First Perso-Turkic War

The First Perso-Turkic War was fought during 588-589[4] between the Sasanian Empire and Hephthalite principalities and its lord the Göktürks. The conflict started with the invasion of the Sasanian Empire by the Turks and ended with a decisive Sasanian victory and the reconquest of lost lands.

First Perso-Turkic War
Part of Göktürk–Persian wars
The Battle between Bahram Chubina and Sava Shah LACMA M.2009.44.1 (3 of 9)

Shahnameh illustration of Bahram Chobin fighting Bagha Qaghan
Result Decisive Sasanian victory
The Sasanians reconquer the lands south of the Oxus and also capture Chach and Samarkand
Sasanian Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Hephthalite principalities
Commanders and leaders
Bahram Chobin
Bahram Siyavashan
Bagha Qaghan 
Birmudha (POW)
12,000 hand-picked cavalry 300,000 men[1][2][3](likely exaggeration)
Casualties and losses
Minimal Heavy


In 557, Khosrow I (r. 531–579), the king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire, who had greatly increased the authority of his empire, decided to put an end to the Hephthalite Empire domination over Central Asia. He thus allied with the Turks in order to defeat the Hephthalites. The campaign was successful and the region north of the Oxus went to the Turks whilst the south came under Sasanian rule. An agreement was established between Khosrow I and the Turkic Khagan Istämi which set the Oxus as the frontier between the two empires. However, in 588, the Turkic Khagan Bagha Qaghan (known as Sabeh/Saba in Persian sources), together with his Hephthalite subjects, invaded the Sasanian territories south of the Oxus, where they attacked and routed the Sasanian soldiers stationed in Balkh, and then proceeded to conquer the city along with Talaqan, Badghis, and Herat.[5]

The war

In a council of war, Bahram was chosen to lead an army against them and was given the governorship of Khorasan. Bahram's army supposedly consisted of 12,000 hand-picked horsemen.[6] His army ambushed a large army of Turks and Hephthalites in April 588, at the battle of Hyrcanian rock,[7] and again in 589, re-conquering Balkh, where Bahram captured the Turkic treasury and the golden throne of the Khagan.[8] He then proceeded to cross the Oxus river and won a decisive victory over Turks, personally killing Bagha Qaghan with an arrowshot.[6][9] He managed to reach as far as Baykand, near Bukhara, and also contain an attack by the son of the deceased Khagan, Birmudha, whom Bahram had captured and sent to the Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon.[8] Birmudha was well received there, and was forty days later sent back to Bahram with the order that the Turkic prince should get sent back to Transoxiana.[8] The Sasanians now held suzerainty over the Sogdian cities of Chach and Samarkand, where Hormizd minted coins.[8]

Ferdowsi's Shahnameh (C.E. 1010) describes in legendary detail the dealings of Bahram Chubin and the Turkic "King Sawa" before and during the battle in which Bahram with his 12,000 men kills Sawa.[10]


  1. ^ Natell Khanlari , Safa, Parviz , Zabih Allah (1977). Barram Chobin ( A section of Bal'ami's translation of Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings (9th ed.). Tehran: Amir-Kabir. p. 10.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Buddha Prakash, Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Shiva Lal Agarwala, 1962, p. 318.
  5. ^ Rezakhani 2017, p. 177.
  6. ^ a b Shahbazi 1988, pp. 514–522.
  7. ^ Jaques 2007, p. 463.
  8. ^ a b c d Rezakhani 2017, p. 178.
  9. ^ Litvinsky & Dani 1996, pp. 368-369.
  10. ^ Volume VIII of the online Shah Nama at [3], under "The Reign of Hurmuzd, Son of Nushirwan."



The 580s decade ran from January 1, 580, to December 31, 589.

== Events ==

=== 580 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

The Roman Senate sends an embassy to Constantinople, with a gift (3,000 pounds of gold) to Emperor Tiberius II Constantine, along with a plea for help against the Lombards.

