First Party System

The First Party System is a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system that existed in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824.[1] It featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party, created largely by Alexander Hamilton, and the rival Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party, formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, usually called at the time the Republican Party. The Federalists were dominant until 1800, while the Republicans were dominant after 1800.

In an analysis of the contemporary party system, Jefferson wrote on February 12, 1798:

Two political Sects have arisen within the U. S. the one believing that the executive is the branch of our government which the most needs support; the other that like the analogous branch in the English Government, it is already too strong for the republican parts of the Constitution; and therefore in equivocal cases they incline to the legislative powers: the former of these are called federalists, sometimes aristocrats or monocrats, and sometimes Tories, after the corresponding sect in the English Government of exactly the same definition: the latter are styled republicans, Whigs, jacobins, anarchists, dis-organizers, etc. these terms are in familiar use with most persons.[2]

Both parties originated in national politics, but soon expanded their efforts to gain supporters and voters in every state. The Federalists appealed to the business community, the Republicans to the planters and farmers. By 1796 politics in every state was nearly monopolized by the two parties, with party newspapers and caucuses becoming especially effective tools to mobilize voters.

The Federalists promoted the financial system of Treasury Secretary Hamilton, which emphasized federal assumption of state debts, a tariff to pay off those debts, a national bank to facilitate financing, and encouragement of banking and manufacturing. The Republicans, based in the plantation South, opposed a strong executive power, were hostile to a standing army and navy, demanded a strict reading of the Constitutional powers of the federal government, and strongly opposed the Hamilton financial program. Perhaps even more important was foreign policy, where the Federalists favored Britain because of its political stability and its close ties to American trade, while the Republicans admired the French and the French Revolution. Jefferson was especially fearful that British aristocratic influences would undermine republicanism. Britain and France were at war from 1793–1815, with only one brief interruption. American policy was neutrality, with the federalists hostile to France, and the Republicans hostile to Britain. The Jay Treaty of 1794 marked the decisive mobilization of the two parties and their supporters in every state. President George Washington, while officially nonpartisan, generally supported the Federalists and that party made Washington their iconic hero.[3]

The First Party System ended during the Era of Good Feelings (1816–1824), as the Federalists shrank to a few isolated strongholds and the Democratic-Republicans lost unity. In 1824–28, as the Second Party System emerged, the Democratic-Republican Party split into the Jacksonian faction, which became the modern Democratic Party in the 1830s, and the Henry Clay faction, which was absorbed by Clay's Whig Party.

First Party System
Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg
17961824

First Party System
United States presidential election results between 1796 and 1824. Green shaded states usually voted for the Democratic-Republican Party, while brown shaded states usually voted for the Federalist Party.

Federalists versus Anti-Federalists in 1787–88

Leading nationalists, George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and Benjamin Franklin (see Annapolis Convention), called the Constitutional Convention in 1787. It drew up a new constitution that was submitted to state ratification conventions for approval. (The old Congress of the Confederation approved the process.) James Madison was the most prominent figure; he is often referred to as "the father of the Constitution".[4]

An intense debate on ratification pitted the "Federalists" (who supported the Constitution, and were led by Madison and Hamilton) against the "Anti-Federalists," (who opposed the new Constitution). The Federalists won and the Constitution was ratified. The Anti-Federalists were deeply concerned about the theoretical danger of a strong central government (like that of Britain) that someday could usurp the rights of the states.[5] The framers of the Constitution did not want or expect political parties to emerge, because they considered them divisive.[6]

The term "Federalist Party" originated around 1792–93 and refers to a somewhat different coalition of supporters of the Constitution in 1787–88 as well as entirely new elements, and even a few former opponents of the Constitution (such as Patrick Henry). Madison largely wrote the Constitution and was thus a Federalist in 1787–88, but he opposed the program of the Hamiltonians and their new "Federalist Party".[5]

Washington administration (1789–1797)

At first, there were no parties in the nation. Factions soon formed around dominant personalities such as Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, and Thomas Jefferson, the Secretary of State, who opposed Hamilton's broad vision of a powerful federal government. Jefferson especially objected to Hamilton's flexible view of the Constitution, which stretched to include a national bank. Jefferson was joined by Madison in opposing the Washington administration, leading the "Anti-Administration party". Washington was re-elected without opposition in 1792.

Hamilton built a national network of supporters that emerged about 1792–93 as the Federalist Party. In response, Jefferson and James Madison built a network of supporters of the republic in Congress and in the states that emerged in 1792–93 as the Democratic-Republican Party. The elections of 1792 were the first contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized in some sense, as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it, as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the race for governor was organized along these lines. The candidates were John Jay, who was a Hamiltonian, and incumbent George Clinton, who was allied with Jefferson and the Republicans.[7]

In 1793, the first Democratic-Republican Societies were formed. They supported the French Revolution, which had just seen the execution of King Louis XVI, and generally supported the Jeffersonian cause. The word "democrat" was proposed by Citizen Genet for the societies, and the Federalists ridiculed Jefferson's friends as "democrats". After Washington denounced the societies as unrepublican, they mostly faded away.

In 1793, war broke out between England, France, and their European allies. The Jeffersonians favored France and pointed to the 1778 treaty that was still in effect. Washington and his unanimous cabinet (including Jefferson) decided the treaty did not bind the U.S. to enter the war; instead Washington proclaimed neutrality.

