First Lord of the Treasury

The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the Prime Minister. This office is not equivalent to the usual position of the "Treasurer" in other governments; the closer equivalent of a Treasurer in the United Kingdom is Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is the Second Lord of the Treasury.

First Lord of the Treasury
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government)
Theresa May closeup
Incumbent
Theresa May

since 13 July 2016
HM Treasury
StyleThe Right Honourable
Member ofCabinet
Residence10 Downing Street
SeatWestminster
AppointerMonarch
Term lengthAt Her Majesty's pleasure
Formation
First holder
DeputySecond Lord of the Treasury
WebsiteGov.uk

Lords of the Treasury

As of the beginning of the 17th century, the running of the Treasury was frequently entrusted to a commission, rather than to a single individual. Since 1714, it has permanently been in commission. The commissioners have always since that date been referred to as Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and adopted ordinal numbers to describe their seniority. Eventually in the middle of the same century, the First Lord of the Treasury came to be seen as the natural head of the overall ministry running the country, and, as of the time of Robert Walpole (Whig), began to be known, unofficially, as the Prime Minister. The term Prime Minister was initially, but decreasingly, used as a term of derogation; it was first used officially in a royal warrant only in 1905. William Pitt the Younger said the Prime Minister "ought to be the person at the head of the finances"—though Pitt also served as Chancellor of the Exchequer for the entirety of his time as Prime Minister, so his linkage of the finance portfolio to the premiership was wider than merely proposing the occupation of the First Lordship by the Prime Minister.[1]

Prior to 1841 the First Lord of the Treasury also held the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer unless he was a peer and thus barred from that office; in this case, the Second Lord of the Treasury usually served as Chancellor. As of 1841, the Chancellor has always been Second Lord of the Treasury when he was not also Prime Minister. By convention, the other Lords Commissioners of the Treasury are also Government Whips in the House of Commons.

Official residence

10 Downing Street is the official residence of the First Lord of the Treasury, not the office of Prime Minister.[2] Chequers, a country house in Buckinghamshire, is the official country residence of the Prime Minister, used as a weekend and holiday home, although the residence has also been used by other senior members of government.

List of First Lords (1714–1905)

Much of this list overlaps with the list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, but there are some notable differences, principally concerning the Marquess of Salisbury, who was Prime Minister but not First Lord in 1885–86, 1887–92 and 1895–1902. Those First Lords who were simultaneously Prime Minister are indicated in bold; those who were considered Prime Minister only during part of their term are indicated in bold italic.

