First appearance

In American comic books and other stories with a long history, first appearance refers to the first issue to feature a fictional character. These issues are often highly valued by collectors due to their rarity and iconic status.

Reader interest in first appearances

Collectors value first appearances for their rarity and historical value, while many regular readers are interested in viewing how their favorite characters were originally portrayed. Reprints of first appearances are often published, both as single comic books and in trade paperbacks, usually with other early appearances of the character. Marvel Comics' "Essential" line has become popular by giving readers an affordable glimpse into characters' early history.[1]

Historically, first appearances tell the origin story for the character, although some, such as Batman and Green Goblin, remained dubious figures for several issues. Modern writers prefer to tell a character's origin across an entire story arc or keep a newly introduced character mysterious until a "secret origin" issue. Some fans consider this a gimmick and prefer the older method.[2]

The artistic merit of many first appearances is debatable. The events portrayed in most famous first appearances are continuously retconed, rebooted and/or expanded upon by subsequent writers. Like many golden and silver age comics, first appearances often become dated and do not fit the modern portrayal of the character.

However, some first appearances are considered classics. 1990s-era Spider-Man writer Howard Mackie said that his favorite story featuring the character was his first appearance and origin story in Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962), stating that writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko "gave us everything we needed, I wanted or could ask for in the least possible space. Every single person who retells the origin never improves on the original, they simply expand it."[3]

Monetary value of first appearance issues

First appearances of popular characters are among the most valuable comic books in existence. Of the "ten most valuable comic books" listed in the spring 2002 issue of The Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide, seven are first appearances of popular superheroes.[4] Another, Marvel Comics #1 (October 1939), is the first appearance of the Golden Age Human Torch but is more noteworthy as the first comic book published by industry giant Marvel Comics.

It can take many years for a character to attain sufficient popularity after their first appearance to be considered "iconic." By the point a character reaches that level of popularity, it is common for few copies of their first appearance issues to remain. Furthermore, even fewer of those remaining copies will be in the pristine condition prized by collectors. What few remain can be worth thousands of dollars to interested collectors. For example, in 2004, a copy of Flash Comics #1 (January 1940), the first appearance of The Flash, was auctioned for $42,000[5] and a copy of Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941), the first appearance of Captain America sold for $64,400.[6] In 2010, another copy of Flash Comics #1 sold privately for $450,000.[7]

The first appearance of Superman, Action Comics #1 (June 1938), has been regarded as the "holy grail" of comic books, due to its cultural significance and rarity (fewer than one hundred copies are thought to exist).[8] Superman is widely considered to have solidified, if not created, the superhero archetype; therefore, his first appearance is not only important to fans of the character but to fans of superheroes and comic books as a whole.[9] Well-preserved copies of Action Comics #1 have been sold at auction for record-breaking prices. A copy graded at 8.0 ("very fine") on the 10-point scale typically used by collectors was sold at auction for $1,000,000 in 2010.[10] Even a copy graded at a much lower 5.5 ("fine minus") sold for $956,000 in 2016.[8]

Shortly after the record-breaking million-dollar sale of Action Comics #1 in 2010, a copy of Detective Comics #27 featuring the first appearance of Batman was sold for $1,075,000 in a Heritage auction.[11]

Several factors determine the value of a first appearance. Note: All values are according to ComicsPriceGuide.com and are for editions certified by the Certified Collectibles Group (see below):