When war threatened with Britain in 1794, Washington sent John Jay to negotiate the Jay treaty with Britain; it was signed in late 1794, and ratified in 1795. It averted a possible war and settled many (but not all) of the outstanding issues between the U.S. and Britain.[8] The Jeffersonians vehemently denounced the treaty, saying it threatened to undermine republicanism by giving the aristocratic British and their Federalist allies too much influence.[9] The fierce debates over the Jay Treaty in 1794–96, according to William Nisbet Chambers, nationalized politics and turned a faction in Congress into a nationwide party. To fight the treaty the Jeffersonians "established coordination in activity between leaders at the capital, and leaders, actives and popular followings in the states, counties and towns".[10]

In 1796 Jefferson challenged John Adams for the presidency and lost. The Electoral College made the decision, and it was largely chosen by the state legislatures, many of which were not chosen on a national party basis.

Newspapers as party weapons

~party3
Federalist poster about 1800. Washington (in heaven) tells partisans to keep the pillars of Federalism, Republicanism and Democracy

By 1796, both parties had a national network of newspapers, which attacked each other vehemently. The Federalist and Republican newspapers of the 1790s traded vicious barbs against their enemies.[11] An example is this acrostic from a Republican paper (note the sequence of first letter of each line):[12]

A SK—who lies here beneath this monument?
L o—'tis a self created MONSTER, who
E mbraced all vice. His arrogance was like
X erxes, who flogg'd the disobedient sea,
A dultery his smallest crime; when he
N obility affected. This privilege
D ecreed by Monarchs, was to that annext.
E nticing and entic'd to ev'ry fraud,
R enounced virtue, liberty and God.

H aunted by whores—he haunted them in turn
A ristocratic was this noble Goat
M onster of monsters, in pollution skill'd
I mmers'd in mischief, brothels, funds & banks
L ewd slave to lust,—afforded consolation;
T o mourning whores, and tory-lamentation.
O utdid all fools, tainted with royal name;
N one but fools, their wickedness proclaim.

The most heated rhetoric came in debates over the French Revolution, especially the Jacobin Terror of 1793–94 when the guillotine was used daily. Nationalism was a high priority, and the editors fostered an intellectual nationalism typified by the Federalist effort to stimulate a national literary culture through their clubs and publications in New York and Philadelphia, and through Federalist Noah Webster's efforts to simplify and Americanize the language.[13]

Party strength in Congress

Historians have used statistical techniques to estimate the party breakdown in Congress. Many Congressmen were hard to classify in the first few years, but after 1796 there was less uncertainty. The first parties were anti-federalist and federalist.

Federalist and Democratic-Republican strength in Congress by election year[14]
House 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800 1802 1804 1806
Federalist 37 39 51 47 57 60 38 39 25 24
Democratic-Republican 28 30 54 59 49 46 65 103 116 118
Democratic-Republican 43% 43% 51% 56% 46% 43% 63% 73% 82% 83%
Senate 1788 1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800 1802 1804 1806
Federalist 18 16 16 21 22 22 15 9 7 6
Democratic-Republican 8 13 14 11 10 10 17 25 17 28
Democratic-Republican 31% 45% 47% 34% 31% 31% 53% 74% 71% 82%

Inventing campaign techniques

Given the power of the Federalists, the Democratic Republicans had to work harder to win. In Connecticut in 1806 the state leadership sent town leaders instructions for the forthcoming elections; every town manager was told by state leaders "to appoint a district manager in each district or section of his town, obtaining from each an assurance that he will faithfully do his duty". Then the town manager was instructed to compile lists and total up the number of taxpayers, the number of eligible voters, how many were "decided democratic republicans," "decided federalists," or "doubtful," and finally to count the number of supporters who were not currently eligible to vote but who might qualify (by age or taxes) at the next election. The returns eventually went to the state manager, who issued directions to laggard towns to get all the eligibles to town meetings, help the young men qualify to vote, to nominate a full ticket for local elections, and to print and distribute the party ticket. (The secret ballot did not appear for a century. )[15] This highly coordinated "get-out-the-vote" drive would be familiar to modern political campaigners, but was the first of its kind in world history.

The Jeffersonians invented many campaign techniques that the Federalists later adopted and that became standard American practice. They were especially effective at building a network of newspapers in major cities to broadcast their statements and editorialize in their favor. But the Federalists, with a strong base among merchants, controlled more newspapers: in 1796 the Federalist papers outnumbered the Democratic Republicans by 4 to 1. Every year more papers began publishing; in 1800 the Federalists still had a 2 to 1 numerical advantage. Most papers, on each side, were weeklies with a circulation of 300 to 1000.[16] Jefferson systematically subsidized the editors. Fisher Ames, a leading Federalist, who used the term "Jacobin" to link Jefferson's followers to the terrorists of the French Revolution, blamed the newspapers for electing Jefferson, seeing them as "an overmatch for any Government ... The Jacobins owe their triumph to the unceasing use of this engine; not so much to skill in use of it as by repetition."[17] Historians echo Ames' assessment. As one explains,

It was the good fortune of the Republicans to have within their ranks a number of highly gifted political manipulators and propagandists. Some of them had the ability ... to not only see and analyze the problem at hand but to present it in a succinct fashion; in short, to fabricate the apt phrase, to coin the compelling slogan and appeal to the electorate on any given issue in language it could understand.

Outstanding phrasemakers included editor William Duane, party leaders Albert Gallatin and Thomas Cooper, and Jefferson himself.[18] Meanwhile, John J. Beckley of Pennsylvania, an ardent partisan, invented new campaign techniques (such as mass distribution of pamphlets and of handwritten ballots) that generated the grass-roots support and unprecedented levels of voter turnout for the Jeffersonians.

