given by state societies, businesses, and private organizations.United States presidential inauguration
The inauguration of the President of the United States is a ceremony to mark the commencement of a new four-year term of the President of the United States. This ceremony takes place for each new presidential term, even if the president is continuing in office for a second term. Since 1937, it has taken place on January 20, which is 72 to 78 days after the November presidential election (on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November). The term of a president commences at noon ("EST" – Eastern Standard Time) on that day, when the Chief Justice of the United States administers the oath of office to the president. However, when January 20 falls on a Sunday, the chief justice administers the oath to the president on that day privately and then again in a public ceremony the next day, on Monday, January 21. The most recent presidential inauguration ceremony was the swearing in of Donald Trump to a four-year term of office on Friday, January 20, 2017.
Recitation of the presidential oath of office is the only component in this ceremony mandated by the United States Constitution (in Article II, Section One, Clause 8). However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to a day-long event, including parades and multiple social gatherings. The ceremony itself is carried live via the major U.S. commercial television and cable news networks; various ones also stream it live on their websites.
Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the west front of the United States Capitol facing the National Mall with its iconic Washington Monument and distant Lincoln Memorial. Other swearing-in ceremonies have taken place on a platform over the steps at the Capitol's east portico on a regular basis for 180 years, and occasionally inside the Old Senate Chamber on the old north side, the chamber of the House of Representatives in the south wing, and the central Rotunda under the dome. Additionally, on two occasions—in 1817 and 1945—they were held at the Executive Mansion, (later known as the White House).
Though it is not a constitutional requirement, the Chief Justice typically administers the presidential oath of office. Since 1789, the oath has been administered at 58 scheduled public inaugurations, by 15 chief justices, one associate justice, and one New York state judge. Others, in addition to the chief justice, have administered the oath of office to several of the nine vice presidents who succeeded to the presidency upon their predecessor's death or resignation intra-term. When a new president has assumed office under these unusual circumstances the inauguration has been conducted without pomp or fanfare.United States presidential transition
United States presidential transition is the transfer of federal executive branch power from the incumbent President of the United States to the president-elect, during the period of time between election day in November (on the first Tuesday after November 1), and inauguration day on the following January 20. At its heart, a single step—taking the presidential oath of office—accomplishes this transfer. However, a successful transition between the outgoing, or "lame duck" administration and the incoming administration begins with pre-election planning and continues through inauguration day. It involves key personnel from the outgoing and incoming presidents’ staffs, requires resources, and includes a host of activities, such as vetting candidates for positions in the new administration, helping to familiarize the incoming administration with the operations of the executive branch, and developing a comprehensive policy platform.In accordance with the Pre-Election Presidential Transition Act of 2010, candidate transition teams are provided office space by the General Services Administration (GSA). Transition teams are also eligible for government funding for staff. (For example, spending on Mitt Romney's transition team in 2012 was $8.9 million, all funds appropriated by the U.S. government.)Under existing federal law and custom, the successful party's nominee becomes eligible to receive classified national security briefings once his/her nomination is formalized at the party's national convention.Presidential transitions have existed in one form or another since 1797, when George Washington handed over the presidency to John Adams. Some have gone smoothly, many have been bumpy and a few verged on catastrophic. Formal mechanisms to facilitate them were first enshrined in law in the Presidential Transitions Act of 1963. They are one of the least public but most important parts of any presidential election. With only 72 to 78 days between election day and inauguration day, good governance experts and recent federal officials have been pushing for candidates to start planning a potential administration earlier and earlier in the election calendar. The most recent transition was the Trump transition—the transition from the Obama administration to the Trump administration—which concluded on January 20, 2017, with the swearing in of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States.