  • The importance of the character(s) that debuted; the first appearance of Spider-Man in very fine condition is listed at $45,150; the first appearance of the less popular Iron Man, in the same condition, is listed at $3,837; and the first appearances of the vast majority of characters are not valued significantly higher than other comics published the same month.
  • The rarity of comic book itself; comics from the Golden Age are usually more valuable than later comic books because they are older and fewer copies survive. Spider-Man is more popular than The Spectre but Spider-Man's 1962 first appearance is valued at $45,150 while a copy of The Spectre's 1940 debut, in fine condition, is valued at $54,000. Also, first appearances often lack value if they are relatively recent issues of high-profile, best-selling titles. Except during a 1990s collector's bubble, the first appearances of several Image Comics characters and newer X-Men have not been as valuable as one may expect for such popular characters because those comics were widely produced.
  • Other reasons for historical importance; The Fantastic Four (November 1961) #1 is not only the first appearance of the eponymous group but also represents a turning point in the history of Marvel Comics and is the first issue of a long-running series.
  • Occasionally, a comic book is the first appearance of more than one important character. Usually the characters are related; X-Men #1 (September 1963) introduced the X-Men and their archenemy Magneto.[12] However, rarely a comic book is the first appearance of two unrelated, important characters. More Fun Comics #73 (November 1941) introduced both Green Arrow and Aquaman, who have little relation to one another.[13] This is also the case with Action Comics #1, which contained the first appearances of Zatara and Tex Thomson, as well as Superman.
  • Occasionally a first appearance will lack the value expected for a character of such stature because the debut was not splashy. Wonder Woman, an immensely popular and historically important hero, debuted in All Star Comics #8 (December 1941) in one of several stories and was not featured on the cover. This issue is valued at $30,000 in fine condition. Comparatively, the first appearances of equally (or even less) important peers Green Lantern and The Flash, boldly introduced on their covers, are worth $131,250 and $69,000, respectively. Arguably, the first appearance of Wonder Woman is worth much less because she did not make a flashy debut that lent the comic book an air of history.
  • As is the case with all collectibles, condition greatly affects the value of comic books, although considerable wear is expected for decades-old comics. Most comic books are worth more if their condition is certified and they are protectively packaged (or "slabbed") by the Certified Collectibles Group, a professional grading service involved in the sale of most high-value comic books, although some fans accuse the group of inflating the value of comics.[14]

Ambiguity of first appearance

While seemingly a simple concept, determining the first appearance may be complex. The following are instances in which a character's first appearance may be difficult to determine:

