First Iraqi–Kurdish War

The First Iraqi–Kurdish War[1] also known as Aylul revolts (Kurdish: [9] شۆڕشی ئەیلوول‎) was a major event of the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, lasting from 1961 until 1970. The struggle was led by Mustafa Barzani, in an attempt to establish an autonomous Kurdish administration in northern Iraq. Throughout the 1960s, the uprising escalated into a long war, which failed to resolve despite internal power changes in Iraq. During the war, 80% of the Iraqi army was engaged in combat with the Kurds.[10] The war ended with a Kurdish Victory in 1970, resulting in between 75,000[8] to 105,000 casualties.[7] A series of Iraqi–Kurdish negotiations followed the war in an attempt to resolve the conflict. The negotiations led to the Iraqi–Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970.

First Kurdish–Iraqi War
Part of Iraqi–Kurdish conflict
Date11 September 1961– March 1970




Before 1968:
Republic of Iraq
Syria Syria[2]

After 1968:
Ba'athist Iraq
Commanders and leaders

Mustafa Barzani
Ibrahim Ahmad
Jalal Talabani
Omar Mustafa
Ali Askari

Kamal Mufti[1]

Abdul Karim Qasim (1958–1963)
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (1963)
Abdul Salam Arif (1963–1966)

Abdul Rahman Arif (1966–1968)
15,000–20,000[1] 48,000 Iraqi troops (1969);[5]
6,000 Syrian troops[2]
Casualties and losses
unknown 10,000 Iraqi soldiers killed[6]
Total Casualties: 6,600[7]–10,000 killed[8], 80,000 displaced[8]


After the military coup by Abdul Karim Qasim in 1958, Barzani was invited by Qasim to return from exile. As part of a deal arranged by Qasim and Barzani, Qasim promised to give the Kurds regional autonomy in return for Barzani's support for his policies. Meanwhile, during 1959–1960, Barzani became the head of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), which was granted legal status in 1960.


Barzani & Qasim
Mustafa Barzani with Abd al-Karim Qasim.

By early 1960, it became apparent that Qasim would not follow through with his promise of regional autonomy. As a result, the KDP began to agitate for regional autonomy. In the face of growing Kurdish dissent, as well as Barzani's personal power, Qasim began to incite the Barzanis historical enemies, the Bradost and Zebari tribes, which led to intertribal warfare throughout 1960 and early 1961.

By February 1961, Barzani had defeated the pro-government forces and consolidated his position as leader of the Kurds. At this point, Barzani ordered his forces to occupy and expel government officials from all Kurdish territory. This was not received well in Baghdad, and as a result, Qasim began to prepare for a military offensive against the north to return government control of the region. Meanwhile, in June 1961, the KDP issued a detailed ultimatum to Qasim outlining Kurdish grievances and demanded rectification. Qasim ignored the Kurdish demands and continued his planning for war. It was not until September 10, when an Iraqi army column was ambushed by a group of Kurds, that the Kurdish revolt truly began. In response to the attack, Qasim lashed out and ordered the Iraqi Air Force to indiscriminately bomb Kurdish villages, which ultimately served to rally the entire Kurdish population to Barzani's standard.

Due to Qasim's profound distrust of the Iraqi Army, which he purposely failed to adequately arm (in fact, Qasim implemented a policy of ammunition rationing), Qasim's government was not able to subdue the insurrection. This stalemate irritated powerful factions within the military and is said to be one of the main reasons behind the Ba'athist coup against Qasim in February 1963.