War threats with Britain and France

With the world thrown into global warfare after 1793, the small nation on the fringe of the European system could barely remain neutral. The Jeffersonians called for strong measures against Britain, and even for another war. The Federalists tried to avert war by the Jay Treaty (1795) with England. The treaty became highly controversial when the Jeffersonians denounced it as a sell-out to Britain, even as the Federalists said it avoided war, reduced the Indian threat, created good trade relations with the world's foremost economic power, and ended lingering disputes from the Revolutionary War. When Jefferson came to power in 1801 he honored the treaty, but new disputes with Britain led to the War of 1812.[19]

In 1798 disputes with France led to the Quasi-War (1798-1800), an undeclared naval war involving the navies and merchant ships of both countries. Democratic-Republicans said France really wanted peace, but the XYZ Affair undercut their position. Warning that full-scale war with France was imminent, Hamilton and his "High Federalist" allies forced the issue by getting Congressional approval to raise a large new army (which Hamilton controlled), replete with officers' commissions (which he bestowed on his partisans). The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) clamped down on dissenters, including pro-Jefferson editors, and Vermont Congressman Matthew Lyon, who won re-election while in jail in 1798. In the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798), secretly drafted by Madison and Jefferson, the legislatures of the two states challenged the power of the federal government.[20]

National debt

Jefferson and Albert Gallatin focused on the danger that the public debt, unless it was paid off, would be a threat to republican values. They were appalled that Hamilton was increasing the national debt and using it to solidify his Federalist base. Gallatin was the Republican Party's chief expert on fiscal issues and as Treasury Secretary under Jefferson and Madison worked hard to lower taxes and lower the debt, while at the same time paying cash for the Louisiana Purchase and funding the War of 1812. Burrows says of Gallatin:

His own fears of personal dependency and his small-shopkeeper's sense of integrity, both reinforced by a strain of radical republican thought that originated in England a century earlier, convinced him that public debts were a nursery of multiple public evils--corruption, legislative impotence, executive tyranny, social inequality, financial speculation, and personal indolence. Not only was it necessary to extinguish the existing debt as rapidly as possible, he argued, but Congress would have to ensure against the accumulation of future debts by more diligently supervising government expenditures.[21]

Andrew Jackson saw the national debt as a "national curse" and he took special pride in paying off the entire national debt in 1835.[22]

Jefferson and the revolution of 1800

Madison worked diligently to form party lines inside the Congress and build coalitions with sympathetic political factions in each state. In 1800, a critical election galvanized the electorate, sweeping the Federalists out of power, and electing Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party. Adams made a few last minute, "midnight appointments", notably Federalist John Marshall as Chief Justice. Marshall held the post for three decades and used it to federalize the Constitution, much to Jefferson's dismay.[23]

As president, Jefferson worked to cleanse the government of Adams's "midnight appointments", withholding the commissions of 25 of 42 appointed judges and removing army officers. The sense that the nation needed two rival parties to balance each other had not been fully accepted by either party; Hamilton had viewed Jefferson's election as the failure of the Federalist experiment. The rhetoric of the day was cataclysmic — election of the opposition meant the enemy would ruin the nation. Jefferson's foreign policy was not exactly pro-Napoleon, but it applied pressure on Britain to stop impressment of American sailors and other hostile acts. By engineering an embargo of trade against Britain, Jefferson and Madison plunged the nation into economic depression, ruined much of the business of Federalist New England, and finally precipitated the War of 1812 with a much larger and more powerful foe.[24]

The Federalists vigorously criticized the government, and gained strength in the industrial Northeast. However, they committed a major blunder in 1814. That year the semi-secret "Hartford Convention" passed resolutions that verged on secession; their publication ruined the Federalist party. It had been limping along for years, with strength in New England and scattered eastern states but practically no strength in the West. While Federalists helped invent or develop numerous campaign techniques (such as the first national nominating conventions in 1808[25]), their elitist bias alienated the middle class, thus allowing the Jeffersonians to claim they represented the true spirit of "republicanism".[26]

State parties

Because of the importance of foreign policy (decided by the national government), of the sale of national lands, and the patronage controlled by the President, the factions in each state realigned themselves in parallel with the Federalists and Republicans. Some newspaper editors became powerful politicians, such as Thomas Ritchie, whose "Richmond Junto" controlled Virginia state politics from 1808 into the 1840s.[27]

New England was always the stronghold of the Federalist party. One historian explains how well organized it was in Connecticut:

It was only necessary to perfect the working methods of the organized body of office-holders who made up the nucleus of the party. There were the state officers, the assistants, and a large majority of the Assembly. In every county there was a sheriff with his deputies. All of the state, county, and town judges were potential and generally active workers. Every town had several justices of the peace, school directors and, in Federalist towns, all the town officers who were ready to carry on the party's work ... Militia officers, state's attorneys, lawyers, professors and schoolteachers were in the van of this "conscript army". In all, about a thousand or eleven hundred dependent officer-holders were described as the inner ring which could always be depended upon for their own and enough more votes within their control to decide an election. This was the Federalist machine.[28]

Religious tensions polarized Connecticut, as the established Congregational Church, in alliance with the Federalists, tried to maintain its grip on power. Dissenting groups moved toward the Jeffersonians. The failure of the Hartford Convention in 1814 wounded the Federalists, who were finally upended by the Democratic-Republicans in 1817.