  • Those unfamiliar to comics may assume that Iron Man’s first appearance is The Invincible Iron Man #1 (May 1968). However, in the golden and early silver ages of comic books, few superheroes debuted in magazines carrying their names. More often a character first appeared in a generically titled anthology series. If the character proved popular, a new series was launched. For example, Iron Man first appeared in Tales of Suspense #39 (March 1963) and appeared regularly in that series for five years before Marvel launched a series properly named Iron Man. Wonder Woman, Spider-Man, The Mighty Thor and many others also first appeared in anthology series.
  • The first appearance of "all-star" teams is given as the first instance in which that team banded together regardless of whether or not it consists of previously existing characters. The first appearance of The Justice League of America is considered The Brave and the Bold #28 (May 1960), the issue in which they first operated as a group, although none of its members first appeared in that issue. Alternatively, X-Men #1 (September 1963) is both the first appearance of the X-Men and that of each of the team's original members.
  • Sometimes a character first appears in the last page of an issue, foreshadowing his or her greater role in the next issue. Arguments can ensue over whether the first appearance is the issue containing the final page cameo or the subsequent issue which more adequately introduced the character. Wolverine was first seen in the last page of The Incredible Hulk #180 (October 1974) but makes a more full appearance in issue #181 (November 1974). Stricter fans may consider The Incredible Hulk #180 Wolverine's first appearance but most consider it #181. ComicsPriceGuide.com lists a copy of issue #180, rated very fine, at $149 and #181 at $2,075. Comparatively, The Incredible Hulk #179 (September 1974), which has no special importance, is listed at $11, so both types of first appearance add value to a comic book.
  • Retconning can also complicate first appearances. Initially, Cable was portrayed as a wholly new character, first appearing in The New Mutants #87 (March 1990). However, writers later changed his background, stating that Cable is an adult, time-traveling Nathan Summers, the son of Cyclops and Madelyne Pryor, first seen in Uncanny X-Men #201 (January 1986). Both issues could be given as the first appearance of Cable. Further complicating the matter, Cable was seen in a cameo at the end of The New Mutants #86 (February 1990).
  • Some superhero identities are used by more than one character. The original Green Lantern first appeared in All-American Comics #16 (April 1940). During the Silver Age, Green Lantern, like many DC heroes, was rebooted with a totally new identity. The second Green Lantern, Hal Jordan, debuted in Showcase #22 (October 1959). All-American Comics #16 is still considered the first appearance of Green Lantern, both of the original title-bearer and the superhero identity itself. To avoid confusion, Showcase #22 is called the first appearance of Hal Jordan, of Green Lantern II or of the Silver Age Green Lantern.
  • Occasionally, a character will appear in the background of a comic book before fully introduced. Spider-Man's early love interest Liz Allan is first addressed by name in Amazing Spider-Man #4 (September 1963). However, an unnamed character in Amazing Spider-Man #1 (March 1963) is, based on her appearance and dialogue, probably Allan. Plus, Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962), shows an unnamed, unspeaking character who looks exactly like Allan. Thus Allan's first appearance may be given as any of the three.
  • Some characters appear in more than one continuity. While the first appearance of Nightcrawler is Giant-Size X-Men #1 (May 1975), the first appearance of "Ultimate Nightcrawler" (Nightcrawler in the alternate Ultimate Marvel universe) is Ultimate X-Men #6 (August 2001).
  • Sometimes new characters are created for television or film adaptations of a franchise and are later added to the comic book continuity. The Batman adversary Harley Quinn debuted in the 1992 Batman: The Animated Series episode "Joker's Favor". Her first appearance in comic format was the graphic novel The Batman Adventures #12, which took place in the continuity of Batman: The Animated Series. Her first appearance in the regular "DC Universe" was the 1999 one-shot Batman: Harley Quinn. Thus her first appearance is technically Joker's Favor, her first appearance in a comic book was The Batman Adventures #12 and her first appearance in the regular DC Comics continuity was Batman: Harley Quinn. Similarly, Firestar first appeared in Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends #1, which adapted the first episode of the TV series. Her first Earth-616 appearance was in The Uncanny X-Men #193.
  • Rarely, a character debuts in a publisher's foreign branch and then appears in a domestic series. Psylocke first appeared in Captain Britain #8 (December 1976), an original series of Marvel UK not widely available outside Great Britain. Her debut in an American series was The New Mutants Annual #2 (1986). Her first appearance is sometimes given as either but more correctly it is Captain Britain #8 while The New Mutants Annual #2 is her first US appearance.
  • Some characters appear first in a normal supporting role before becoming a superhero or villain. For example, Roderick Kingsley first appeared as a minor supporting character in The Spectacular Spider-Man #43 (June 1980). However, he would later take on the villainous role of the Hobgoblin in The Amazing Spider-Man #238 (March 1983), becoming one of Spider-Man's most dangerous foes. The latter issue, featuring his first appearance as the Hobgoblin, is worth quite a bit more than his original debut.

First appearances of popular heroes, villains and teams

Note: All values are according to Comics Price Guide. Prices given are for the best available editions. Thus prices of Golden Age comics are for editions in "fine" condition because editions in better condition for such old comics are either extremely rare or have never been confirmed to exist. Prices for Silver Age and subsequent comics are for "very fine" editions. Priced are also for editions graded by the Certified Collectibles Group. Data is correct as of January 25, 2006.