Kurdish villages were targeted by United States supplied munitions consisting napalm bombs numbering 1,000 and 4,000 other bombs which were given by the United States to the Ba'athist government in Baghdad to use against the Kurds. Entire Kurdish villages and livestock were incinerated by the napalm bombs.[11][12][13][14] The decision to supply napalm and other weapons to the Ba'athist was backed by American President Kennedy.[15][16] Napalm bombs were also sold to Iraq by the United Kingdom. French Ambassador Bernard Dorin witnessed a girl in Iraqi Kurdistan whose face was burned off by the UK made bombs.[17]

After the failure of the Syrian political union with Egypt in 1961, Syria was declared an Arab Republic in the interim constitution. On 23 August 1962, the government conducted a special population census only for the province of Jazira which was predominantly Kurdish. As a result, around 120,000 Kurds in Jazira were arbitrarily categorized as aliens. In addition, a media campaign was launched against the Kurds with slogans such as Save Arabism in Jazira! and Fight the Kurdish threat!. These policies coincided with the beginning of Barzani's uprising in Iraqi Kurdistan and discovery of oilfields in the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria. In June 1963, Syria took part in the Iraqi military campaign against the Kurds by providing aircraft, armoured vehicles and a force of 6,000 soldiers. Syrian troops crossed the Iraqi border and moved into the Kurdish town of Zakho in pursuit of Barzani's fighters.[2]

في الصورة الأولى من يمين العميد خليل جاسم (مسؤول الجتا والفرسان) جالس أمام الخيمة في حركات الشمال والشخص اللابس داكن أسود هو أبراه
Iraqi Senior officers in the North Movements, Khaleel Jassim the founder of the light regiments 'Jash' and commando units, first from the right and Ibrahim Faisal Al-Ansari the commander of the second division the third from the right in northern Iraq 1966

The Kurdish uprising received material support from Iran and Israel—both of them wishing to weaken Iraq. Israel regarded the Iraqi military as a possible threat in case of renewed fighting between Israel and Jordan and Syria. Iraqi forces had participated in the 1948 Arab invasion of Israel and Iraq was the only Arab participant in that war who refused to sign ceasefire agreements with Israel. Since then Iraq had on a number of occasions threatened to send forces to assist Jordan against Israel during rounds of border fighting between the two. Therefore, the Israelis wished to keep the Iraqis occupied elsewhere. Another Israeli interest was Kurdish assistance for Jews still living in Iraq to escape through Kurdish territory to Israel. Iran wished to strengthen its own political and military position vis-à-vis Iraq—the only other regional power in the Persian Gulf—and perhaps wring certain territorial concessions from Iraq in return for ceasing support of the Kurds (this was achieved in 1975, during the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War, but it is not clear when the idea was originally conceived).

In November 1963, after considerable infighting amongst the civilian and military wings of the Ba'athists, they were ousted by Abdul Salam Arif in a coup. Then, after another failed offensive on Kurds, Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964, which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and Peshmerga forces, led by Barzani on the other. Barzani agreed to the ceasefire and fired the radicals from the party. Following the unexpected death of Arif, whereupon he was replaced by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif, the Iraqi government launched a last-ditch effort to defeat the Kurds. This campaign failed in May 1966, when Barzani forces thoroughly defeated the Iraqi Army at the Battle of Mount Handrin, near Rawanduz. At this battle, it was said that the Kurds slaughtered an entire Iraqi brigade.[3][4] Recognizing the futility of continuing this campaign, Rahamn Arif announced a 12-point peace program in June 1966, which was not implemented due to the overthrow of Abdul Rahman Arif in a 1968 coup by the Baath Party.

The Ba'ath government restarted a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, which stalled in 1969. This can be partly attributed to the internal power struggle in Baghdad and also tensions with Iran. Moreover, the Soviet Union pressured the Iraqis to come to terms with Barzani.

Peace talks

A peace plan was announced in March 1970 and provided for broader Kurdish autonomy. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies, to be implemented in four years.[18] Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period.[19]