Era of Good Feelings

The First Party System was primarily built around foreign policy issues that vanished with the defeat of Napoleon and the compromise settlement of the War of 1812. Furthermore, the fears that Federalists were plotting to reintroduce aristocracy dissipated. Thus an "Era of Good Feelings" under James Monroe replaced the high-tension politics of the First Party System about 1816. Personal politics and factional disputes were occasionally still hotly debated, but Americans no longer thought of themselves in terms of political parties.[29]

Historians have debated the exact ending of the system.[30] Most concluded it petered out by 1820. The little state of Delaware, largely isolated from the larger political forces controlling the nation, saw the First Party System continue well into the 1820s, with the Federalists occasionally winning some offices.

Legitimacy of a party system

Election Day 1815 by John Lewis Krimmel
Depiction of election-day activities in Philadelphia by John Lewis Krimmel, 1815

Alexander Hamilton felt that only by mobilizing its supporters on a daily basis in every state on many issues could support for the government be sustained through thick and thin. Newspapers were needed to communicate inside the party; patronage helped the party's leaders and made new friends.[31]

Hamilton, and especially Washington, distrusted the idea of an opposition party, as shown in George Washington's Farewell Address of 1796. They thought opposition parties would only weaken the nation. By contrast Jefferson was the main force behind the creation and continuity of an opposition party.[32] He deeply felt the Federalists represented aristocratic forces hostile to true republicanism and the true will of the people, as he explained in a letter to Henry Lee in 1824:

Men by their constitutions are naturally divided into two parties: 1. Those who fear and distrust the people, and wish to draw all powers from them into the hands of the higher classes. 2. Those who identify themselves with the people, have confidence in them, cherish and consider them as the most honest and safe, although not the most wise depositary of the public interests. In every country these two parties exist, and in every one where they are free to think, speak, and write, they will declare themselves. Call them, therefore, liberals and serviles, Jacobins and Ultras, whigs and tories, republicans and federalists, aristocrats and democrats, or by whatever name you please, they are the same parties still and pursue the same object. The last appellation of aristocrats and democrats is the true one expressing the essence of all.

Hofstadter (1970) shows it took many years for the idea to take hold that having two parties is better than having one, or none. That transition was made possible by the successful passing of power in 1801 from one party to the other. Although Jefferson systematically identified Federalist army officers and officeholders, he was blocked from removing all of them by protests from republicans. The Quids complained he did not go far enough.

Historical legacy

While historians are not unanimous, Princeton scholar Sean Wilentz in 2010 identified a scholarly trend very much in Hamilton's favor:

In recent years, Hamilton and his reputation have decidedly gained the initiative among scholars who portray him as the visionary architect of the modern liberal capitalist economy and of a dynamic federal government headed by an energetic executive. Jefferson and his allies, by contrast, have come across as naïve, dreamy idealists. At best according to many historians, the Jeffersonians were reactionary utopians who resisted the onrush of capitalist modernity in hopes of turning America into a yeoman farmers' arcadia. At worst, they were proslavery racists who wish to rid the West of Indians, expand the empire of slavery, and keep political power in local hands – all the better to expand the institution of slavery and protect slaveholders' rights to own human property.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ Chambers, 1972
  2. ^ letter to John Wise in Francis N. Thorpe, ed "A Letter from Jefferson on the Political Parties, 1798," American Historical Review v.3#3 (April 1898) pp 488–89
  3. ^ David Hackett Fischer, The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy (1965) p 116
  4. ^ Morris The Forging of the Union: 1781–1789 pp 267–97.
  5. ^ a b Wood (2009)
  6. ^ Richard Hofstadter, "A Constitution against Parties" in his The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780–1840 (1970) ch 2
  7. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, p. 288
  8. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, 405–12
  9. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, 417–8; Goodman (1964) 71–2.
  10. ^ Chambers, Political Parties p. 80
  11. ^ Marcus Daniel, Scandal and Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy (2009)
  12. ^ Independent Chronicle (Boston), 16 October 1797 quoted in Donald Henderson Stewart (1969). The Opposition Press of the Federalist Period. SUNY Press. p. 541.
  13. ^ Catherine O'Donnell Kaplan, Men of Letters in the Early Republic: Cultivating Forms of Citizenship 2008)
  14. ^ Kenneth C. Martis, The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789–1989 (1989); the numbers are estimates by historians.
  15. ^ Noble E. Cunningham, Jr. The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power: Party Operations 1801–1809 (1963) p 129
  16. ^ Stewart, Opposition Press, p. 622
  17. ^ Cunningham, 1957 p 167
  18. ^ Tinkcom 271
  19. ^ Miller, Federalist Era pp 165–78
  20. ^ Miller, Federalist Era pp 210–43
  21. ^ Edwin G. Burrows. "Gallatin, Albert" in American National Biography Online (2000) Accessed Dec 03 2013
  22. ^ Robert V. Remini (2008). Andrew Jackson. Macmillan. p. 180.
  23. ^ Miller, Federalist Era, pp. 251–77
  24. ^ Smelser, Democratic Republic
  25. ^ Samuel E. Morison, "The First National Nominating Convention, 1808," The American Historical Review, Vol. 17, No. 4 (July 1912), pp. 744–763 in JSTOR
  26. ^ Banner, To the Hartford Convention (1970); Wood (2009) pp. 216–17.
  27. ^ Norman K. Risjord, The Old Republicans: southern conservatism in the age of Jefferson (1965) P. 179; Joseph H., Harrison, Jr., "Oligarchs and Democrats: The Richmond Junto," Virginia Magazine of History & Biography; 1970 78(2): 184–198,
  28. ^ Richard J. Purcell, Connecticut in Transition: 1775–1818 1963. p. 190.
  29. ^ Richard P. McCormick, The Second American Party System: Party Formation in the Jacksonian Era (1966) ch 1
  30. ^ Skeen (1993), p. 77
  31. ^ Jeffrey L. Pasley. "The Tyranny of Printers": Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic (2003)
  32. ^ Wood (2009) ch. 4
  33. ^ Sean Wilentz, "Book Reviews," Journal of American History Sept. 2010 v. 97# 2 p 476. Wilentz notes that Wood (2009) is much more favorable toward Jefferson.