The Slavs begin to migrate into the Balkan Peninsula. The Avars, under King (khagan) Bayan I, invade the Lower Danube (modern Bulgaria).

Siege of Sirmium: The Avars march to the right bank of the River Sava, and besiege the Byzantine stronghold of Sirmium (Pannonia).

====== Europe ======

The Lombards drive the last Ostrogoths across the Alps (Northern Italy). During the "Rule of the Dukes" the Lombards adopt Roman titles, names, and traditions.

King Liuvigild calls for an Arian synod in Toledo (central Spain), which modifies several doctrines; he tries to unify the Christians within the Visigothic Kingdom.

====== Britain ======

Æthelberht succeeds his father Eormenric as king (bretwalda) of Kent (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

The Northern Zhou Dynasty, strategically based in the basin of the Wei River, is supreme in Northern China. In the south only the Chen Dynasty remains a rival.

The Chinese city of Ye (Henan) is razed to the ground by Yang Jian, future founder of the Sui Dynasty, who defeats a resistance force under Yuchi Jiong.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Gregory of Tours is brought before a council of bishops, on charges of slandering the Frankish queen Fredegund (approximate date).

=== 581 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Sassanid War: A Byzantine army commanded by Maurice, and supported by Ghassanid forces under King Al-Mundhir III, fails to capture the Persian capital, Ctesiphon, along the Euphrates.

Maurice accuses Mundhir III of treason, and brings him to Constantinople to face trial. Emperor Tiberius II Constantine treats him well, and allows Mundhir with his family a comfortable residence.

Al-Nu'man VI, son (de facto) of Mundhir III, revolts with the Ghassanids against the Byzantine Empire, after his father is treacherously arrested.

====== Europe ======

Palace coup in Austrasia: New advisors break the peace treaty with King Guntram, and make a new alliance with his half brother Chilperic I, in which Childebert II, age 11, is recognized as Chilperic's heir.

The Lombards under Zotto, Duke of Benevento, sack the abbey of Monte Cassino near Naples. The Benedictine monks who survive flee to Rome, but they return to the site, and rebuild the monastery.

The Göktürks under Taspar Qaghan besiege the city of Chersonesos Taurica (modern Ukraine), located at the Black Sea; their cavalry keep plundering the steppes of the Crimean Peninsula until 590.

====== Britain ======

The Anglo-Saxons under Ælla conquer Deira (Northern England) from the Britons. He becomes the first king of Deira (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

====== Asia ======

The Northern Zhou Dynasty ends: Yáng Jiān executes the last ruler, 8-year-old Jing Di, along with 58 royal relatives at Chang'an. He proclaims himself emperor and establishes the Sui Dynasty in China.

The "Great City of Helu", situated on the shores of Taihu Lake, is renamed Suzhou during the Sui Dynasty (approximate date).

In the Turkish Empire an interregnum begins, since there are several candidates to the throne: Talopien (Late khagan's candidate), Ishbara (Kurultay's choice) and Tardu (western yabgu).

Ishbara Qaghan, grandson of Bumin Qaghan, becomes the new ruler (khagan) of the Turkic Khaganate (Central Asia).

Sui Dynasty begins.

==== By topic ====

====== Literature ======

Maurice writes an encyclopedic work on the science of war (the "Strategikon"), which exercises a major influence on the military system.

====== Religion ======

Synod of Mâcon: In a council of Christian bishops in Mâcon (Burgundy), Jews are prohibited from serving as judges or customs officers.

=== 582 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

August 14 – Emperor Tiberius II Constantine, age 47, dies (possibly from deliberately poisoned food) at Constantinople, after a 4-year reign during which Thrace and Greece have been inundated by the Slavs. He is succeeded by his son-in-law Maurice, former notary who has commanded the Byzantine army in the war against the Persian Empire.

Autumn – Maurice elevates John Mystacon to magister militum per Orientem. He sends a Byzantine expeditionary force to Arzanene (Armenia), where they fight a pitched battle at the river Nymphius (Batman River).