In the following years, the Iraqi government overcame its internal divisions and concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in April 1972 and ended its isolation within the Arab world. On the other hand, Kurds remained dependent on the Iranian military support and could do little to strengthen their forces. By 1974 the situation in the north escalated again into the Second Iraqi–Kurdish War, which lasted until 1975.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Michael G. Lortz. (Chapter 1, Introduction). The Kurdish Warrior Tradition and the Importance of the Peshmerga. pp.39-42. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2014-10-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ a b c Vanly, I. C. (1992). "The Kurds in Syria and Lebanon". In Kreyenbroek, P. G.; Sperl, S. (eds.). The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. Routledge. pp. 151–2. ISBN 0-415-07265-4.
  3. ^ a b O'Ballance, Edgar (1973). The Kurdish Revolt, 1961–1970. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-09905-X.
  4. ^ a b Pollack, Kenneth M. (2002). Arabs at War. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3733-2.
  5. ^ Al-Marashi, I.; Salama, S. (2008). Iraq's Armed Forces: An Analytical History. Routledge. p. 121. ISBN 9780415400787. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
  6. ^ Joint intelligence analysis by the U.S. State Department, CIA and DIA from May 1, 1975 - "The Implications of the Iran-Iraq agreement" (PDF). (651 KB).
  7. ^ a b "All wars in the 20th century - the Polynational War Memorial". Retrieved 2015-05-14.
  8. ^ a b c "18. Iraq/Kurds (1932-present)". Retrieved 2015-05-14.
  9. ^ Central Kurdish (Sorani)
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ The End of the Concessionary Regime: Oil and American Power in Iraq, 1958-1972. Stanford University. 2011. pp. 118–. STANFORD:tm772zz7352.
  16. ^[e-submit]-augmented.pdf
  17. ^
  18. ^ Harris, G. S. (1977). "Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 433 (1): 118–120. doi:10.1177/000271627743300111.
  19. ^ "Introduction : GENOCIDE IN IRAQ: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds (Human Rights Watch Report, 1993)". Retrieved 2010-12-28.
1935 Yazidi revolt

The 1935 Yazidi revolt took place in Iraq in October 1935. The Iraqi government, under Yasin al-Hashimi, crushed a revolt by the Yazidi people of Jabal Sinjar against the imposition of conscription. The Iraqi army, led by Bakr Sidqi, reportedly killed over 200 Yazidi and imposed martial law throughout the region. Parallel revolts opposing conscription also broke out that year in the northern (Kurdish populated) and mid-Euphrates (majorly Shia populated) regions of Iraq.

The Yazidis of Jabal Sinjar constituted the majority of Iraqi Yazidi population - the third largest non-Muslim minority within the kingdom, and the largest ethno-religious group in the province of Mosul. In 1939, the region of Jabal Sinjar was once again put under military control, together with the Shekhan District.

1967 Kurdish revolt in Iran

The 1967 Kurdish revolt in Iran erupted in March 1967, as part of the long-running Kurdish separatist struggle. Abrahamian describes the revolt as a Marxist insurgency with the aim of establishing autonomy for Kurds in Iran, modeled as a federal republic. The revolt, consolidating several tribal uprisings which had begun in 1966, was inspired by the First Iraqi–Kurdish War in neighboring Iraq and enjoyed the support of the recovering Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran, previously crushed during the 1946 Iran crisis. The 1967 revolt, coordinated into a semi-organized campaign in the Mahabad-Urumiya region by the revived KDPI party, was entirely subdued by the central Iranian government.

2004 Qamishli riots

The 2004 Qamishli uprising was an uprising by Syrian Kurds in the northeastern city of Qamishli in March 2004. The riots started during a chaotic football match, when some fans of the guest team (Arabs) started raising pictures of Saddam Hussein, an action that angered the fans of the host team (the Kurds). Both groups began throwing stones at each other, which soon developed to a political conflict as the Arab group raised pictures of Saddam Hussein while the Kurdish group raised the Flag of Kurdistan. The Ba'ath Party local office was burned down by Kurdish demonstrators, leading to the security forces reacting. The Syrian army responded quickly, deploying troops backed by tanks and helicopters, and launching a crack-down. Events climaxed when Kurds in Qamishli toppled a statue of Hafez al-Assad. At least 30 Kurds were killed as the security services re-took the city. As a result of the crackdown, thousands of Syrian Kurds fled to Iraqi Kurdistan.