Further reading

General

  • Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1978)
  • Ben-Atar, Doron and Barbara B. Oberg, eds. Federalists Reconsidered (1999), topical essays by scholars
  • Beard, Charles A. The Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915) online edition
  • Bowling, Kenneth R. and Donald R. Kennon, eds. Perspectives on the History of Congress, 1789–1801. (2000)
  • Brown, Roger H. The Republic in Peril: 1812 (1964), stresses intense hostility between partisans online edition
  • Brown; Stuart Gerry. The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison Syracuse University Press. (1954)online.
  • Buel, Richard. Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789–1815 (1972)
  • Chambers, William Nisbet, ed. The First Party System (1972)
  • Chambers, William Nisbet. Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776–1809 (1963), political science perspective
  • Charles, Joseph. The Origins of the American Party System (1956), reprints articles in William and Mary Quarterly
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. Jeffersonian Republicans: The Formation of Party Organization: 1789–1801 (1957), highly detailed party history
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power: Party Operations 1801–1809 (1963), highly detailed party history
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Process of Government Under Jefferson (1978)
  • Dawson, Matthew Q. Partisanship and the Birth of America's Second Party, 1796–1800: Stop the Wheels of Government. Greenwood, (2000) online version
  • Dinkin, Robert J. Campaigning in America: A History of Election Practices. (Greenwood 1989) online version
  • Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995) online at Questia, the standard highly detailed political history of 1790s; online free to borrow
  • John Ferling; A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic. Oxford University Press. (2003) online version; survey
  • Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of the New American Nation, 1754–1829 (2005), 1600 pp.
  • Fischer, David Hackett. The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy (1965), shows that the upper class Federalists learned too late how to appeal to voters
  • Freeman, Joanne B. "The Election of 1800: A Study in the Logic of Political Change." Yale Law Journal. Volume: 108. Issue: 8. 1999. pp : 1959–1994.
  • Goodman, Paul. "The First American Party System" in William Nisbet Chambers and Walter Dean Burnham, eds. The American Party Systems: Stages of Political Development (1967), 56–89.
  • Hoadley, John F. "The Emergence of Political Parties in Congress, 1789–1803." American Political Science Review (1980) 74(3): 757–779. in JSTOR Looks at the agreement among members of Congress in their roll-call voting records. Multidimensional scaling shows the increased clustering of congressmen into two party blocs from 1789 to 1803, especially after the Jay Treaty debate; shows politics was moving away from sectionalism to organized parties.
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780–1840 (1970)
  • Kerber, Linda K. Federalists in Dissent: Imagery and ideology in Jeffersonian America (1970)
  • Lampi, Philip J. "The Federalist Party Resurgence, 1808-1816: Evidence from the New Nation Votes Database," Journal of the Early Republic (Summer 2013) 33#2 pp. 255–281 | DOI: 10.1353/jer.2013.0029
  • Libby, O. G. "Political Factions in Washington's Administration," NDQ: North Dakota Quarterly (1913) vol 3#3 pp 293–318 full text online, looks at votes of each Congressman
  • Luetscher, George D. Early Political Machinery in the United States (1903) online
  • Miller, John C. The Federalist Era: 1789–1801 (1960), survey of political history
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. et al. eds. Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic (2004), topical essays by scholars
  • Ratcliffe, Donald. "The Right to Vote and the Rise of Democracy, 1787-1828," Journal of the Early Republic (Summer 2013) 33#2 pp. 219–254 | DOI: 10.1353/jer.2013.0033
  • Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr., ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–2008 (2011) 3 vol and 11 vol editions; detailed analysis of each election, with primary documents; online v. 1. 1789-1824 -- v. 2. 1824-1844 -- v. 3. 1848-1868 -- v. 4. 1872-1888 -- v. 5. 1892-1908 -- v. 6. 1912-1924 -- v. 7. 1928-1940 -- v. 8. 1944-1956 -- v. 9. 1960-1968 -- v. 10. 1972-1984 -- v. 11. 1988-2001
  • Sharp, James Roger. American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis (1993), political narrative of 1790s
  • Slez, Adam, and John Levi Martin. "Political Action and Party Formation in the United States Constitutional Convention," American Sociological Review, volume 72, Number 1, February 2007, pp. 42–67(26), says decisions in 1787 convention set up the outlines of the first party system
  • Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic, 1801–1815 (1968) (ISBN 0-06-131406-4) survey of political and diplomatic history
  • Theriault, Sean M. "Party Politics during the Louisiana Purchase," Social Science History 2006 30(2):293–324; doi:10.1215/01455532-30-2-293
  • Wilentz, Sean. The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln. (2005), broad-scale interpretation of political history
  • Wiltse, Charles Maurice. The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy (1935)
  • Wood, Gordon S. Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)