====== Europe ======

Siege of Sirmium: The Avars, under their ruler (khagan) Bayan I, aided by Slavic auxiliary troops, capture the city of Sirmium after almost a 3-year siege. Bayan establishes a new base of operations within the Byzantine Empire, from which he plunders the Balkan Peninsula.

Gundoald, illegitimate son of Clotaire I, arrives with the financial support of Constantinople in southern Gaul. He claims as usurper king the cities Poitiers and Toulouse, part of the Frankish Kingdom (approximate date).

The Visigoths under King Liuvigild capture the city of Mérida (western central Spain), which is under the political control of its popular bishop Masona. He is arrested and exiled for 3 years.

====== Persia ======

A Persian army under Tamkhosrau crosses the Euphrates River and attacks the city of Constantina (modern Turkey), but he is defeated by the Byzantines and killed.

====== Asia ======

Spring – Emperor Xuan Di, age 52, dies after a 13-year reign and is succeeded by his incompetent son Houzhu, who becomes the new ruler of the Chen Dynasty.

Emperor Wéndi of the Sui Dynasty orders the building of a new capital, which he calls Daxing (Great Prosperity), on a site southeast of Chang'an (modern Xi'an).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

April 11 – John Nesteutes becomes the 33rd bishop or patriarch of Constantinople.

=== 583 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Maurice decides to end the annual tribute to the Avars, a mounted people who have swept across Russia and threatened the Balkan Peninsula. They capture the cities of Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Viminacium (Moesia).

====== Europe ======

King Liuvigild lays siege to Seville (Southern Spain), and forms an alliance with the Byzantines. He summons his rebellious son Hermenegild back to Toledo, and forces him to abandon the Chalcedonian Faith.

The city of Monemvasia (Peloponnese) is founded by people seeking refuge from the Slavs and Avars.

Eboric (also called Euric) succeeds his father Miro as king of the Suevi (Hispania Gallaecia).

====== Arabia ======

Muhammad, age 12, accompanies his uncle Abu Talib during trading journeys to Syria.

====== Mesoamerica ======

Yohl Ik'nal succeeds Kan B'alam I as queen of the Maya city of Palenque (Mexico).

==== By topic ====

====== Medicine ======

Smallpox begins spreading from China to Japan and Korea (approximate date).

=== 584 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

September – King Chilperic I dies after a 23-year reign over a territory extending from Aquitaine to the northern seacoast of what later will be France. He is stabbed to death while returning from a hunt near Chelles. His wife Fredegund, who has paid for his assassination, seizes his wealth, flees to Paris with her son Chlothar II, and persuades the nobles to accept him as legitimate heir while she serves as regent, continuing her power struggles with Guntram, king of Burgundy, and her sister Brunhilda, queen mother of Austrasia.

The Lombards re-establish a unified monarchy after a 10-year interregnum (Rule of the Dukes). Threatened by a Frankish invasion that the dukes have provoked, they elect Authari (son of Cleph) as their king and give him the capital of Pavia (Northern Italy).

The Visigoths under King Liuvigild capture the city of Seville, after a siege of nearly 2 years. His rebellious son Hermenegild seeks refuge in a church at Córdoba, but is arrested and banished to Tarragona. His wife Inguld flees with her son to Africa.

The Exarchate of Ravenna is founded, and organised into a group of duchies, mainly coastal cities on the Italian Peninsula. The civil and military head of these Byzantine territories is the exarch (governor) in Ravenna.

The Slavs push south on the Balkan Peninsula — partly in conjunction with the Avars under their ruler (khagan) Bayan I — ravaging the cities Athens and Corinth, and threatening the Long Walls of Constantinople.

King Eboric is deposed by his mother (second husband Andeca) who becomes the new ruler of the Kingdom of Galicia (Northern Spain) and the Suevi.