Abdul Jabbar Khalil Shanshal

General Abdul Jabbar Khalil Shanshal (1920-2014) born in Mosul, Iraq was an Iraqi senior officer and war minister for a very long period of time, also he held the position of minister of military affairs and chief of staff.

He graduated from the Iraqi military college in Baghdad in 1940 (cycle 18), and he participated in most of Iraq wars including:

Anglo-Iraqi War

Barazan movements

1948 Arab–Israeli War

First Iraqi–Kurdish War

1967 Arab Israeli war or Six-Day War

October 1973 war or Yom Kippur War

Second Iraqi–Kurdish War

Iran–Iraq War

Gulf War.

Ar-Rashid revolt

The ar-Rashid revolt refers to a 1963 failed uprising against the Baathist government in Iraq. The revolt was plotted by followers of the Iraqi Communist Party in junction with military officers. The revolt failed to spread outside Baghdad and was crushed by the Baathist forces.

Iraqi civil war

Iraqi civil war may refer to:

Iraqi–Kurdish conflict (1918–2003), wars and rebellions by Iraqi Kurds against the government

First Iraqi–Kurdish War (1961–70)

Second Iraqi–Kurdish War (1974–75)

1991 uprisings in Iraq, rebellions in Iraq during a ceasefire in the Gulf War

Iraqi Kurdish Civil War (1994–97), a conflict between rival Kurdish factions in Iraqi Kurdistan

1999 Shia uprising in Iraq, a short period of unrest after Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr was killed

Iraq conflict (2003-present)

Iraq War (2003–11), a war that began with the U.S. invasion of Iraq

Sectarian violence in Iraq (2006–08), a civil war between Sunni and Shia militias including the Iraqi government and Al-Qaeda in Iraq (now known as ISIL)

Iraqi insurgency (2011–13), an escalation of insurgent and sectarian violence after the U.S. withdrew

Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017), attacks and conflicts involving ISIL

2017 Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, a short conflict between the Iraqi government and the autonomous Kurdish regional government

Iraqi–Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970

Iraqi–Kurdish Autonomy Agreement of 1970 (or the Iraqi–Kurdish peace talks or the 1970 Peace Accord) was an agreement, which the Iraqi government and the Kurds reached in March 1970, in the aftermath of the First Iraqi–Kurdish War, for the creation of an Autonomous Region, consisting of the three Kurdish governorates and other adjacent districts that have been determined by census to have a Kurdish majority. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies, to be implemented in four years. For its time it was the most serious attempt to resolve the long-running Iraqi–Kurdish conflict.

Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period. Eventually, the peace plan for the Kurdish autonomy had failed, re-erupting into the Second Iraqi–Kurdish War in 1974, thus escalating the Kurdish–Iraqi conflict.

Iraqi–Kurdish conflict

The Iraqi–Kurdish conflict consists of a series of wars and rebellions by the Kurds against the central authority of Iraq during the 20th century, which began shortly after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and lasting until the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. Some put the marking point of the conflict beginning to the attempt by Mahmud Barzanji to establish an independent Kingdom of Kurdistan, while others relate to the conflict as only the post-1961 insurrection by the Barzanis. The conflict lasted until the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, though tensions between the Kurdish autonomy and the central Iraqi government have continued.

The first chapter of the Iraqi–Kurdish dispute followed the end of World War I and the arrival of British forces. Mahmud Barzanji began secession attempts in 1919 and in 1922 proclaimed the short-lived Kingdom of Kurdistan. Though Mahmud's insurrections were defeated, another Kurdish sheikh, Ahmed Barzani, began to actively oppose the central rule of the Mandatory Iraq during the 1920s. The first of the major Barzani revolts took place in 1931, after Barzani, one of the most prominent Kurdish leaders in Northern Iraq, succeeded in defeating a number of other Kurdish tribes. He ultimately failed and took refuge in Turkey. The next serious Kurdish secession attempt was made by Ahmed Barzani's younger brother Mustafa Barzani in 1943, but that revolt failed as well, resulting in the exiling of Mustafa to Iran, where he participated in an attempt to form the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad.