Biographies

  • Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic (1995), to 1795; online edition
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr., "John Beckley: An Early American Party Manager," William and Mary Quarterly, 13 (January 1956), 40–52, in JSTOR
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty v 3(ISBN 0-316-54469-8); Jefferson the President: First Term 1801 – 1805 vol 4 (ISBN 0-316-54480-9); Jefferson the President: Second term, 1805–1809 vol 5 (1948–70), the standard multivolume biography
  • Miller, John C. Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox (1959), full scale biography; online edition
  • Schachner, Nathan. Aaron Burr: A Biography (1961), full scale biography online version

Newspapers and authors

  • Humphrey, Carol Sue The Press of the Young Republic, 1783–1833 (1996)
  • Knudson, Jerry W. Jefferson and the Press: Crucible of Liberty (2006) how 4 Republican and 4 Federalist papers covered election of 1800; Thomas Paine; Louisiana Purchase; Hamilton–Burr duel; impeachment of Chase; and the embargo
  • Daniel, Marcus, "Scandal and Civility: Journalism and the Birth of American Democracy" (2009)
  • O'Donnell, Catherine. "Literature and Politics in the Early Republic: Views from the Bridge," Journal of the Early Republic, Summer 2010, Vol. 30#2 pp 279–292; looks at Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and John Adams in terms of gender studies, interdisciplinary studies, American identity, and the work of Jürgen Habermas, Gordon Wood and Bernard Bailyn.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. "The Tyranny of Printers": Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic (2003) (ISBN 0-8139-2177-5)
  • Rollins, Richard. The Long Journey of Noah Webster (1980); Webster was an important Federalist editor
  • Stewart, Donald H. The Opposition Press of the Federalist Era (1968), highly detailed study of Republican newspapers

State and regional studies

  • Banner, James M. To the Hartford Convention: The Federalists and the Origins of Party Politics in Massachusetts, 1789–1815 (1970)
  • Broussard, James H. The Southern Federalists: 1800–1816 (1978)
  • Formisano, Ronald. The Transformation of Political Culture: Massachusetts Parties, 1790s–1840s (1983)
  • Fox, Dixon Ryan. The decline of aristocracy in the politics of New York (1919) shows the Federalists were too artistocratic to win elections online edition
  • Goodman, Paul. The Democratic-Republicans of Massachusetts: Politics in a Young Republic (1964)
  • Leonard, Gerald. The Invention of Party Politics: Federalism, Popular Sovereignty, and Constitutional Development in Jacksonian Illinois (2002)
  • McCormick, Richard P. The Second Party System: Party Formation in the Jacksonian Era (1966) deals with the collapse of the First Party System, state by state
  • Prince, Carl E. New Jersey's Jeffersonian Republicans: The Genesis of an Early Party Machine, 1789–1817 (1967)
  • Risjord, Norman K. The Old Republicans: Southern Conservatism in the Age of Jefferson (1965)
  • Risjord; Norman K. Chesapeake Politics, 1781–1800 (1978), covers Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina; online edition
  • Robertson, Andrew W. "Reconceptualizing Jeffersonian Democracy," Journal of the Early Republic (Summer 2013) 33#2 pp 317–35; focus on historiography of turnout in states and localities.
  • Tinkcom, Harry M. The Republicans and Federalists in Pennsylvania, 1790–1801: A Study in National Stimulus and Local Response (1950)
  • Turner, Lynn Warren; The Ninth State: New Hampshire's Formative Years. (1983).
  • Young, Alfred F. The Democratic Republicans of New York: The Origins, 1763–1797 (1967)

Primary sources

  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. ed. The Making of the American Party System 1789 to 1809 (1965), short excerpts from primary sources
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr., ed. Circular Letters of Congressmen to Their Constituents 1789–1829 (1978), 3 vol; political reports sent by Congressmen to local newspapers

External links

1792 United States elections

The 1792 United States elections elected the members of the 3rd United States Congress. Congress was broadly divided between a Pro-Administration faction supporting the policies of George Washington's administration and an Anti-Administration faction opposed to those policies. Due to this, the Federalist Party (generally overlapping with the Pro-Administration faction) and the Democratic-Republican Party (generally overlapping with the Antu-Administration faction) were starting to emerge as the distinct political parties of the First Party System. In this election, the Pro-Administration faction maintained control of the Senate, but lost its majority in the House.

In the presidential election, incumbent President George Washington was re-elected without any major opposition. Washington had considered retirement, but was convinced to seek re-election for the purpose of national unity. Though Washington went unchallenged, Governor George Clinton of New York sought to unseat John Adams as vice president. However, Adams received the second most electoral votes, and so was re-elected to office. Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his presidency.In the House, 37 seats were added following the 1790 census. The Anti-Administration faction picked up several seats, narrowly taking the majority from the Pro-Administration faction. However, Frederick Muhlenberg, who leaned closer to the Pro-Administration faction, was elected Speaker of the House.In the Senate, the Anti-Administration faction picked up one seat, but the Pro-Administration faction maintained a small majority.

1794 United States elections

The 1794 United States elections occurred in the middle of President George Washington's second term. Members of the 4th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Tennessee was admitted as a state during the 4th Congress. The election took place at the beginning of the First Party System, with the Democratic-Republican Party and Federalist Party emerging as political parties, succeeding the anti-administration faction and the pro-administration faction.In the House, the Democratic-Republicans picked up a small number of seats, increasing their majority. However, Federalist Jonathan Dayton was elected Speaker of the House, defeating Frederick Muhlenberg, who had a less clear partisan affiliation.In the Senate, the Federalists picked up a moderate number of seats, increasing their majority.Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his presidency.