Name Entered office Left office Party
The Earl of Halifax 13 October 1714 19 May 1715 Whig
The Earl of Carlisle 23 May 1715 10 October 1715 Whig
Robert Walpole 10 October 1715 12 April 1717 Whig
The Earl Stanhope 12 April 1717 21 March 1718 Whig
The Earl of Sunderland 21 March 1718 4 April 1721 Whig
Sir Robert Walpole 4 April 1721 11 February 1742 Whig
The Earl of Wilmington 16 February 1742 2 July 1743 Whig
Henry Pelham 27 August 1743 6 March 1754 Whig
The Duke of Newcastle 16 March 1754 16 November 1756 Whig
The Duke of Devonshire 16 November 1756 8 June 1757 Whig
The Earl Waldegrave 8 June 1757 12 June 1757 Whig
The Duke of Devonshire 12 June 1757 25 June 1757 Whig
The Duke of Newcastle 2 July 1757 26 May 1762 Whig
The Earl of Bute 26 May 1762 16 April 1763 Tory
George Grenville 16 April 1763 13 July 1765 Whig
The Marquess of Rockingham 13 July 1765 30 July 1766 Whig
The Duke of Grafton[a] 30 July 1766 28 January 1770 Whig
Lord North 28 January 1770 22 March 1782 Tory
The Marquess of Rockingham 27 March 1782 1 July 1782 Whig
The Earl of Shelburne 4 July 1782 2 April 1783 Whig
The Duke of Portland 2 April 1783 19 December 1783 Whig
William Pitt the Younger 19 December 1783 14 March 1801 Tory
Henry Addington 17 March 1801 10 May 1804 Tory
William Pitt the Younger 10 May 1804 23 January 1806 Tory
The Lord Grenville 11 February 1806 31 March 1807 Whig
The Duke of Portland 31 March 1807 4 October 1809 Whig
Spencer Perceval 4 October 1809 11 May 1812 Tory
The Earl of Liverpool 9 June 1812 10 April 1827 Tory
George Canning 10 April 1827 8 August 1827 Tory
The Viscount Goderich 31 August 1827 22 January 1828 Tory
The Duke of Wellington 22 January 1828 22 November 1830 Tory
The Earl Grey 22 November 1830 16 July 1834 Whig
The Viscount Melbourne 16 July 1834 14 November 1834 Whig
The Duke of Wellington 14 November 1834 10 December 1834 Tory
Sir Robert Peel 10 December 1834 8 April 1835 Tory
The Viscount Melbourne 18 April 1835 30 August 1841 Whig
Sir Robert Peel 30 August 1841 29 June 1846 Conservative
Lord John Russell 30 June 1846 23 February 1852 Whig
The Earl of Derby 23 February 1852 19 December 1852 Conservative
The Earl of Aberdeen 19 December 1852 6 February 1855 Peelite
The Viscount Palmerston 6 February 1855 20 February 1858 Liberal
The Earl of Derby 20 February 1858 12 June 1859 Conservative
The Viscount Palmerston 12 June 1859 18 October 1865 Liberal
The Earl Russell 29 October 1865 28 June 1866 Liberal
The Earl of Derby 28 June 1866 27 February 1868 Conservative
Benjamin Disraeli 27 February 1868 3 December 1868 Conservative
William Ewart Gladstone 3 December 1868 20 February 1874 Liberal
Benjamin Disraeli[b] 20 February 1874 23 April 1880 Conservative
William Ewart Gladstone 23 April 1880 23 June 1885 Liberal
The Earl of Iddesleigh 29 June 1885 1 February 1886 Conservative
William Ewart Gladstone 1 February 1886 25 July 1886 Liberal
The Marquess of Salisbury[c] 3 August 1886 14 January 1887 Conservative
William Henry Smith 14 January 1887 6 October 1891 Conservative
Arthur Balfour 6 October 1891 15 August 1892 Conservative
William Ewart Gladstone 15 August 1892 5 March 1894 Liberal
The Earl of Rosebery 5 March 1894 25 June 1895 Liberal
Arthur Balfour[d] 25 June 1895 5 December 1905 Conservative

Thereafter the posts of First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister have continually been held by the same person (see List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom § 20th century).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Grafton became Prime Minister on 14 October 1768.
  2. ^ Disraeli became Earl of Beaconsfield in 1876.
  3. ^ Salisbury continued to serve as Prime Minister until 11 August 1892.
  4. ^ Balfour became Prime Minister on 11 July 1902.

References

  1. ^ Blick & Jones 2010.
  2. ^ "First Lord of the Treasury", Gov.uk, retrieved 22 March 2018

Sources

10 Downing Street

10 Downing Street, also known colloquially in the United Kingdom simply as Number 10, is (along with the adjoining Cabinet Office at 70 Whitehall) the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, a post which, for much of the 18th and 19th centuries and invariably since 1905, has been held by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Situated in Downing Street in the City of Westminster, London, Number 10 is over 300 years old and contains approximately 100 rooms. A private residence occupies the third floor and there is a kitchen in the basement. The other floors contain offices and conference, reception, sitting and dining rooms where the Prime Minister works, and where government ministers, national leaders and foreign dignitaries are met and entertained. At the rear is an interior courtyard and a terrace overlooking a half-acre (0.2 ha) garden. Adjacent to St James's Park, Number 10 is near Buckingham Palace, the London residence of the British monarch, and the Palace of Westminster, the meeting place of both houses of parliament.

Originally three houses, Number 10 was offered to Sir Robert Walpole by King George II in 1732. Walpole accepted on the condition that the gift was to the office of First Lord of the Treasury rather than to him personally. Walpole commissioned William Kent to join the three houses and it is this larger house that is known as Number 10 Downing Street.

The arrangement was not an immediate success. Despite its size and convenient location near to Parliament, few early Prime Ministers lived there. Costly to maintain, neglected, and run-down, Number 10 was close to being demolished several times but the property survived and became linked with many statesmen and events in British history. In 1985 Margaret Thatcher said Number 10 had become "one of the most precious jewels in the national heritage".

1757 caretaker ministry

The caretaker ministry was the government of Great Britain for a short time in 1757, during the Seven Years' War.

In 1756, King George II of Great Britain was reluctantly compelled to accept a ministry dominated by William Pitt the Elder as Secretary of State. The nominal head of this ministry, as First Lord of the Treasury, was William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire.