Character(s) First Appearance Cover Date Publisher Estimated Value
Superman Action Comics #1 June 1938 DC Comics $2,100,000[1]
Batman Detective Comics #27 May 1939 DC Comics $475,000
Sandman (Wesley Dodds) Adventure Comics #40 July 1939 DC Comics $60,000
Namor the Sub-Mariner Marvel Comics #1 October 1939 Timely Comics $400,000
Jay Garrick/Flash I; Hawkman Flash Comics #1 January 1940 All-American Pubs. $95,000
Captain Marvel Whiz Comics #2 February 1940 Fawcett Comics $90,000
Robin Detective Comics #38 May 1940 DC Comics $75,000
The Spectre More Fun Comics #52 February 1940 DC Comics $72,000
Lex Luthor Action Comics #23 May 1940 DC Comics $8,025
The Joker; Catwoman Batman #1 Spring 1940 DC Comics $160,500[2]
Green Lantern All-American Comics #16 July 1940 All-American Pubs. $131,250
Captain America Captain America Comics #1 March 1941 Timely Comics $125,250
Aquaman; Green Arrow More Fun Comics #73 November 1941 DC Comics $10,050
Wonder Woman All Star Comics #8 December 1941 All-American Pubs. $60,000
Barry Allen/Flash II Showcase #4 October 1956 DC Comics $48,000[15]
The Justice League of America The Brave and the Bold #28 May 1960 DC Comics $8,127
The Fantastic Four The Fantastic Four #1 November 1961 Marvel Comics $28,896
The Hulk The Incredible Hulk #1 May 1962 Marvel Comics $21,672
Dr. Doom The Fantastic Four #5 June 1962 Marvel Comics $4,154
Spider-Man Amazing Fantasy #15 August 1962 Marvel Comics $45,150
Iron Man Tales of Suspense #39 March 1963 Marvel Comics $3,837
Doctor Strange Strange Tales #110 July 1963 Marvel Comics $3,500
X-Men; Magneto X-Men #1 September 1963 Marvel Comics $13,545
The Avengers The Avengers #1 September 1963 Marvel Comics $5,148
Daredevil Daredevil #1 April 1964 Marvel Comics $3,160
Teen Titans The Brave and the Bold #54 July 1964 DC Comics $415
The Punisher The Amazing Spider-Man #129 February 1974 Marvel Comics $15,000[16]
Wolverine The Incredible Hulk #181 October 1974 Marvel Comics $1600
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles #1 May 1984 Mirage Studios $2,400

See also

Notes

  • ^ Nicolas Cage's 9.0 graded Action Comics #1 sold in 2011.
  • ^ Batman #1, the first appearance of the Joker and Catwoman, is especially valuable since it is also the first issue of a long-running series and the first comic book to bear Batman's name as its title.

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 26, 2006. Retrieved January 26, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Carter, Dave (January 20, 2005). "Yet Another Comics Blog: Origin Stories". yetanothercomicsblog.blogspot.com.
  3. ^ "Spider-Man Crawl Space Interview: Howard Mackie". www.spidermancrawlspace.com.
  4. ^ Gemstonepub.com Archived February 7, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "CBR.com - The World's Top Destination For Comic, Movie & TV news". CBR.
  6. ^ Heritagegalleries.com Archived February 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Edgar Church/Mile High Flash Comics #1 Sells for $450,000". itsalljustcomics.com. March 16, 2010.
  8. ^ a b "Comic book containing Superman's debut sold for nearly one million dollars". The Telegraph. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  9. ^ Holt, Douglas B. (2004). How Brands Become Icons: The Principles of Cultural Branding. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. p. 1. ISBN 1-57851-774-5.
  10. ^ "Action Comics No. 1 sale pushes Superman to new heights". Hero Complex - movies, comics, pop culture - Los Angeles Times. February 23, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  11. ^ "Batman beats Superman (again) as his first comic appearance breaks $1-million mark". Hero Complex - movies, comics, pop culture - Los Angeles Times. February 26, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  12. ^ Complete Marvel Reading Order
  13. ^ geocities.com/mbrown123
  14. ^ "TMe: CGC: The Good, the Bad & the Ugly". www.teako170.com.
  15. ^ "Showcase #4 The Flash (DC, 1956) CGC NM+ 9.6 White pages.... Silver - Lot #91261 - Heritage Auctions". Heritage Auctions.
  16. ^ Tosh, David (October 13, 2015). Comic Books: How to Pick Antiques Like a Pro. Picker's Pocket Guides. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1440244988.
2003 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament

The 2003 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament involved 65 schools playing in single-elimination play to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division I college basketball. It began on March 18, 2003, and ended with the championship game on April 7 in New Orleans, Louisiana at the Superdome. A total of 64 games were played.

The Final Four consisted of Kansas, making their second straight appearance, Marquette, making their first appearance since they won the national championship in 1977, Syracuse, making their first appearance since 1996, and Texas, making their first appearance since 1947. Texas was the only top seed to advance to the Final Four; the other three (Arizona, Kentucky, and Oklahoma) advanced as far as the Elite Eight but fell.

Syracuse won their first national championship in three tries under Jim Boeheim, defeating Kansas 81–78 in what would be Roy Williams' final game as head coach of the team; he would depart to become the head coach at North Carolina, a position he still holds as of the 2018–2019 season.