Gundoald, illegitimate son of Chlothar I, tries to expend his territory from Brive-la-Gaillarde (Burgundy) and proclaims himself king (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

Battle of Fethanleigh: King Ceawlin of Wessex is defeated by the Britons. He ravages the surrounding countryside in revenge (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Emperor Wéndi of the Sui Dynasty organises the Grand Canal. He builds ships for transportation and grain stores are located at strategic points.

=== 585 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Childebert II, age 15, takes up his sole rule of Austrasia. A Frankish army under King Guntram marches to Comminges (Pyrenees), and besieges the citadel of Saint-Bertrand.

July – Gundoald, Merovingian usurper king, and his followers are defeated during the siege of Saint-Bertrand. He is executed and Guntram stages a triumphal entry into Orléans.

The Visigoths under King Liuvigild devastate the Suevic Kingdom in Gallaecia (northwest Spain). After the conquest, Liuvigild reintroduces the Arian Church among the Sueves.

Winter – Famine strikes Gaul (according to Gregory of Tours). Traders plunder the people by selling scarcely a peck of grain or half measure of wine for the third of a gold piece.

====== Persia ======

The Persian commander, Kardarigan ("black hawk"), begins an unsuccessful siege of Monokarton (modern Turkey).

====== Britain ======

Hussa succeeds his brother Frithuwald as king of Bernicia (approximate date).

Creoda becomes king of Mercia (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

====== Asia ======

September 15 – Emperor Bidatsu, age 47, dies of smallpox after a 13-year reign, and is succeeded by his brother Yōmei as the 31st emperor of Japan.

Emperor Xiao Jing Di succeeds his father Xiao Ming Di as ruler of the Liang Dynasty (China).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

King Wideok of Baekje (Korea) sends an official escort (bearing tribute), along with a master of Buddhist meditation, a reciter of Buddhist magic spells, a temple architect, and a sculptor of Buddhist images, to the Chinese court of the Sui Dynasty (approximate date).

The Armenian bishop Kardutsat goes with 7 priests, on a missionary trip to the steppes north of the Caucasus. He succeeds in baptizing many Huns and in translating books into their language.

Columbanus, Irish missionary, gathers 12 companions for his journey to Britain, probably to the Scottish coast. After a short time, he crosses the English Channel and lands in Brittany (France).

Zhiyi, Chinese monk, returns to the city of Jinling, where he completes his commentarial works on the Lotus Sutra.

=== 586 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Spring – Emperor Maurice rejects a peace proposal of the Persians, in exchange for renewed payments in gold.

Battle of Solachon: A Byzantine army under command of Philippicus defeats the Sassanid Persians, near Dara.

The Avars besiege Thessalonica (Central Macedonia), the second city of the Byzantine Empire.

The Vlachs are first mentioned in a Byzantine chronicle (approximate date).

====== Europe ======

April 21 – King Liuvigild dies at Toledo after an 18-year reign, and is succeeded by his second son Reccared I.

April/May: Reccared I becomes King of the West Goths following the death of his father, Liuvigild.

Slavs advance to the gates of Thessaloniki and the Peloponnese.

Avars destroy a lien of Roman camps along the Danubian Limes, including Oescus and Ratiaria.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

The Page with the Crucifixion, from the "Rabbula Gospels", at the Monastery of St. John in Beth Zagba (Syria), is completed. It is now kept at the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Italy.

====== Religion ======

Japanese Buddhism comes under attack as a "foreign" religion.

Saint Comgall founds an abbey in Bangor, Northern Ireland.

King Custennin of Dumnonia is converted to Christianity.

=== 587 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Emperor Maurice builds more fortifications along the Danube frontier, separating the Byzantine Empire from the realm of the Avars and Slavs (approximate date).

Comentiolus, Byzantine general (magister militum), assembles an army of 10,000 men at Anchialus (modern Bulgaria). He prepares an ambush for the Avars in the Haemus mountains.