On 6 April 1757, following Pitt's opposition to the execution of Admiral Byng, the King, who detested Pitt, dismissed him and his brother-in-law Lord Temple, who had been First Lord of the Admiralty. The result of these events was to demonstrate beyond doubt that the "Great Commoner" (as Pitt was sometimes known) was indispensable to the formation of a ministry strong enough to prosecute a major war.

Devonshire was left at the head of a government that was manifestly far too weak to survive long, particularly during a time of war. Horace Walpole in his Memoirs of the Reign of King George III called it "a mutilated, enfeebled, half-formed system".

One of the major problems of the caretaker ministry was that it included no figure capable of taking the lead in the House of Commons. It also lacked the support of the most significant factions in the House of Commons.

Devonshire recognised that it was necessary to reconcile Pitt and his old political enemy Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, who led the strongest Whig faction in Parliament, but who Pitt had insisted be excluded from the 1756–57 ministry.

The King, after discussions with Devonshire and Newcastle in May 1757, authorised Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke to be his emissary to try to negotiate for a new ministry.

The needs of the country and the lack of an obvious alternative, led to the re-appointment of Pitt as Secretary of State for the Southern Department and preeminent minister on 29 June 1757, and the formation of the Pitt–Newcastle ministry in July 1757. Devonshire resigned the office of First Lord of the Treasury to take up the less demanding responsibilities of Lord Chamberlain.

1768 British general election

The 1768 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 13th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

The election saw the emergence of a new political leadership in parliament, with the dominant figures of the previous parliament; the Earl of Bute, the Earl of Chatham, and the Duke of Newcastle all retiring from political life for various reasons. The new administration centred on the First Lord of the Treasury; the Duke of Grafton, and his leader in the commons; Lord North.The election also took place during a lull in political conflict, with there being a lack of any real political debate over policy or principle between the main parties. The two opposition parties; the Rockingham Whigs and the Grenvillites, owed their origins to the time when their respective leaders had been in office.Potentially the most important part of the election was the election of the radical John Wilkes for Middlesex. Wilkes election triggered a major political crisis, and marked the beginning of political radicalism in Britain.

1874 Buckinghamshire by-election

The Buckinghamshire by-election of 1874 was fought on 17 March 1874. The byelection was fought due to the incumbent Conservative MP, Benjamin Disraeli, becoming the Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury and so having to resign his seat. It was retained by Disraeli, who was unopposed.

Armorial of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

Most Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom have enjoyed the right to display coats of arms and to this day, prime ministers can have their ancestral arms approved, or new armorial bearings granted, either by the College of Arms or the Lyon Court.

Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle

Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle, PC (c. 1669 – 1 May 1738) was a British nobleman, peer, and statesman.

Charles Howard was the eldest son of Edward Howard, 2nd Earl of Carlisle, and inherited his title on the death of his father in 1692. He married in 1683 Lady Anne de Vere Capell, daughter of Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex.

He was elected as MP for Morpeth in 1689. He was appointed Governor of Carlisle from 1693 to 1728 and Lord-Lieutenant of Cumberland and of Westmorland from 1694-1714. William III made him a Gentleman of the Bedchamber between 1700 and 1702, First Lord of the Treasury from 1701 to 1702 and Privy Counsellor in 1701. He acted as Earl Marshal between 1701 and 1706 because his cousin, the Duke of Norfolk, was a minor. On Queen Anne's death on 1 August 1714 he was appointed Lord Justice of the Realm until the arrival of King George I on 18 September 1714. The new king reappointed him as First Lord of the Treasury from 23 May 1715 to 10 October 1715 and made him Constable of the Tower of London between 1715 and 1722.From 1699 to 1709 Carlisle was involved with the fraudulent schemes of pirate John Breholt. First Carlisle backed a plan to dive on and salvage a supposed wreck off Havana - Breholt even named his ship Carlisle - which came to naught, after which Breholt let slip that he intended to sail for Cape Verde and then to Madagascar to engage in outright piracy. A few years later Carlisle backed Breholt's plan (presented directly to Queen Anne) to pardon the pirates of Madagascar and have them return to England with their collected wealth. This scheme fell apart when Breholt's pirate past was exposed.In 1699 he commissioned a new Baroque mansion, Castle Howard, in Yorkshire, England to the design of Sir John Vanbrugh which is still occupied by his descendants.