1796 United States elections

The 1796 United States elections elected the members of the 5th United States Congress. The election took place during the beginning stages of the First Party System, as the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party clashed over the states' rights, the financial policies of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, and the recently ratified Jay Treaty. The Federalists maintained control of the Senate, and won control of the House and the presidency.

In the first contested Presidential election and the first presidential election in which parties played a major role, Federalist Vice President John Adams narrowly defeated Democratic-Republican former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. Adams won New England while Jefferson won the South, leaving the mid-Atlantic states to decide the election. As the election took place prior to the ratification of the 12th Amendment, Jefferson, who finished with the second most electoral votes, succeeded Adams as vice president. Federalist former Governor Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina finished with the third most electoral votes, while Democratic-Republican Senator Aaron Burr of New York finished in fourth place. This election marked the only time in American history that members of two different political parties were elected as president and vice president. Adams's election made him the first member of a political party to be elected president, as George Washington had remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his presidency.In the House, Federalists won moderate gains, taking majority control of the chamber.In the Senate, Federalists picked up one seat, maintaining a commanding majority in the chamber.

1798 United States elections

The 1798 United States elections occurred in the middle of Federalist President John Adams's term. Members of the 6th United States Congress were chosen in this election. The election took place during the First Party System. The election saw no significant partisan change, with the Federalists keeping control of both houses of Congress.

1800 United States elections

The 1800 United States elections elected the members of the 7th United States Congress. The election took place during the First Party System, and is generally considered the first realigning election in American history. Perhaps most significantly, this election was the first peaceful transfer of power between parties in American history. The Democratic-Republican Party won control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress for the first time. Conversely, the Federalist Party would never again control the Presidency or either house of Congress. Ohio was admitted as a state during the 7th Congress.

In the Presidential election, Democratic-Republican Vice President Thomas Jefferson became the first Democratic-Republican President, narrowly defeating incumbent Federalist President John Adams. Jefferson again won the South and Adams again won New England, but Jefferson won by adding New York and Maryland. Jefferson tied his own running mate, former Senator Aaron Burr of New York, in electoral votes, necessitating a contingent election in the House that Jefferson won. Burr, as the runner-up, was elected vice president. The contingent election led to the passage of the 12th Amendment, which altered the electoral college so that electors in all future elections cast an electoral vote for president and a separate electoral vote for vice president.

In the House, Democratic-Republicans won major gains, taking control of the chamber.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans picked up several seats, taking control of the chamber for the first time in the party's history.

1802 United States elections

The 1802 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson's first term, during the First Party System. Members of the 8th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Democratic-Republicans picked up several seats in both chambers of Congress, solidifying their control over the House and Senate.

In the House, 36 seats were added following the 1800 census. Democratic-Republicans picked up a large number of seats, increasing their majority.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans won major gains, increasing their previously-narrow majority.

1804 United States elections

The 1804 United States elections elected the members of the 9th United States Congress. The election took place during the First Party System. The Democratic-Republican Party continued its control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress.

In the Presidential election, incumbent Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson easily defeated Federalist former Governor Charles Pinckney of South Carolina. As the Twelfth Amendment had been ratified in 1804, this was the first election in which electors separately selected a president and a vice president.

In the House, Democratic-Republicans won moderate gains, boosting their already-dominant majority.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans made small gains, improving on their commanding majority.

1806 United States elections

The 1806 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson's second term, during the First Party System. Members of the 10th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Neither chamber saw significant partisan change, with the Democratic-Republicans retaining a commanding majority in both the House and Senate.

1808 United States elections

The 1808 United States elections elected the members of the 11th United States Congress. The election took place during the First Party System. In the aftermath of the Embargo of 1807, the Federalists picked up Congressional seats for the first time since their defeat in the 1800 election. However, the Democratic-Republican Party maintained control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress.

In the Presidential election, Democratic-Republican Secretary of State James Madison easily defeated Federalist Governor Charles Pinckney of South Carolina. Incumbent Vice President George Clinton was re-elected, making him the first vice president to serve under two different presidents.

In the House, Federalists won moderate gains, but Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate the chamber.In the Senate, Federalists picked up one seat, but Democratic-Republicans retained a dominant majority.

1810 United States elections

The 1810 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President James Madison's first term, during the First Party System. Members of the 12th United States Congress were chosen in this election. During the 12th Congress, Louisiana joined the union. Democratic-Republicans continued to control both chambers of Congress.

In the House, Democratic-Republicans picked up a moderate number of seats, increasing their already-dominant majority.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans won a small number of seats, increasing their commanding majority.

1812 United States elections

The 1812 United States elections elected the members of the 13th United States Congress. The election took place during the First Party System, and shortly after the start of the War of 1812. The Federalist Party made a relatively strong showing, winning seats in both chambers while supporting a competitive challenge to the incumbent Democratic-Republican President. However, the Democratic-Republican Party continued its control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress.

In the Presidential election, incumbent Democratic-Republican President James Madison defeated New York Lieutenant Governor and New York City Mayor DeWitt Clinton. Clinton was a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, but his presidential bid received the support of both anti-Madison Democratic-Republicans and many Federalists. Although Madison won, the Presidential election was the closest since the 1800 election, as Clinton won New England and three mid-Atlantic states.

Following the 1810 census, 39 seats were added to the House. Federalists won major gains, but Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate the chamber.In the Senate, Federalists picked up a small number of seats, but Democratic-Republicans retained a dominant majority.