====== Europe ======

King Guntram sends envoys to Brittany, to stop the raiding on Frankish territory. He compels obedience from Waroch II and demands 1,000 solidus for looting Nantes.

King Reccared I renounces Arianism and adopts Catholicism. Many Visigothic nobles follow his example, but in Septimania (Southern Gaul) there are Arian uprisings.

November 28 – Treaty of Andelot: Guntram recognizes King Childebert II of Austrasia as heir. He signs at Andelot-Blancheville a treaty with Queen Brunhilda.

Winter – Childebert II appoints Uncelen as the Duke of Alemannia (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

Sledd succeeds his father Æscwine as king of Essex (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Battle of Shigisan: The Soga clan, which has intermarried with the royal Yamato clan, fights the Mononobe and Nakatomi clans over influence in selecting a new successor for the Japanese throne, after Emperor Yōmei dies. The Soga favor importing Buddhism from the Asian mainland, described there as the religion of the most civilized. The Mononobe and Nakatomi hold that Buddhism would be an affront to the gods. The Soga win the civil war and Sushun, age 66, becomes the 32nd emperor of Japan.

Fall – The Liang dynasty ends: Emperor Wéndi of the Sui Dynasty abolishes Western Liang and expands his territory into the lower valley of the Yangtze River. He sends his official Gao Jiong to the capital Jiangling, to pacify the citizens. The former emperor Xiao Jing Di becomes a vassal and is named the Duke of Liang.

Bagha Qaghan becomes the seventh ruler (khagan) of the Turkic Kaganate.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The filioque clause is first used in the Nicene Creed, against the Arians in Visigothic Spain (approximate date).

=== 588 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine-Sassanid War: Unpaid Byzantine troops mutiny against Priscus (magister militum per Orientem). King Hormizd IV begins a Persian offensive, but is defeated at Martyropolis (modern Turkey).

Summer – Guaram I of Iberia, Georgian prince in exile, is sent by Emperor Maurice to the city of Mtskheta (Georgia). He restores the monarchy and is bestowed with the Byzantine court title of curopalates.

====== Europe ======

The Franks and Burgundians under King Guntram and his nephew Childebert II invade Northern Italy, but suffer a disastrous defeat against the Lombards.

The Lombard Kingdom (Italy) is converted to Roman Catholicism under the rule of King Authari (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

Æthelric succeeds his father Ælla as king of Deira in Northern England (according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).

====== Persia ======

First Perso-Turkic War: A Persian army (12,000 men) under Bahrām Chobin, supported by Cataphracts (heavy cavalry), ambush the invading Turks, and win a great victory at the Battle of the Hyrcanian Rock.

====== Asia ======

Emperor Wéndi of the Sui Dynasty prepares a campaign against the Chen Dynasty. He amasses 518,000 troops along the northern bank of the Yangtze River, stretching from Sichuan to the Pacific Ocean.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Skellig Michael monastery is founded on a steep rocky island off the coast of Ireland (approximate date).

=== 589 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Sassanid War: A Persian army under Bahrām Chobin captures the fortress city of Martyropolis (modern Turkey).

====== Europe ======

May 15 – King Authari marries Theodelinda, daughter of the Bavarian duke Garibald I. A Catholic, she has great influence at court and among the Lombard nobility.

King Childebert II attempts to impose taxes on the citizens of Tours; Bishop Gregory successfully opposes this by claiming state immunity instituted by Fredegund.

King Guntram sends an expedition into Septimania (Southern Gaul), in support of a rebellion by the Arian bishop Athaloc.

Claudius, duke (dux) of Lusitania, defeats the Franks and Burgundians at Carcassonne (Languedoc) on the Aude River.

October 17 – The Adige River overflows its banks, flooding the church of St. Zeno and damaging the walls of Verona.

The plague hits Rome, and its victims include Pope Pelagius II.

====== Persia ======

First Perso-Turkic War: The Sassanid Persians capture the cities Balkh and Herat (Afghanistan). They cross the Oxus River and repulse a Turkic invasion.