In 1958, Mustafa Barzani and his fighters returned to Iraq from exile, and an attempt was made to negotiate Kurdish autonomy in the north with the new Iraqi administration of Gen. Qasim. The negotiations ultimately failed and the First Iraqi–Kurdish War erupted on 11 September 1961, lasting until 1970 and inflicting 75,000–105,000 casualties. Despite the attempts to resolve the conflict by providing Kurds with a recognized autonomy in north Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan), the negotiations failed in 1974, resulting in resumed hostilities known as the Second Iraqi–Kurdish War, which resulted in the collapse of the Kurdish militias and the reconquest of northern Iraq by Iraqi government troops. As a result, Mustafa Barzani and most of the KDP leadership fled to Iran, while PUK gained power in the vacuum, leading an insurgency campaign against the central Iraqi government. Since 1976 PUK and KDP relations quickly deteriorated, reaching the climax in April 1978, when PUK troops suffered a major defeat by KDP, which had the support of Iranian and Iraqi air forces. During this period, the Ba'athist authorities took the opportunity to perform large-scale displacement and colonization projects in North Iraq, aiming to shift demographics and thus distabilize Kurdish power bases.

The conflict re-emerged as part of the Iran–Iraq War, with the Kurdish parties collaborating against Saddam Husein and KDP also gaining military support by the Islamic Republic of Iran. By 1986 Iraqi leadership grew tired of the strengthening and non-loyal Kurdish entity in north Iraq and began a genocidal campaign, known as Al-Anfal, to oust the Kurdish fighters and take revenge on the Kurdish population—an act often described as the Kurdish genocide, with an estimated 50,000–200,000 casualties. In the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War, a series of uprisings shattered Iraq, but only the Kurds succeeded in achieving a status of unrecognized autonomy within one of the Iraqi no-fly zones, established by the US-led coalition. In the mid-1990s the conflict between the KDP and PUK erupted once again, resulting in a bloody civil war, which ended in 1997. Despite mutual recognition after the 2003 Iraq war which ousted Ba'ath rule, relations between Iraqi Kurdistan and the Iraqi central government grew strained between 2011–12 due to power-sharing issues and the export of oil.

Jash (term)

Jash (Kurdish: Caş or Cahş, literally meaning "donkey's foal"), or "الجحوش" or The Light Regiments or fursan is a type of collaborator, usually a military unit composed of people of Kurdish descent that cooperates with the government combatants against the Kurdish rebels. The term is considered derogatory in a cultural sense in much the same way as quisling is.

Khaleel Jassim

Major-general Khaleel Jassim Al-Dabbagh (Arabic: اللواء خليل جاسم الدباغ‎ 1916-1969) was an Iraqi senior officer from the first era of the old Iraqi Army, the Commander of the Mosul zone, the Commander of the Light regiments Jash, the commander of the Iraqi commando units in the Iraqi army between 1963–1968, the commander of the fourth division 1966–1967. He was well known for his role in the 1948 Arab–Israeli war, for his letters and negotiations with the Israeli army officers, defending 'Ara, Ar'ara and other territories, and also setting up the Palestinian regiments. Additionally, he commanded couple of campaigns and battles in northern Iraq against Kurdish rebels between 1943-1969, starting with The second Barzani movement, The third Barzani movement, The fourth Barzani movement, The Iraqi Campaign on Alquosh 1963 against communist elements and Kurd rebels allies known as Alansar army (جيش ألانصار) in Alqosh, during the First Iraqi–Kurdish War in the Iraqi–Kurdish conflict. Furthermore, driving other Campaigns against Kurdish insurgents under the command of Mustafa Barzani the most well known 1961campaigns, 1963 campaigns, The campaign on Amadiya in 9 September, 1965. Also, he played a major role in foiling the coup of Arif Abd ar-Razzaq in the Arif Abd ar-Razzaq second coup against the former president of Iraq Abdul Rahman Arif in 12 June 1966 which resulted in arresting Arif Abd ar-Razzaq as well as other officers at Mosul Airport.