He died in Bath in 1738 and is buried in the mausoleum at Castle Howard. He had six children:

Henry Howard, 4th Earl of Carlisle (1693–1758)

General Hon. Sir Charles Howard (c. 1696–1765)

Lady Harriet Howard, died young

Lady Elizabeth Anne Howard, married Nicholas Lechmere, 1st Baron Lechmere, then Sir Thomas Robinson, 1st Baronet

Lady Anne Howard, married Rich Ingram, 5th Viscount of Irvine, then Brig-Gen. William Douglas of Kirkness (d. 1747)

Lady Mary Howard, unmarried

Chief Secretary to the Treasury

The Chief Secretary to the Treasury is the third most senior ministerial position in HM Treasury, after the First Lord of the Treasury and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. It was created in 1961, to share the burden of representing the Treasury with the Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Between 1961 and 2015 the holder of the post of Chief Secretary to the Treasury was automatically a member of the Cabinet making the Treasury the only Department to have two ministers automatically serving in the Cabinet. Since 2015, however, the status of the Chief Secretary to the Treasury has been reduced to an "also attending Cabinet" role.

The position's responsibilities include negotiating with departments about budget allocations, public sector pay, and procurement policy.

Economic Secretary to the Treasury

The Economic Secretary to the Treasury is the sixth-most senior ministerial post in the UK Treasury, after the First Lord of the Treasury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, the Paymaster-General and the Financial Secretary to the Treasury. It is not a cabinet-level post.

Grand Poobah

Grand Poobah is a term derived from the name of the haughty character Pooh-Bah in Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado (1885). In this comic opera, Pooh-Bah holds numerous exalted offices, including "First Lord of the Treasury, Lord Chief Justice, Commander-in-Chief, Lord High Admiral ... Archbishop ... Lord Mayor" and "Lord High Everything Else". The name has come to be used as a mocking title for someone self-important or locally high-ranking and who either exhibits an inflated self-regard or who has limited authority while taking impressive titles.

Leader of the House of Commons

The Leader of the House of Commons is generally a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons.

The House of Commons devotes approximately three-quarters of its time to government business, such as bills introduced by the government and ministerial statements. The Leader of the House, with the parties' chief whips ("the usual channels"), is responsible for organising government business and providing time for non-government (backbench) business to be put before the House. The Leader of the House additionally announces the next week's debate schedule in the Business Statement every Thursday.

List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the Government of the United Kingdom, and chairs Cabinet meetings. There is no specific date for when the office of Prime Minister first appeared, as the role was not created but rather evolved over a period of time through a merger of duties. The term had been used in the House of Commons as early as 1805, and it was certainly in parliamentary use by the 1880s. In 1905 the post of Prime Minister was officially given recognition in the order of precedence. Modern historians generally consider Sir Robert Walpole, who led the government of Great Britain for over twenty years from 1721, as the first Prime Minister. Walpole is also the longest-serving British prime minister by this definition. However, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was the first and Margaret Thatcher the longest-serving Prime Minister officially referred to as such in the order of precedence. The first to officially use the title was Benjamin Disraeli, who signed the Treaty of Berlin as "Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty" in 1878.Strictly, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Ireland) was William Pitt the Younger. The first Prime Minister of the current United Kingdom, i.e. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was Bonar Law, although the country was not renamed officially until 1927, when Stanley Baldwin was the serving Prime Minister.Due to the gradual evolution of the post of Prime Minister, the title is applied to early prime ministers only retrospectively; this has sometimes given rise to academic dispute. Lord Bath and Lord Waldegrave are sometimes listed as prime ministers. Bath was invited to form a ministry by George II when Henry Pelham resigned in 1746, as was Waldegrave in 1757 after the dismissal of William Pitt the Elder, who dominated the affairs of government during the Seven Years' War. Neither was able to command sufficient parliamentary support to form a government; Bath stepped down after two days, and Waldegrave after three. Modern academic consensus does not consider either man to have held office as Prime Minister, and they are therefore not listed.

List of residents of 10 Downing Street

Number 10 Downing Street is the residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The headquarters of Her Majesty's Government, it is situated on Downing Street in the City of Westminster in London, England.

Number 10 was originally three houses: a stately mansion overlooking St James's Park called "the house at the back" built around 1530, a modest townhouse behind it located at 10 Downing Street and a small cottage next to Number 10. The townhouse, from which the modern building gets its name, was one of several built by Sir George Downing between 1682 and 1684.

Below is a list of the residents of Number 10 and the House at the Back from 1650 to the present.

Lord High Treasurer

The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Acts of Union of 1707. A holder of the post would be the third-highest-ranked Great Officer of State, below the Lord High Steward and the Lord High Chancellor.