====== Asia ======

The Chinese Empire is reunited under the leadership of Emperor Wéndi (Sui Dynasty), who defeats the Chen forces at Jiankang (modern Nanjing), ending the Chen Dynasty (the last of the Southern Dynasties) that has ruled since 557.

Yan Zhitui, scholar-official, makes the first reference to the use of toilet paper in human history. It is used in the Chinese imperial court and amongst the other wealthy citizens.

Tulan Qaghan, son of Ishbara Qaghan, becomes the seventh ruler (khagan) of the Turkic Khaganate.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Gregory, archdeacon of Rome, converts English slaves on the Roman market. He calls them Angels if they would be Christians.

The Third Council of Toledo, called by King Reccared I of the Visigoths, renounces Arianism and embraces Catholicism.

The Council of Narbonne is held. In Septimania, Jews are forbidden from chanting psalms while burying their dead.


Year 588 (DLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 588 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


Year 589 (DLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 589 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Bagha Qaghan

Bagha Qaghan was the seventh ruler (587–589) of the Turkic Kaganate. He may have been

the 'great kaghan' that was killed with an arrow by Persian commander Bahrām Chobin during First Perso-Turkic War.

He is given as Chǔluóhóu (处罗侯) in Chinese records, and as Šāwa, Sāva, or Sāba in Sasanian-based sources. He was hunchback.

First War

First War may refer to:

Prehistoric warfare

First World War (World War I)

First Civil War (disambiguation)

First Northern War (various)

Göktürk–Persian wars

The conflicts between the Gökturks and the Sassanid Empire include:

First Perso-Turkic War (588–589)

Second Perso-Turkic War (606–608)

Third Perso-Turkic War (627–629)

List of wars involving Iran

The following is an historical overview of the list of wars and conflicts involving Iran (Persia). This list is far from complete.

Second Perso-Turkic War

The Second Perso-Turkic War began in 606/607 with an invasion of Sassanid Persia by the Göktürks and Hephthalites. The war ended in 608 with the defeat of the Turks and Hephthalites by the Sasanians under the Armenian general Smbat IV Bagratuni.

Third Perso-Turkic War

The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Unlike the previous two wars, it was not fought in Central Asia, but in Transcaucasia. Hostilities were initiated in 627 AD by Khagan Tong Yabghu of the Western Göktürks and Emperor Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire. Opposing them were the Sassanid Persians, allied with the Avars. The war was fought against the background of the last Byzantine-Sassanid War and served as a prelude to the dramatic events that changed the balance of powers in the Middle East for centuries to come (Battle of Nineveh, Islamic conquest of Persia).

Timeline of the Göktürks

This is a timeline of the Göktürks from the origins of the Turkic Khaganate to the end of the Second Turkic Khaganate.

Timeline of the Sasanian Empire

The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty is the name mused for the Persian dynasty which lasted from 224 to 651 AD.

224 - Ardashir I introduces the name of Šāhanšāh (king of kings); the Sasanid reign is founded.

c. 224-240 – Zoroastrianism belief experiences an era of recovery under Ardashir I kingdom.

230 - Sassanian army assaults the Roman-controlled fraction of Upper Mesopotamia and lay hands on Nisibis, however is not capable to catch it.

237-238 - Ardashir I begins another rushes on the Eastern Roman Provinces and occupies Harran and Nisibis.

241 - Coronation of Shapur I.

c. 242-273 - Mani makes a journey in Persia.

252-256 - Shapur I moves forward to the Eastern Roman Provinces.

c. 259 - Failure and detention of Valerian by Shapur I.

c. 260 - 2nd foray of the Eastern Roman Provinces by Shapur I.

c. 261 - Odaenathus, the ruler of Palmyra, stops the triumphant Persian troops coming back home following the looting of Antioch, scores a notable conquest against Shapur I and drives the Persians back across the Euphrates.