Kurds'komu bratovi

Kurds'komu bratovi (Ukrainian: Курдському братові, English: To a Kurdish brother) is an aesopian poem written by Ukrainian Vasyl Symonenko in 1963 and disseminated clandestinely in samizdat until 1965 when it appeared posthumously in the German 'Suchasnist' journal. Kurds'komu bratovi has been described as one of Symonenko's greatest works and made Symonenko a national hero and one of the most important figures in Ukrainian literature. The poem appeared during the height of the First Iraqi-Kurdish War which the Soviet Union was involved in.

Professor Kobets argues that the poem became "a symbol of national resurrection and resistance to Soviet oppression". When the poem was secretly disseminated, it instantly became associated with the aspirations to liberate Ukraine from the Soviet Union and Symonenko's take on the Kurdish liberation movement only gave the Ukrainian liberation movement a universal meaning. Symonenko himself asserted that historical parallels were needed because the common denominator was chauvinism, and argued that Ukrainians would end up in the same situation as the Kurds regarding statelessness if they did not fight the Soviet regime. Professor Romanova points out the similarities between the writing in 'Kurds'komu bratovi' with the poem 'Kavkaz (Кавказ)' by Taras Shevchenko, arguing that by using Shevchenko as a prototext (source text), Symonenko echoed the sentiments of resistance against Russian rule which were prevalent in the works of Shevchenko. The inspiration is seen at the first stanza: "Into the fragrant valleys, scarred and wounded, Comes the invader, hungry chauvinism."

In 1968, agricultural college lecturer Mykola Kots was sentenced to seven years in camp and five years in exile after disseminating copies of the poem wherein the word 'Kurd' was replaced with 'Ukrainian'.

List of wars involving Iraq

This is a list of wars involving the Republic of Iraq and its predecessor states.

List of wars involving Iraqi Kurdistan

This is a list of wars that Iraqi Kurdistan has been involved in, since the establishment of Iraq in 1932.

List of wars involving Syria

This is a list of wars involving the Arab Republic of Syria since independence, including periods of the Arab Kingdom of Syria (1920), Mandatory Syrian Republic, Syrian Republic (1946–63), United Arab Republic (1958–61) and Ba'athist Syria.

NDF Rebellion

The NDF Rebellion was an uprising in the Yemen Arab Republic by the National Democratic Front, under Yahya Shami, between 1978 and 1982.

Revolts during the Turkish War of Independence

A number of revolts against the Turkish Revolutionaries broke out during the Turkish War of Independence.

Kemal Atatürk, who was the leader of the nationalist government of Turkey during the war of independence was primarily concerned about subduing the internal revolts and establishing domestic security. To achieve this, the parliament passed the Law of Treachery to the Homeland and established Mobile Gendarmerie Troops. These revolts had the effect of delaying the nationalist movement's struggle against the occupying foreign forces on several fronts. These revolts, such as those by Ahmed Anzavur, were put down with some difficulty by nationalist forces.

Second Iraqi–Kurdish War

The Second Iraqi–Kurdish War was the second chapter of the Barzani rebellion, initiated by the collapse of the Kurdish autonomy talks and the consequent Iraqi offensive against rebel KDP troops of Mustafa Barzani during 1974–1975. The war came in the aftermath of the First Iraqi–Kurdish War (1961–1970), as the 1970 peace plan for Kurdish autonomy had failed to be implemented by 1974. Unlike the previous guerrilla campaign in 1961–1970, waged by Barzani, the 1974 war was a Kurdish attempt at symmetric warfare against the Iraqi Army, which eventually led to the quick collapse of the Kurds, who were lacking advanced and heavy weaponry. The war ended with the exile of the Iraqi KDP party and between 7,000–20,000 deaths from both sides combined.

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

Yemeni–Adenese clan violence

Yemeni–Adenese clan violence refers to sectarian violence in Yemen and Aden during 1956-60, resulting in some 1,000 deaths.


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.