The Lord High Treasurer functions as the head of Her Majesty's Treasury. Since the 17th century, the office has often been held, not by a single person, but placed in commission, so that a board of individuals jointly exercise the powers of the Lord High Treasurer. Such persons are known as Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. The office has been in commission continuously since the resignation of Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury in 1714.

Although the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801, it was not until the Consolidated Fund Act 1816 that the separate offices of Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain and Lord High Treasurer of Ireland were united into one office as the Lord High Treasurer of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 5 January 1817. The office continued in commission and the commissioners of the old office of Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain continued as the commissioners of the new combined office.In modern times, by convention, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury include the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, usually serving as the "First Lord of the Treasury", and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, serving as the "Second Lord of the Treasury". Other members of the government, usually whips in the House of Commons, are appointed to serve as the junior Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.

Lords Commissioners of the Treasury

In the United Kingdom there are at least six Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, serving as a commission for the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer. The board consists of the First Lord of the Treasury, the Second Lord of the Treasury, and four or more junior lords to whom this title is usually applied.

Strictly they are commissioners for exercising the office of Lord High Treasurer (similar to the status of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty exercising the office of Lord High Admiral until 1964, when the Queen resumed the office). This office has continually been in commission since the resignation in 1714 of Charles, Duke of Shrewsbury, who was appointed to the office by Queen Anne on her deathbed.Until the 19th century, this commission made most of the economic decisions of Great Britain (England, before the Act of Union 1707). However, starting during the 19th century, these positions became sinecure positions, with the First Lord serving almost invariably as Prime Minister, the Second Lord invariably as Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the junior lords serving as whips in Parliament.

As an office in commission, technically all Lords Commissioners of the Treasury are of equal rank, with their ordinal numbers connoting seniority rather than authority over their fellow Lords Commissioners. However from at least the reign of Queen Anne de facto power has rested with the top-numbered Lords.

Currently, there are eight Lords Commissioners of the Treasury:

Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury – The Rt Hon. Theresa May MP (appointed 13 July 2016)

Chancellor of the Exchequer and Second Lord of the Treasury – The Rt Hon. Philip Hammond MP (appointed 13 July 2016)

Junior Lords:

David Rutley MP (appointed 15 June 2017)

Rebecca Harris MP (appointed 9 January 2018)

Paul Maynard MP (appointed 9 January 2018)

Mike Freer MP (appointed 26 July 2018)

Jeremy Quin MP (appointed 5 November 2018)

Alister Jack

Peelton

Peelton is a village 60 km north-west of East London and 16 km north-east of King William's Town. It was founded in 1848-49 as a station of the London Missionary Society. Named after Sir Robert Peel, former Prime Minister of Britain and First Lord of the Treasury in 1834; it takes its name from the Valley of Peel.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, and together with their Cabinet (consisting of all the most senior ministers, most of whom are government department heads) are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016.The office is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as Prime Minister the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber. The position of Prime Minister was not created; it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to numerous acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement (1688–1720) and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. Although the Sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and legally remained the head of government, politically it gradually became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament.

By the 1830s the Westminster system of government (or cabinet government) had emerged; the Prime Minister had become primus inter pares or the first among equals in the Cabinet and the head of government in the United Kingdom. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication (inexpensive newspapers, radio, television and the internet), and photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged; the office had become the pre-eminent position in the constitutional hierarchy vis-à-vis the Sovereign, Parliament and Cabinet.

Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons. However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process.

The Prime Minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. The status of the position as Prime Minister means that the incumbent is consistently ranked as one of the most powerful and influential people in the world.

Second Pitt ministry

William Pitt the Younger reassumed the premiership of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1804, succeeding Henry Addington as First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer. His second ministry was cut short with his premature death in 1806.

Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin

Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, (15 June 1645 – 15 September 1712) was a leading British politician of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. He was a Privy Councillor and Secretary of State for the Northern Department before attaining real power as First Lord of the Treasury. He was instrumental in negotiating and passing the Acts of Union 1707 with Scotland, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

He had many other roles, including that of Governor of Scilly.

William Henry Smith (1825–1891)

William Henry Smith, FRS (24 June 1825 – 6 October 1891) was an English bookseller and newsagent of the family firm W H Smith, who expanded the firm and introduced the practice of selling books and newspapers at railway stations. He was elected a Member of Parliament in 1868 and rose to the position of First Lord of the Admiralty less than ten years thereafter. Because of his lack of naval experience, he was perceived as a model for the character Sir Joseph Porter in H.M.S. Pinafore. In the mid-1880s, he was twice Secretary of State for War, and later First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Commons, among other posts.

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