Carmelo Anthony of Syracuse was named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player.

Syracuse beat four Big 12 teams on its way to the title: Oklahoma State, Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas. Those victories helped earn Boeheim the national title that had eluded him in 1987 and 1996.

2008 UEFA Super Cup

The 2008 UEFA Super Cup was the 33rd UEFA Super Cup, a football match played between the winners of the previous season's UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup competitions. The 2008 competition was contested by Manchester United of England, who won the 2007–08 UEFA Champions League, and Zenit Saint Petersburg of Russia, the winners of the 2007–08 UEFA Cup. The match was played on 29 August 2008 at the Stade Louis II in Monaco.

Zenit won the match 2–1, Pavel Pogrebnyak scoring just before half-time, before Danny doubled the Russians' lead just before the hour mark. Nemanja Vidić reduced the deficit to one goal in the 73rd minute, but it was not enough to wrest the trophy from Zenit's grasp, as they became the first Russian team to win the competition. The sending-off of Paul Scholes for handball in the 90th minute resulted in him missing Manchester United's opening game in their defence of the Champions League, a home tie against Villarreal.This was Zenit's first appearance in the competition, while Manchester United had appeared twice before, in 1991 and 1999; their first appearance finished in a 1–0 win over Red Star Belgrade, while their most recent appearance was a 1–0 loss to Lazio, the last winners of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup to compete in the UEFA Super Cup.

Amazons (DC Comics)

The Amazons of DC Comics are a race of warrior women who exist as part of Greek mythology. They live on Paradise Island (also known as Themyscira), an isolated location in the middle of the ocean where they are hidden from Man's World (rest of the world).

Depending on the origin story, they are the children of Hippolyta or were created from clay by a coterie of Olympian goddesses over three thousand years ago to serve as their messengers to the world in the name of peace and justice. For centuries the women thrived in safety and security apart from what they perceived as a hostile, male-dominated world. As long as Amazons remain on Themyscira they do not age. Circumstances involving the unexpected arrival of Steve Trevor forced their existence to be revealed to the modern world.There have been numerous incarnations of these Amazons after Marston's original depictions: Robert Kanigher's revised depiction (highlighted by the change of Queen Hippolyta's hair from brunette to blonde), George Pérez's reworking following the Crisis, and changes subsequent to Infinite Crisis and The New 52. What these groups have in common is that they are the people from which came DC Comics' superheroine Wonder Woman.

Anthony Trueman

Dr Anthony Trueman is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by British actor Nicholas Bailey. He made his first appearance in the episode broadcast on 11 December 2000 and left in 2003 but returned in 2004 and 2005 for brief stints such as the wedding of Yolande Duke (Angela Wynter) and Patrick Trueman (Rudolph Walker). Anthony made a brief return on 22 July 2014 following Patrick's stroke.

Black Jack (manga)

Black Jack (Japanese: ブラック・ジャック, Hepburn: Burakku Jakku) is a manga written and illustrated by Osamu Tezuka in the 1970s, dealing with the medical adventures of the title character, doctor Black Jack.

Black Jack consists of hundreds of short, self-contained stories that are typically about 20 pages long. Black Jack has also been animated into an OVA, two television series (directed by Tezuka's son Makoto Tezuka) and two films. Black Jack is Tezuka's third most famous manga, after Astro Boy and Kimba the White Lion. In 1977, it won the 1st Kodansha Manga Award for shōnen. About.com's Deb Aoki lists Black Jack as the best "re-issue of previously released material" of 2008. Osamu Dezaki's anime film adaptation, Black Jack The Movie, won Best Animation Film at the 1996 Mainichi Film Awards.

Cambrian Stage 4

Cambrian Stage 4 is the still unnamed fourth stage of the Cambrian and the upper stage of Cambrian Series 2. It follows Cambrian Stage 3 and lies below the Wuliuan. The lower boundary has not been formally defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. One proposal is the first appearance of two trilobite genera, Olenellus or Redlichia. Another proposal is the first appearance of the trilobite species Arthricocephalus chauveaui. Both proposals will set the lower boundary close to 514 million years ago. The upper boundary corresponds to the beginning of the Wuliuan.