1814 United States elections

The 1814 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President James Madison's second term, during the First Party System. Members of the 14th United States Congress were chosen in this election. During the 14th Congress, Indiana joined the union. The election took place during the War of 1812.

Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate both houses of Congress, and slightly increased their majority in the House. Federalists picked up a small number of seats in the Senate.

1816 United States elections

The 1816 United States elections elected the members of the 15th United States Congress. Mississippi and Illinois were admitted as states during the 15th Congress. The election took place during the First Party System. The Democratic-Republican Party controlled the Presidency and both houses of Congress, while the Federalist Party provided only limited opposition. The election marked the start of the Era of Good Feelings, as the Federalist Party became nearly irrelevant in national politics after the War of 1812 and the Hartford Convention.

In the Presidential election, Democratic-Republican Secretary of State James Monroe easily defeated Federalist Senator Rufus King of New York. Monroe faced a more difficult challenge in securing his party's nomination, but was able to defeat Secretary of War William H. Crawford in the Democratic-Republican congressional nominating caucus. The Federalists never again fielded a presidential candidate.

In the House, Democratic-Republicans won major gains, and continued to dominate the chamber.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans picked up a moderate number of seats, increasing their already-dominant majority.

1818 United States elections

The 1818 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President James Monroe's first term, during the First Party System and the Era of Good Feelings. Members of the 16th United States Congress were chosen in this election. During the 16th Congress, Alabama and Maine joined the union. Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate both chambers of Congress, and slightly increased their majority in both houses of Congress in this election.

1820 United States elections

The 1820 United States elections elected the members of the 17th United States Congress. The election took place during Era of Good Feelings and the First Party System. Despite the Panic of 1819, the Democratic-Republican Party maintained control of the presidency and both houses of Congress, while the Federalist Party provided only limited opposition. Missouri joined the union during the 17th Congress.

In the presidential election, incumbent Democratic-Republican President James Monroe received no major opposition, although fellow Democratic-Republican John Quincy Adams received one electoral vote. The Federalists did not nominate a presidential candidate, although four Federalists received a scattering of electoral votes for vice president. Monroe joined George Washington as the only presidential candidates who won election without any serious opposition.

In the House, Federalists picked up a small number of seats, but Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate the chamber.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans picked up a moderate number of seats, increasing their already-dominant majority.

1822 United States elections

The 1822 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President James Monroe's second term, and was the last election of the First Party System. Members of the 18th United States Congress were chosen in this election. The 1820 census added 26 seats to the House. Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate both chambers of Congress.

1826 United States elections

The 1826 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President John Quincy Adams's term. Members of the 20th United States Congress were chosen in this election. The election took place during a transitional period between the First Party System and the Second Party System. With the Federalist Party no longer active as a major political party, the major split in Congress was between supporters of Adams and supporters of Andrew Jackson, who Adams had defeated in the 1824 Presidential election.

In the House, Jackson supporters picked up several seats, taking the majority from the faction supporting Adams. Andrew Stevenson, a supporter of Jackson who would later join the Democratic Party, won election as Speaker of the House.

In the Senate, supporters of Jackson picked up one seat, retaining their majority.

Democratic-Republican Party

The Democratic-Republican Party (formally called the Republican Party) was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System. It began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians who had been opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after their political philosophy, republicanism. They distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in 1824, with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement (which would soon acquire the name Democratic Party), the faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay forming the National Republican Party and some other groups going on to form the Anti-Masonic Party. The National Republicans, Anti-Masons, and other opponents of Andrew Jackson later formed themselves into the Whig Party.During the time that this party existed, it was usually referred to as the Republican Party. To distinguish it from the modern Republican Party (founded in 1854), historians, political scientists and pundits often refer to this party as the Democratic-Republican Party or the Jeffersonian Republican Party. When the modern Republican Party was founded in 1854, it deliberately chose to name itself after the Jeffersonians.In response, contemporary Democrats embraced the name Democratic-Republican to reinforce their party's claim to the party's pre-Jacksonian history. Modern Democratic politicians continue to claim Jefferson as their founder.The party arose from the Anti-Administration faction which met secretly in the national capital (Philadelphia) to oppose Alexander Hamilton's financial programs (see the American School and the Hamiltonian economic program). Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to monarchy and subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities. Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–1795 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with the United Kingdom, which was then at war with France. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its Revolution while the United Kingdom represented the hated monarchy. The party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional, especially the national bank.

The party was strongest in the South and weakest in the Northeast. It demanded states' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers. Republicans were deeply committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists. The party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election. The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away and totally collapsed after 1815. Despite internal divisions, the Republicans dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.

The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included Thomas Jefferson (nominated 1796; elected 1800–1801, 1804), James Madison (1808, 1812) and James Monroe (1816, 1820). By 1824, the caucus system had practically collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated Congress and most state governments outside New England. By 1824, the party was also split four ways and lacked a center as the First Party System collapsed. The emergence of the Second Party System in the 1820s and 30s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, formed the National Republican Party in 1824 while some remaining smaller factions formed the Anti-Masonic Party, which along with some National Republican groups developed into the Whig Party by 1836. Most remaining National Republicans would soon after go on to be a part of the Free Soil and modern Republican parties in the 1840s and 1850s.

Political parties in the United States

Political parties in the United States are mostly dominated by a two-party system consisting of the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. The United States Constitution has always been silent on the issue of political parties, since at the time it was signed in 1787 there were no parties in the nation.

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