271 - Coronation of Hormizd I.

273 - Coronation of Bahram I.

274 or 277 - The death penalty of Mani by influential Zoroastrian high priest Kartir.

276 - Coronation of Bahram II.

276 - The Kartir is chosen as extreme power of the Zoroastrian place of worship and victimizes the supporters of other believes; his engravings at Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, Naqsh-e Rajab, and Sar Mashad (south of Kazerun) declare to prove his principles.

283 - Roman Emperor Carus seizes Mesopotamia and catches Ctesiphon, but his troops comes back his unexpected passing.

286 - Tiridates takes the Armenian throne and the Persians are discharged from there.

293 - Narseh overwhelms his competitors and triumphs to the Persian throne.

c. 294 - Narseh’s Paikuli inscription in Iraq next to the Persian frontier.

296 - Narseh raids Armenia, expels Tiridates, and quells the Romans.

297- Roman Emperor Galerius undoes Narseh. The Treaty of Nisibis compels Narseh to abandon Armenia and Mesopotamia.

c. 301 - Realm of Armenia is the primitive power to accept Christianity as the kingdom creed.

302 - Resignation of Narseh; Coronation of Hormizd II.

309 - Coronation of Shapur II.

325 - Shapur II falls upon Arab people and makes impregnable the empire’s frontiers.

338 - Shapur II retrieves the five regions gave in by Narseh to Rome.

348 - Shapur II seizes Mesopotamia.

c. 360 - Fondation of the Kidarite kingdom.

363 - War between Julian and Persian troops follows his back off and demise; the surrendered territories and Nisibis are brought back to Persia.

376 - The armistice signed by Rome and Persia.

379 - Death of Shapur II and the accession of Ardashir II.

383 - Coronation of Shapur III.

399 - Coronation of Yazdegerd I, titled “the Sinner” owing to his efforts to control the influence of Zoroastrian clergy and his leniency towards other believes.

409 - Christian are allowed to publicly worship and to construct churches.

420 - Coronation of Bahram V (Bahram Gūr).

421 - Peace between Persia and Rome comes to an end.

422 - Bahram V triumphs in driving off an assault by the Hephtalites.

c. 425 - Bahram V brings in gypsies from India to amuse people according to the Shahnameh.

428 - Dissolution of Arsacid dynasty of Armenia. Establishment of Persian Armenia.

438 - Coronation of Yazdegerd II.

451 - Battle of Avarayr fought against the Christian Armenian rebels led by Vardan Mamikonian.

457 - Coronation of Hormizd III.

459 - Coronation of Peroz I.

484 - Hephthalite Empire conquer Peroz I.

484 - Coronation of Balash. The Nvarsak Treaty grants the Armenians the right to profess Christianity freely.

488 - Coronation of Kavadh I; expedition against Khazars.

c. 490 - Mazdak teaches his ideology, egalitarian idea; he has the benefit of Kavadh I’s help.

c. 490 - Initiation of agrarian and tax reforms.

496 - Kavadh I is dethroned by his brother Djamasp.

499 - Return of Kavadh I with support of Hephtalites.

524 - War between Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Empire.

526 - Romans assault Persia, Armenia, and Mesopotamia, however they are beaten. Start of the Iberian War.

531 - Coronation of Khosrow I.

c. 531 - Slaughter and crackdown of the Mazdak's followers.

c. 531 - Farming, governmental, military, communal reforms.

c. 531 - Conversion of Panchatantra, a Sanskrit-written book-story to Middle Persian.

533 - End of conflict between Persia and Byzantine Empire (the one that started in 524).

541 - Lazic War commences between the Byzantines and the Sassanids for control over Lazica.

c. 554 - Procopius, Byzantine expert and observer to the battles between Khosrow I and Justinian I, which he writes in his De bello Persico (Latin tr., 1833), dies.

c. 570 - Conquest of Yemen.

c. 570 - Birth of the Muḥammad (Prophet of Muslims).