FIFA World Cup qualification

The FIFA World Cup qualification is the process that a national association football team goes through to qualify for the FIFA World Cup finals. The FIFA World Cup is the largest international team sport competition in the world with a qualification process required to reduce the large field of countries from 211 to just 32 for the World Cup finals.

Qualifying tournaments are held within the six FIFA continental zones (Africa, Asia, North and Central America and Caribbean, South America, Oceania, Europe), and are organized by their respective confederations. For each tournament, FIFA decides beforehand the number of places in the finals allocated to each of the continental zones, based on the numbers or relative strength of the confederations' teams.

The hosts of the World Cup receive an automatic berth. Unlike many other sports, results of the previous World Cups or of the continental championships are not taken into account. Until 2002, the defending champions also received an automatic berth, but starting from the 2006 World Cup this is no longer the case.

The upcoming qualification process will be the 2022 FIFA World Cup qualification which commences in 2019 and finishes in 2022.

Furongian

The Furongian is the fourth and final series of the Cambrian. It lasted from 497 to 485.4 million years ago. It succeeds the Miaolingian series of the Cambrian and precedes the Lower Ordovician Tremadocian stage. It is subdivided into three stages: the Paibian, Jiangshanian and the unnamed 10th stage of the Cambrian.

Iron Man's armor

Iron Man's armor is a fictional powered exoskeleton appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics and is worn by comic book superhero Tony Stark when he assumes the identity of Iron Man. The first armor (which in the story, was created by Stark and Ho Yinsen), was designed by artists Don Heck and Jack Kirby, and first appeared, along with Tony Stark, in Tales of Suspense #39 (March 1963).

In the fictional multiverse appearance of Stark's armor has radically changed over the years, either as a result of modifications made by Stark or specialized armors created for specific situations. In real life, it changed as different artists took over the series and decided to change it to what they wanted.

List of EastEnders characters

This is a list of characters currently in the BBC soap opera EastEnders, listed in order of first appearance. Where more than one actor has portrayed the same character, the current actor is listed first.

List of Hollyoaks characters

Hollyoaks is a British television soap opera. It was first broadcast on Channel 4 on 23 October 1995. The following is a list of characters and cast members who are currently appearing in the show by order of first appearance.

List of The Transformers (TV series) characters

This is a list of characters from The Transformers television series.

Miss Marple

Miss Marple is a fictional character in Agatha Christie's crime novels and short stories. An elderly spinster who lives in the village of St. Mary Mead and acts as an amateur consulting detective, she is one of the best known of Christie's characters and has been portrayed numerous times on screen. Her first appearance was in a short story published in The Royal Magazine in December 1927, "The Tuesday Night Club", which later became the first chapter of The Thirteen Problems (1932). Her first appearance in a full-length novel was in The Murder at the Vicarage in 1930.

Music of the Harry Potter films

The music of the Harry Potter film series was recorded and released in conjunction with the post-production and releases of each of the eight corresponding films. The scores were composed by John Williams, Patrick Doyle, Nicholas Hooper, and Alexandre Desplat. Musicians credited with writing source music include Jarvis Cocker, The Ordinary Boys and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. Jeremy Soule and James Hannigan wrote the music for the Harry Potter video games.

Our Gang filmography

The following is a complete list of the 220 Our Gang short films produced by Hal Roach Studios and/or Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer between 1922 and 1944, in order of release.

1922 - 1923 - 1924 - 1925 - 1926 - 1927 - 1928 - 1929 - 1930 - 1931 1932 - 1933 - 1934 - 1935 - 1936 - 1937 - 1938 - 1939 - 1940 - 1941 - 1942 - 1943 - 1944

Prima facie

Prima facie (; from Latin prīmā faciē) is a Latin expression meaning on its first encounter or at first sight. The literal translation would be "at first face" or "at first appearance", from the feminine forms of primus ("first") and facies ("face"), both in the ablative case. In modern, colloquial and conversational English, a common translation would be "on the face of it". The term prima facie is used in modern legal English (including both civil law and criminal law) to signify that upon initial examination, sufficient corroborating evidence appears to exist to support a case. In common law jurisdictions, prima facie denotes evidence that, unless rebutted, would be sufficient to prove a particular proposition or fact. The term is used similarly in academic philosophy. Most legal proceedings, in most jurisdictions, require a prima facie case to exist, following which proceedings may then commence to test it, and create a ruling.