579 - Death of Khosrow I and the Coronation of Hormizd IV.

580 - Sassanids abolish the monarchy of the Kingdom of Iberia. Direct control through self-appointed governors commences.

588 - First Perso-Turkic War (with Göktürks) and their defeat at the hands of the Persian General Bahrām Chobin.

590 - Hormizd IV is assassinated; Coronation of Khosrow II.

590 - Uprising of Bahrām Chobin and his seizure of the Persian throne.

591 - Overwhelming of Bahrām Chobin; he escapes to the Turks in Central Asia but is killed after a year. Khosrow II regains the throne.

596 - Muḥammad gets marry Khadija bint Khuwaylid.

602 - Climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 commences.

603 - Khosrow II’s invasion of Byzantium in revenge for the murder of Emperor Maurice and his relatives by the tyrant Phocas.

611-616 - Khosrow II’s conquest of Syria and Egypt.

622 - Muḥammad moves in secrecy from Mecca to Medina, accompanied by Abu Bakr; Muḥammad gets marry Abu Bakr’s young daughter, Aisha.

626 - The Sassanids alongside the allied Avars and Slavs besiege the Byzantine capital, Constantinople

627 - Heraclius defeats the troops of the Sasanian Empire near Nineveh.

628 - Deposition, trial, and execution of Khosrow II by his son and successor Kavadh II (Shīrūya); peace concluded with Byzantine Empire.

628 - Murdering of many Sasanian princes by Kavadh II.

628 - Kavadh II dies.

628-635 - Weakening of the Sasanian dynasty due to a succession of ineffectual kings and queens including the queens Boran and Azarmidokht; chaotic situation prevails.

632 - Pond of Khumm event.

632 - The Prophet Moḥammad dies; there ensues a dispute over his succession.

632-634 - Abu Bakr’s caliphate.

633 - Yazdegerd III succeeds to the Persian throne.

634 - Umar elected caliph; he plans a successful invasion of Byzantine and Persian (Sasanian) lands.

635 - Arabs capture Damascus.

635-641 - Arab troops capture Jerusalem, Antioch, Tripoli, and Egypt.

636 - Persians are beaten by Arab Muslims at Qādisiyyah.

637 - Arab Muslims capture Ctesiphon, the Sasanian capital; Yazdegerd III escapes to Ray.

637 - Arab Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia.

642 - Final defeat of Persians by Arab Muslims at Nehavand.

644 - Umar (Muslims Caliph) is assassinated by Piruz Nahavandi (Hormozan), a Persian captive.

644-656 - Othman’s caliphate.

651 - Murder of Yazdegerd III; end of the Sasanian dynasty; Persia is annexed to the Rashidun Caliphate (Islamic Empire).

Timeline of the Turkic peoples (500–1300)

Below is the identified timeline of the History of the Turkic peoples between 6th and 14th centuries. Although the chronology of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm is covered in this timeline, for a more detailed timeline for the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm see Timeline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm. For a timeline of the modern Turkish state and its legal predecessor see Timeline of the Ottoman Empire and Timeline of Turkish history. Beyond what is described in this timeline, Turkic peoples have lived outside of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey, such as in Azerbaijan and the Central Asian republics of former USSR as well as Russia, China, and Iran.

Turco-Persian wars

The term Turco-Persian Wars can refer to two sets of conflicts between Turkic states and Persian states:

The Göktürk–Persian Wars, between the Göktürks and the Persian Sassanid dynasty:

First Perso-Turkic War (588)

Second Perso-Turkic War (619)

Third Perso-Turkic War (627–629)

The Ottoman–Persian Wars, between the Ottoman Empire and a succession of Persian dynasties:

Battle of Chaldiran (1514)

Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–55)

Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–90)

Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18)

Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39)

Ottoman–Hotaki War (1722–27)

Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35)

Ottoman–Persian War (1743–46)

Ottoman–Persian War (1775–76)

Ottoman–Persian War (1821–23)

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