Punisher

The Punisher (Francis "Frank" Castle, born Castiglione) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by writer Gerry Conway and artists John Romita Sr. and Ross Andru, with publisher Stan Lee green-lighting the name. The Punisher made his first appearance in The Amazing Spider-Man #129 (cover-dated February 1974).

The character is an Italian-American vigilante who employs murder, kidnapping, extortion, coercion, threats of violence, and torture in his campaign against crime. Driven by the deaths of his wife and two children who were killed by the mob for witnessing a killing in New York City's Central Park, the Punisher wages a one-man war on the mob and all violent criminals in general while employing the use of various firearms. His family's killers were the first to be slain. A war veteran and a United States Marine Corps Scout Sniper, Castle is skilled in hand-to-hand combat, guerrilla warfare, and marksmanship.The Punisher's brutal nature and willingness to kill made him a novel character in mainstream American comic books when he debuted in 1974. By the late 1980s, the Punisher was part of a wave of psychologically-troubled antiheroes. At the height of his popularity, the character was featured in four monthly publications, including The Punisher, The Punisher War Journal, The Punisher War Zone, and The Punisher Armory. Despite his violent actions and dark nature, the Punisher has enjoyed some mainstream success on television, making guest appearances on Spider-Man: The Animated Series, and The Super Hero Squad Show, where the depiction of his violent behavior was toned down for family viewers. In feature films, Dolph Lundgren portrayed the Punisher in 1989, as did Thomas Jane in 2004, and Ray Stevenson in 2008. Jon Bernthal portrays the character in the second season of Marvel's Daredevil (2016) and the spin-off The Punisher (2017) as a part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe.

Silver Age of Comic Books

The Silver Age of Comic Books was a period of artistic advancement and widespread commercial success in mainstream American comic books, predominantly those in the superhero genre. Following the Golden Age of Comic Books and an interregnum in the early to mid-1950s, the Silver Age is considered to cover the period from 1956 to circa 1970, and was succeeded by the Bronze and Modern Ages.The popularity and circulation of comic books about superheroes had declined following World War II, and comic books about horror, crime and romance took larger shares of the market. However, controversy arose over alleged links between comic books and juvenile delinquency, focusing in particular on crime and horror titles. In 1954, publishers implemented the Comics Code Authority to regulate comic content.

In the wake of these changes, publishers began introducing superhero stories again, a change that began with the introduction of a new version of DC Comics' The Flash in Showcase #4 (Oct. 1956). In response to strong demand, DC began publishing more superhero titles including Justice League of America, which prompted Marvel Comics to follow suit beginning with Fantastic Four #1.

A number of important comics writers and artists contributed to the early part of the era, including writers Stan Lee, Gardner Fox, John Broome, and Robert Kanigher, and artists Curt Swan, Jack Kirby, Gil Kane, Steve Ditko, Mike Sekowsky, Gene Colan, Carmine Infantino, John Buscema, and John Romita, Sr. By the end of the Silver Age, a new generation of talent had entered the field, including writers Denny O'Neil, Gary Friedrich, Roy Thomas, and Archie Goodwin, and artists such as Neal Adams, Herb Trimpe, Jim Steranko, and Barry Windsor-Smith.

Silver Age comics have become collectible, with a copy of Amazing Fantasy #15 (Aug. 1962), the debut of Spider-Man, selling for $1.1 million in 2011.

Steppenwolf (comics)

Steppenwolf is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by Jack Kirby and made his first appearance in New Gods #7 (February 1972). Steppenwolf (which is German for "steppe wolf") is one of the New Gods, the uncle of the supervillain Darkseid, the brother of Heggra, the great-uncle of Kalibak and Orion, and a member of Darkseid's Elite.

The character made his live-action debut in Zack Snyder's Justice League film, played by Ciarán Hinds.

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